Antithrombin-binding octasaccharides and role of extensions of the active pentasaccharide sequence in the specificity and strength of interaction. Evidence for very high affinity induced by an unusual glucuronic acid residue.
ABSTRACT: The antithrombotic activity of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) is largely associated with the antithrombin (AT)-binding pentasaccharide sequence AGA(*)IA (GlcN(NAc/NS,6S)-GlcA-GlcN(NS,3,6S)-IdoUA(2S)-GlcN(NS,6S)). The location of the AGA(*)IA sequences along the LMWH chains is also expected to influence binding to AT. This study was aimed at investigating the role of the structure and molecular conformation of different disaccharide extensions on both sides of the AGA(*)IA sequence in modulating the affinity for AT. Four high purity octasaccharides isolated by size exclusion chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, and AT-affinity chromatography from the LMWH enoxaparin were selected for the study. All the four octasaccharides terminate at their nonreducing end with 4,5-unsaturated uronic acid residues (DeltaU). In two octasaccharides, AGA(*)IA was elongated at the reducing end by units IdoUA(2S)-GlcN(NS,6S) (OCTA-1) or IdoUA-GlcN(NAc,6S) (OCTA-2). In the other two octasaccharides (OCTA-3 and OCTA-4), AGA(*)IA was elongated at the nonreducing side by units GlcN(NS,6S)-IdoUA and GlcN(NS,6S)-GlcA, respectively. Extensions increased the affinity for AT of octasaccharides with respect to pentasaccharide AGA(*)IA, as also confirmed by fluorescence titration. Two-dimensional NMR and docking studies clearly indicated that, although elongation of the AGA(*)IA sequence does not substantially modify the bound conformation of the AGA(*)IA segment, extensions promote additional contacts with the protein. It should be noted that, as not previously reported, the unusual GlcA residue that precedes the AGA(*)IA sequence in OCTA-4 induced an unexpected 1 order of magnitude increase in the affinity to AT with respect to its IdoUA-containing homolog OCTA-3. Such a residue was found to orientate its two hydroxyl groups at close distance to residues of the protein. Besides the well established ionic interactions, nonionic interactions may thus contribute to strengthen oligosaccharide-AT complexes.
Project description:The present study deals with the conformation in solution of two heparin octasaccharides containing the pentasaccharide sequence GlcN(NAc,6S)-GlcA-GlcN(NS,3,6S)-IdoA(2S)-GlcN(NS,6S) [AGA*IA; where GlcN(NAc,6S) is N-acetylated, 6-O-sulfated alpha-D-glucosamine, GlcN(NS,3,6S) is N,3,6-O-trisulfated alpha-D-glucosamine and IdoA(2S) is 2-O-sulfated IdoA (alpha-L-iduronic acid)] located at different positions in the heparin chain and focuses on establishing geometries of IdoA residues (IdoA(2S) and IdoA) both inside and outside the AGA*IA sequence. AGA*IA constitutes the active site for AT (antithrombin) and is essential for the expression of high anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities. Analysis of NMR parameters [NOEs (nuclear Overhauser effects), transferred NOEs and coupling constants] for the two octasaccharides indicated that between the 1C4 and 2S0 conformations present in dynamic equilibrium in the free state for the IdoA(2S) residue within AGA*IA, AT selects the 2S0 form, as previously shown [Hricovini, Guerrini, Bisio, Torri, Petitou and Casu (2001) Biochem. J. 359, 265-272]. Notably, the 2S0 conformation is also adopted by the non-sulfated IdoA residue preceding AGA*IA that, in the absence of AT, adopts predominantly the 1C4 form. These results further support the concept that heparin-binding proteins influence the conformational equilibrium of iduronic acid residues that are directly or indirectly involved in binding and select one of their equi-energetic conformations for best fitting in the complex. The complete reversal of an iduronic acid conformation preferred in the free state is also demonstrated for the first time. Preliminary docking studies provided information on the octasaccharide binding location agreeing most closely with the experimental data. These results suggest a possible biological role for the non-sulfated IdoA residue preceding AGA*IA, previously thought not to influence the AT-binding properties of the pentasaccharide. Thus, for each AT binding sequence longer than AGA*IA, the interactions with the protein could differ and give to each heparin fragment a specific biological response.
Project description:Heparin is a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) of natural origin used as an anticoagulant and antithrombotic drug. These properties are principally based on the binding and activation of antithrombin (AT) through the pentasaccharide sequence GlcNAc/NS,6S-GlcA-GlcNS,3,6S-IdoA2S-GlcNS,6S (AGA*IA). Literature data show that the population of the 2 S0 ring conformation of the 2-O-sulfo-?-l-iduronic acid (IdoA2S) motif correlates with the affinity and activation of AT. It was recently demonstrated that two synthetic AGA*IA-containing hexasaccharides (one G unit added at the reducing end), differing in the degree of sulfation of the IdoA unit, show comparable affinity and ability to activate AT, despite a different conformation of the IdoA residue. In this paper, the binding of these two glycans to AT was studied by isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC), transferred (tr-) NOESY, saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Results indicated that both the IdoA2S and the IdoA units assume a 2 S0 conformation when bound with AT, and so present a common binding epitope for the two glycans, centred on the AGA*IA sequence.
Project description:The antithrombin (AT) binding properties of heparin and low molecular weight heparins are strongly associated to the presence of the pentasaccharide sequence AGA*IA (A(NAc,6S)-GlcUA-A(NS,3,6S)-I(2S)-A(NS,6S)). By using the highly chemoselective depolymerization to prepare new ultra low molecular weight heparin and coupling it with the original separation techniques, it was possible to isolate a polysaccharide with a biosynthetically unexpected structure and excellent antithrombotic properties. It consisted of a dodecasaccharide containing an unsaturated uronate unit at the nonreducing end and two contiguous AT-binding sequences separated by a nonsulfated iduronate residue. This novel oligosaccharide was characterized by NMR spectroscopy, and its binding with AT was determined by fluorescence titration, NMR, and LC-MS. The dodecasaccharide displayed a significantly increased anti-FXa activity compared with those of the pentasaccharide, fondaparinux, and low molecular weight heparin enoxaparin.
Project description:We report the isolation, characterization and quantification of five octasaccharides, four hexasaccharides and two tetrasaccharides, derived from the chondroitin sulphate (CS) linkage region of 6-8-year-old bovine articular cartilage aggrecan, following digestion with chondroitin ABC endolyase. Using a novel high-pH anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) method, in conjunction with one- and two-dimensional (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, we have identified the following basic structure for the CS linkage region of aggrecan: DeltaUA(beta1-3)GalNAc[0S/4S/6S](beta1-4)GlcA(beta1-3)GalNAc[0S/4S/6S](beta1-4)GlcA(beta1-3)Gal[0S/6S](beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Xyl, where DeltaUA represents 4,5-unsaturated hexuronic acid, and 4S and 6S represent an O-ester sulphate group on C-4 and C-6 respectively. The octa-, hexa- and tetra-saccharide linkage region fragments were used to develop a HPAEC fingerprinting method, with detection at A(232 nm), and a linear response to approx. 0.1 nmol of substance. The sulphation patterns of CS linkage regions, of up to octasaccharide in size, from articular and tracheal cartilage aggrecan were examined. The results show that in articular cartilage, for the majority (53%) of octasaccharides the 2-deoxy-2-N-acetyl amino-D-galactose (GalNAc) residues closest to the linkage region are both 6-sulphated; however, in a significant portion (34%), one or more of these GalNAc residues are unsulphated, and in 8% both are unsulphated. Approximately 10-18% of the chains have a 4-sulphated GalNAc in the first disaccharide, and 12% have a sulphated linkage region Gal residue. No evidence was found for uronic acid sulphation. These data show that there is a significant increase in the incidence of unsulphated and 4-sulphated GalNAc residues adjacent to the linkage region compared with the rest of the chain. Bovine tracheal cartilage linkage regions displayed very similar sulphation profiles to those from articular cartilage, despite the presence of a higher level of GalNAc 4-sulphation within the repeat region of the main CS chain.
Project description:The interaction, in aqueous solution, of the synthetic pentasaccharide AGA*IA(M) (GlcN,6-SO(3)alpha 1-4GlcA beta 1-4GlcN,3,6-SO(3)alpha 1-4IdoA,2-SO(3)alpha 1-4GlcN,6-SO(3)alpha OMe; where GlcN,6-SO(3) is 2-deoxy-2-sulphamino-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl 6-sulphate, IdoA is l-iduronic acid and IdoA2-SO(3) is L-iduronic acid 2-sulphate), which exactly reproduces the structure of the specific binding sequence of heparin and heparan sulphate for antithrombin III, has been studied by NMR. In the presence of antithrombin there were marked changes in the chemical shifts and nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs), compared with the free state. On the basis of the optimized geometry of the pentasaccharide the transferred NOEs were interpreted with full relaxation and conformational exchange matrix analysis. An analysis of the three-dimensional structures of the pentasaccharide in the free state, and in the complex, revealed the binding to be accompanied by dihedral angle variation at the A-G and I-A(M) (where G, I, A and A(M) are beta-d-glucuronic acid, 2-O-sulphated alpha-L-iduronic acid, N,6-O-sulphated alpha-D-glucosamine and the alpha-methyl-glycoside of A respectively) glycosidic linkages. Evidence is also provided that the protein drives the conformation of the 2-O-sulphated iduronic acid residue towards the skewed (2)S(0) form.
Project description:Microsomal membranes from chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage were fractionated by equilibrium sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation and assayed for GlcA (glucuronic acid) transferase I (the enzyme that transfers GlcA from UDP-GlcA to Gal-Gal-Xyl of proteochondroitin linkage region), for comparison with GlcA transferase II (the GlcA transferase of chondroitin polymerization). Gal(beta1-3)Galbeta1-methyl (disaccharide) and GalNAc(beta1-4)GlcA(beta1-3)GalNAc(beta1-4) GlcA(beta1-3)GalNAc(pentasaccharide) were used respectively as acceptors of [14C]GlcA from UDP-[14C]GlcA. Distributions of the two GlcA transferase activities in the sucrose-density-gradient fractions were compared with each other and with the previously reported distribution of the activities of Gal transferases (UDP-Gal to ovalbumin, and to xylose of the proteochondroitin linkage region) and GalNAc (N-acetylgalactosamine) transferase II of chondroitin polymerization. The linkage-region GlcA transferase I had a dual Golgi distribution similar to that of chondroitin-polymerizing GlcA transferase II and distinctly different from the distribution of linkage-region Gal transferases I and II, which were found exclusively in the heavier fractions. Solubilized GlcA transferase I was partly purified by sequential use of Q-Sepharose, heparin-Sepharose and wheatgerm agglutinin-agarose and was accompanied at each step by some of the GlcA transferase II activity. Both GlcA transferase I and II bound to the Q-Sepharose as though they were highly anionic. However, treatment with chondroitin ABC lyase eliminated the binding while markedly decreasing enzyme stability. The enzyme activities could not be reconstituted by adding chondroitin or chondroitin pentasaccharide to the chondroitin ABC lyase-treated enzymes. Incubation of the partly purified enzymes with both UDP-GlcA and UDP-GalNAc resulted in a 40-fold greater incorporation than with just one sugar nucleotide, indicating the presence of bound, nascent proteochondroitin serving as the acceptor for chondroitin polymerization. These results, together with the membrane co-localization, indicate that GlcA transferase I and GlcA transferase II occur closely together with nascent proteochondroitin at the site of synthesis and that this complex with the nascent proteochondroitin stabilizes both enzymes during purification.
Project description:The direct link between inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer is well documented. Previous studies have reported that some lactic acid bacterial strains could inhibit colon cancer progression however; the exact molecules involved have not yet been identified. So, in the current study, we illustrated the tumor suppressive effects of the newly identified Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079 cell-free pentasaccharide against colon cancer cells. The chemical structure of the purified pentasaccharide was investigated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrum, 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The anticancer potentiality of the purified pentasaccharide against both Human colon cancer (CaCo-2) and Human breast cancer (MCF7) cell lines with its safety usage pattern were evaluated using cytotoxicity, annexin V quantification and BrdU incorporation assays. Also, the immunomodulatory effects of the identified compound were quantified on both LPS-induced PBMC cell model and cancer cells with monitoring the immunophenotyping of T and dendritic cell surface marker. At molecular level, the alteration in gene expression of both inflammatory and apoptotic pathways were quantified upon pentasaccharide-cellular treatment by RTqPCR.The obtained data of the spectroscopic analysis, confirmed the structure of the newly extracted pentasaccharide; (LA-EPS-20079) to be: ?-D-Glc (1?2)][?-L-Fuc(1?4)] ?-D-GlcA(1?2) ?-D-GlcA(1?2) ?-D-GlcA. This pentasaccharide, recorded safe dose on normal mammalian cells ranged from 2 to 5 mg/ml with cancer cells selectivity index, ranged of 1.96-51.3. Upon CaCo-2 cell treatment with the non-toxic dose of LA-EPS-20079, the inhibition percentage in CaCo-2 cellular viability, reached 80.65 with an increase in the ratio of the apoptotic cells in sub-G0/G1 cell cycle phase. Also, this pentasaccharide showed potentialities to up-regulate the expression of IKb?, P53 and TGF genes.The anticancer potentialities of LA-EPS-20079 oligosaccharides against human colon cancer represented through its regulatory effects on both apoptotic and NF-?B inflammatory pathways.
Project description:Functionally important interactions between heparan sulphate and a variety of proteins depend on the precise location of O-sulphate groups. Such residues occur at C-2 of L-iduronic (IdoA) and D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) units, and at C-3 and C-6 of D-glucosamine (GlcN) units. Stable transfection of human embryonic kidney 293 cells with a cDNA encoding mouse mastocytoma IdoA 2-O-sulphotransferase resulted in an approx. 6-fold increase in O-sulphotransferase activity, compared with control cells, as determined using O-desulphated heparin as an acceptor. Structural analysis of endogenous heparan sulphate in the transfected cells, following metabolic labelling with either [(3)H]GlcN or [(35)S]sulphate, showed appreciable formation of -GlcA(2-OSO(3))-GlcNSO(3)- disaccharide units (6% of total disaccharide units; 17% of total O-sulphated disaccharide units) that were essentially absent from heparan sulphate from control cells. The increase in GlcA 2-O-sulphation was accompanied by a decrease in the amount of IdoA formed, whereas overall 2-O-sulphation or 6-O-sulphation remained largely unaffected. These findings indicate that 2-O-sulphation of IdoA and GlcA residues is catalysed by the same enzyme in heparan sulphate biosynthesis.
Project description:Capsular polysaccharide from Escherichia coli K5, with the basic structure (GlcA beta 1-4GlcNAc alpha 1-4)n, was chemically modified through N-deacetylation, N-sulphation and O-sulphation [Casu, Grazioli, Razi, Guerrini, Naggi, Torri, Oreste, Tursi, Zoppetti and Lindahl (1994) Carbohydr. Res. 263, 271-284]. Depending on the reaction conditions, the products showed different proportions of components with high affinity for antithrombin (AT). A high-affinity subfraction, M(r) approx. 36,000, was shown by near-UV CD, UV-absorption difference spectroscopy and fluorescence to cause conformational changes in the AT molecule very similar to those induced by high-affinity heparin. Fluorescence titrations demonstrated about two AT-binding sites per polysaccharide chain, each with a Kd of approx. 200 nM. The anti-(Factor Xa) activity was 170 units/mg, similar to that of the IIId international heparin standard and markedly higher than activities of previously described heparin analogues. Another preparation, M(r) approx. 13,000, of higher overall O-sulphate content, exhibited a single binding site per chain, with Kd approx. 1 microM, and an anti-(Factor Xa) activity of 70 units/mg. Compositional analysis of polysaccharide fractions revealed a correlation between the contents of -GlcA-GlcNSO3(3,6-di-OSO3)- disaccharide units and affinity for AT; the 3-O-sulphated GlcN unit has previously been identified as a marker component of the AT-binding pentasaccharide sequence in heparin. The abundance of the implicated disaccharide unit approximately equalled that of AT-binding sites in the 36,000-M(r) polysaccharide fraction, and approached one per high-affinity oligosaccharide (predominantly 10-12 monosaccharide units) isolated after partial depolymerization of AT-binding polysaccharide. These findings suggest that the modified bacterial polysaccharide interacts with AT and promotes its anticoagulant action in a manner similar to that of heparin.
Project description:Heparan sulfate (HS) is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan located on the surface and extracellular matrix of mammalian cells. HS is constituted of highly N-sulfated domains (NS domains) interrupted by lower sulfation domains. The arrangement of these domains dictates the function of HS which is mainly involved in binding proteins and regulating their biological activities. Heparin, a heparan sulfate analogue present in mast cells, resembles the NS domains of HS but lacks the alternating high and low sulfation architecture. Because the NS domains that range up to hexadecasaccharide in size are the main protein binders, heparin has been used as a model for HS in protein binding studies. Heparan sulfate, however, is the more physiologically relevant modulator of growth factor-receptor interactions. In this work, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to compare the compositions of affinity-purified heparin and HS octasaccharides with anticoagulant activities versus library octasaccharides. The fine structures of the biologically active HS compositions were then compared against those of library octasaccharides using low-energy collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. This approach confirmed isomeric enrichment of these compositions and, most importantly, produces ions diagnostic of their biological activity.