Polyphenols and human health: prevention of disease and mechanisms of action.
ABSTRACT: Polyphenols are found ubiquitously in plants and their regular consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of a number of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and neurodegenerative disorders. Rather than exerting direct antioxidant effects, the mechanisms by which polyphenols express these beneficial properties appear to involve their interaction with cellular signaling pathways and related machinery that mediate cell function under both normal and pathological conditions. We illustrate that their interactions with two such pathways, the MAP kinase (ERK, JNK, p38) and PI3 kinase/Akt signaling cascades, allow them to impact upon normal and abnormal cell function, thus influencing the cellular processes involved in the initiation and progression of cancer, CVD and neurodegeneration. For example, their ability to activate ERK in neurons leads to a promotion of neuronal survival and cognitive enhancements, both of which influence the progression of Alzheimer's disease, whilst ERK activation by polyphenols in vascular endothelial cells influences nitric oxide production, blood pressure and ultimately CVD risk. The main focus of this review is to provide an overview of the role that polyphenols play in the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. We present epidemiological data, human intervention study findings, as well as animal and in vitro studies in support of these actions and in each case we consider how their actions at the cellular level may underpin their physiological effects.
Project description:Aging is a major risk factor in the development of chronic diseases affecting various tissues including the cardiovascular system, muscle and bones. Age-related diseases are a consequence of the accumulation of cellular damage and reduced activity of protective stress response pathways leading to low-grade systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Both inflammation and oxidative stress are major contributors to cellular senescence, a process in which cells stop proliferating and become dysfunctional by secreting inflammatory molecules, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and extracellular matrix components that cause inflammation and senescence in the surrounding tissue. This process is known as the senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Thus, accumulation of senescent cells over time promotes the development of age-related diseases, in part through the SASP. Polyphenols, rich in fruits and vegetables, possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities associated with protective effects against major chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, we discuss molecular mechanisms by which polyphenols improve anti-oxidant capacity, mitochondrial function and autophagy, while reducing oxidative stress, inflammation and cellular senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs). We also discuss the therapeutic potential of polyphenols in reducing the effects of the SASP and the incidence of CVD.
Project description:Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death today. Many of the biochemical alterations associated with the pathophysiology of CVD can be modified by adequate intakes of bioactive nutrients through a correct diet or supplementation. Recently, there has been growing public and clinical interest in cocoa polyphenols (CPs) and omega-3 (?-3) fatty acids. A plethora of nutritional intervention trials and experimental studies demonstrates that consumption of these bioactive food compounds is beneficial to promote cardiovascular health. The purpose of this review is to summarize the major cardioprotective effects of CPs and ?-3 fatty acids, providing a scientific rationale for incorporating the combination of these molecules as a nutritional intervention in the prevention of CVD. Although several studies have shown the individual cardioprotective nature of these compounds, a combination treatment with CPs and ?-3 fatty acids may be a promising approach to enhance the preventive value of these molecules and reduce cardiovascular risk factors associated with aging. Therefore, this article also reviews some of the key studies on the interaction between CPs and the metabolism of ?-3 fatty acids.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A greater reduction in cardiovascular risk and vascular protection associated with diet rich in polyphenols are generally accepted; however, the molecular targets for polyphenols effects remain unknown. Meanwhile evidences in the literature have enlightened, not only structural similarities between estrogens and polyphenols known as phytoestrogens, but also in their vascular effects. We hypothesized that alpha isoform of estrogen receptor (ERalpha) could be involved in the transduction of the vascular benefits of polyphenols. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we used ERalpha deficient mice to show that endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced either by red wine polyphenol extract, Provinols, or delphinidin, an anthocyanin that possesses similar pharmacological profile, is mediated by ERalpha. Indeed, Provinols, delphinidin and ERalpha agonists, 17-beta-estradiol and PPT, are able to induce endothelial vasodilatation in aorta from ERalpha Wild-Type but not from Knock-Out mice, by activation of nitric oxide (NO) pathway in endothelial cells. Besides, silencing the effects of ERalpha completely prevented the effects of Provinols and delphinidin to activate NO pathway (Src, ERK 1/2, eNOS, caveolin-1) leading to NO production. Furthermore, direct interaction between delphinidin and ERalpha activator site is demonstrated using both binding assay and docking. Most interestingly, the ability of short term oral administration of Provinols to decrease response to serotonin and to enhance sensitivity of the endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine, associated with concomitant increased NO production and decreased superoxide anions, was completely blunted in ERalpha deficient mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that red wine polyphenols, especially delphinidin, exert their endothelial benefits via ERalpha activation. It is a major breakthrough bringing new insights of the potential therapeutic of polyphenols against cardiovascular pathologies.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in the human diet and are widespread constituents of fruits and beverages, such as tea, coffee or wine. Epidemiological, clinical and animal studies support a role of polyphenols in the prevention of various diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers or neurodegenerative diseases. Recent findings suggest that polyphenols could interact with cellular signaling cascades regulating the activity of transcription factors and consequently affecting the expression of genes. However, the impact of polyphenol on the expression of microRNA, small non-coding RNAs, has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of dietary supplementation with polyphenols at nutritional doses on miRNA expression in the livers of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apoE?/?) jointly with mRNA expression profiling. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using microarrays, we measured the global miRNA expression in the livers of wild-type (C57B6/J) mice or apoE?/? mice fed diets supplemented with one of nine different polyphenols or a control diet. This analysis revealed that knock-out of the apoE gene induced significant modulation in the expression of miRNA. Moreover, changes in miRNA expression were observed after polyphenol supplementation, and five miRNAs (mmu-miR-291b-5p, mmu-miR-296-5p, mmu-miR-30c-1*, mmu-miR-467b* and mmu-miR-374*) were identified as being commonly modulated by these polyphenols. We also observed that these polyphenols counteracted the modulation of miRNA expression induced by apoE mutation. Pathway analyses on these five miRNA-target genes revealed common pathways, some of which were also identified from a pathway analysis on mRNA profiles. CONCLUSION: This in vivo study demonstrated for the first time that polyphenols at nutritional doses modulate the expression of miRNA in the liver. Even if structurally different, all polyphenols induced a similar miRNA expression profile. Common pathways were identified from both miRNA-target and mRNA analysis, revealing cellular functions that could be regulated by polyphenols at both the miRNA and mRNA level.
Project description:Chokeberry polyphenols have been suggested to reduce cholesterol and blood pressure and thus protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the evidence in humans is limited and inconsistent. This randomized double-blinded three-parallel groups trial investigated the changes in various anthropometric and clinical biomarkers, and in plasma phospholipids fatty acids (PPFA) in volunteers at cardiovascular risk after a four-week intervention with 100 mL/day of (1) chokeberry juice with a high-dose of polyphenols (1177.11 mg gallic acid equivalents, GAE); (2) chokeberry juice with a low-dose of polyphenols (294.28 mg GAE) and; (3) a nutritionally matched polyphenol-free placebo drink. Our results indicate that the intake of chokeberry juice containing either the low or the high dose of polyphenols cannot be linked with a reduction in total- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)cholesterol or in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in comparison with the consumption of the placebo drink. However, we found evidence of moderate changes in the PPFA, i.e., increased saturated fatty acids (SFA), mostly palmitic acid, and reduced n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), principally linoleic acid (LA) with the intake of chokeberry against the placebo. These effects may be associated with the polyphenols but we could not differentiate a clear dose-response effect. Further research is still needed to elucidate the contribution of the polyphenolic fraction to the potential cardiovascular effects of the chokeberry and to build up the evidence of its potential benefit via the modulation of PPFA composition.
Project description:Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women as metastasis is currently the main cause of mortality. Breast cancer cells undergoing metastasis acquire resistance to death signals and increase of cellular motility and invasiveness.Plants are rich in polyphenolic compounds, many of them with known medicinal effects. Various phyto-polyphenols have also been demonstrated to suppress cancer growth. Their mechanism of action is usually pleiotropic as they target multiple signaling pathways regulating key cellular processes such as proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. Importantly, some phyto- polyphenols show low level of toxicity to untransformed cells, but selective suppressing effects on cancer cells proliferation and differentiation.In this review, we summarize the current information about the mechanism of action of some phyto-polyphenols that have demonstrated anti-carcinogenic activities in vitro and in vivo. Gained knowledge of how these natural polyphenolic compounds work can give us a clue for the development of novel anti-metastatic agents.
Project description:Many observational and clinical studies have shown that consumption of diets rich in plant polyphenols have beneficial effects on various diseases such as cancer, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). Animal and cellular studies have indicated that these polyphenolic compounds contribute to such effects. The representative polyphenols are epigallocatechin-3-<i>O</i>-gallate in tea, chlorogenic acids in coffee, resveratrol in wine, and curcumin in curry. The results of human studies have suggested the beneficial effects of consumption of these foods on NDDs including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, and cellular animal experiments have provided molecular basis to indicate contribution of these representative polyphenols to these effects. This article provides updated information on the effects of these foods and their polyphenols on NDDs with discussions on mechanistic aspects of their actions mainly based on the findings derived from basic experiments.
Project description:Tea is a widely consumed beverage and its constituent polyphenols have been associated with potential health benefits. Although black tea polyphenols have been reported to possess potent anticancer activities, the effect of its polyphenols, theaflavins on the tumor's cellular proteasome function, an important biological target in cancer prevention, has not been carefully studied. Here black tea extract (T5550) enriched in theaflavins inhibited the chymotrypsin-like (CT) activity of the proteasome and proliferation of human multiple myeloma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Also an isolated theaflavin (TF-1) can bind to, and inhibit the purified 20S proteasome, accompanied by suppression of tumor cell proliferation, suggesting that the tumor proteasome is an important target whose inhibition is at least partially responsible for the anticancer effects of black tea.
Project description:Antioxidant compounds, including polyphenols, have therapeutic effects because of their anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and antiproliferative properties. They play important roles in protecting the cardiovascular and neurological systems, by having preventive or protective effects against free radicals produced by either normal or pathological metabolism in such systems. For instance, resveratrol, a well-known potent antioxidant, has a counteracting effect on the excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has a number of therapeutic benefits, like anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and cardioprotective activities. Based on previous work from our group, and on the most frequent OH substitutions of natural polyphenols, we designed two series of synthetically accessible bis-polyhydroxyphenyl derivatives, separated by amide or urea linkers. These compounds exhibit high antioxidant ability (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay) and interesting radical scavenging activity (RSA) values (2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and ?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) tests). Some of the best polyphenols were evaluated in two biological systems, endothelial cells (in vitro) and whole aorta (ex vivo), highly susceptible for the deleterious effects of prooxidants under different inflammatory conditions, showing protection against oxidative stress induced by inflammatory stimuli relevant in cardiovascular diseases, i.e., Angiotensin II and IL-1?. Selected compounds also showed strong in vivo antioxidant properties when evaluated in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Project description:Autophagy is a conserved biological phenomenon that maintains cellular homeostasis through the clearing of damaged cellular components under cellular stress and offers the cell building blocks for cellular survival. Aberrations in autophagy subsidize to various human pathologies, such as dementia, cardiovascular diseases, leishmaniosis, influenza, hepatic diseases, and cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is the fifth common mortal type of liver cancer globally, with an inhomogeneous topographical distribution and highest incidence tripled in men than women. Existing treatment procedures with liver cancer patients result in variable success rates and poor prognosis due to their drug resistance and toxicity. One of the pathophysiological mechanisms that are targeted during the development of anti-liver cancer drugs is autophagy. Generally, overactivated autophagy may lead to a non-apoptotic form of programmed cell death (PCD) or autophagic cell death or type II PCD. Emerging evidence suggests that manipulation of autophagy could induce type II PCD in cancer cells, acting as a potential tumor suppressor. Hence, altering autophagic signaling offers new hope for the development of novel drugs for the therapy of resistant cancer cells. Natural polyphenolic compounds, including flavonoids and non-flavonoids, execute their anticarcinogenic mechanism through upregulating tumor suppressors and autophagy by modulating canonical (Beclin-1-dependent) and non-canonical (Beclin-1-independent) signaling pathways. Additionally, there is evidence signifying that plant polyphenols target angiogenesis and metastasis in HCC via interference with multiple intracellular signals and decrease the risk against HCC. The current review offers a comprehensive understanding of how natural polyphenolic compounds exhibit their anti-HCC effects through regulation of autophagy, the non-apoptotic mode of cell death.