The chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex interacts with photosystem I in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT: The chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) complex is involved in photosystem I (PSI) cyclic and chlororespiratory electron transport in higher plants. Although biochemical and genetic evidence for its subunit composition has accumulated, it is not enough to explain the complexes putative activity of NAD(P)H-dependent plastoquinone reduction. We analyzed the NDH complex by using blue native PAGE and found that it interacts with PSI to form a novel supercomplex. Mutants lacking NdhL and NdhM accumulated a pigment-protein complex with a slightly lower molecular mass than that of the NDH-PSI supercomplex; this may be an intermediate supercomplex including PSI. This intermediate is unstable in mutants lacking NdhB, NdhD, or NdhF, implying that it includes some NDH subunits. Analysis of thylakoid membrane complexes using sucrose density gradient centrifugation supported the presence of the NDH-PSI supercomplex in vivo. Although the NDH complex exists as a monomer in etioplasts, it interacts with PSI to form a supercomplex within 48 h during chloroplast development.
Project description:Plastid-nucleus-located WHIRLY1 protein plays a role in regulating leaf senescence and is believed to associate with the increase of reactive oxygen species delivered from redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. In order to make sure whether WHIRLY1 plays a role in photosynthesis, in this study, the performances of photosynthesis were detected in Arabidopsis whirly1 knockout (kowhy1) and plastid localized WHIRLY1 overexpression (oepWHY1) plants. Loss of WHIRLY1 leads to a higher photochemical quantum yield of photosystem I Y(I) and electron transport rate (ETR) and a lower non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) involved in the thermal dissipation of excitation energy of chlorophyll fluorescence than the wild type. Further analyses showed that WHIRLY1 interacts with Light-harvesting protein complex I (LHCA1) and affects the expression of genes encoding photosystem I (PSI) and light harvest complexes (LHCI). Moreover, loss of WHIRLY1 decreases chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH) activity and the accumulation of NDH supercomplex. Several genes encoding the PSI-NDH complexes are also up-regulated in kowhy1 and the whirly1whirly3 double mutant (ko1/3) but steady in oepWHY1 plants. However, under high light conditions (800 ?mol m-2 s-1), both kowhy1 and ko1/3 plants show lower ETR than wild-type which are contrary to that under normal light condition. Moreover, the expression of several PSI-NDH encoding genes and ERF109 which is related to jasmonate (JA) response varied in kowhy1 under different light conditions. These results indicate that WHIRLY1 is involved in the alteration of ETR by affecting the activities of PSI and supercomplex formation of PSI with LHCI or NDH and may acting as a communicator between the plastids and the nucleus.
Project description:In land plants, the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) complex reduces plastoquinones and drives cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI. It also produces extra ATP for photosynthesis and improves plant fitness under conditions of abiotic environmental stress. To elucidate the role of CEF in salt tolerance of the photosynthetic apparatus, Na(+) concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence, and expression of NDH B and H subunits, as well as of genes related to cellular and vacuolar Na(+) transport, were monitored. The salt-tolerant Glycine max (soybean) variety S111-9 exhibited much higher CEF activity and ATP accumulation in light than did the salt-sensitive variety Melrose, but similar leaf Na(+) concentrations under salt stress. In S111-9 plants, ndhB and ndhH were highly up-regulated under salt stress and their corresponding proteins were maintained at high levels or increased significantly. Under salt stress, S111-9 plants accumulated Na(+) in the vacuole, but Melrose plants accumulated Na(+) in the chloroplast. Compared with Melrose, S111-9 plants also showed higher expression of some genes associated with Na(+) transport into the vacuole and/or cell, such as genes encoding components of the CBL10 (calcineurin B-like protein 10)-CIPK24 (CBL-interacting protein kinase 24)-NHX (Na(+)/H(+) antiporter) and CBL4 (calcineurin B-like protein 4)-CIPK24-SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1) complexes. Based on the findings, it is proposed that enhanced NDH-dependent CEF supplies extra ATP used to sequester Na(+) in the vacuole. This reveals an important mechanism for salt tolerance in soybean and provides new insights into plant resistance to salt stress.
Project description:Plant regulatory circuits coordinating nuclear and plastid gene expression have evolved in response to external stimuli. RNA editing is one of such control mechanisms. We determined the Arabidopsis nuclear-encoded homeodomain-containing protein OCP3 is incorporated into the chloroplast, and contributes to control over the extent of ndhB transcript editing. ndhB encodes the B subunit of the chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH) involved in cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I. In ocp3 mutant strains, ndhB editing efficiency decays, CEF is impaired and disease resistance to fungal pathogens substantially enhanced, a process recapitulated in plants defective in editing plastid RNAs encoding NDH complex subunits due to mutations in previously described nuclear-encoded pentatricopeptide-related proteins (i.e. CRR21, CRR2). Furthermore, we observed that following a pathogenic challenge, wild type plants respond with editing inhibition of ndhB transcript. In parallel, rapid destabilization of the plastidial NDH complex is also observed in the plant following perception of a pathogenic cue. Therefore, NDH complex activity and plant immunity appear as interlinked processes.
Project description:NDH-1 is a key component of the cyclic-electron-transfer around photosystem I (PSI CET) pathway, an important antioxidant mechanism for efficient photosynthesis. Here, we report a 3.2-Å-resolution cryo-EM structure of the ferredoxin (Fd)-NDH-1L complex from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus. The structure reveals three ?-carotene and fifteen lipid molecules in the membrane arm of NDH-1L. Regulatory oxygenic photosynthesis-specific (OPS) subunits NdhV, NdhS and NdhO are close to the Fd-binding site whilst NdhL is adjacent to the plastoquinone (PQ) cavity, and they play different roles in PSI CET under high-light stress. NdhV assists in the binding of Fd to NDH-1L and accelerates PSI CET in response to short-term high-light exposure. In contrast, prolonged high-light irradiation switches on the expression and assembly of the NDH-1MS complex, which likely contains no NdhO to further accelerate PSI CET and reduce ROS production. We propose that this hierarchical mechanism is necessary for the survival of cyanobacteria in an aerobic environment.
Project description:Cyanobacterial NDH-1 interacts with photosystem I (PSI) to form an NDH-1-PSI supercomplex. Here, we observed that absence of NDH-1 had little, if any, effect on the functional fractions of PSI under growth conditions, but significantly reduced the functional fractions of PSI when cells of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 were moved to conditions of multiple stresses. The significant reduction in NDH-1-dependent functional fraction of PSI was initiated after PSII activity was impaired. This finding is consistent with our observation that the functional fraction of PSI under growth conditions was rapidly and significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of DCMU, which rapidly and significantly suppressed PSII activity by blocking the transfer of electrons from QA to QB in the PSII reaction center. Furthermore, absence of NDH-1 resulted in the PSI limitation at the functionality of PSI itself but not its donor-side and acceptor-side under conditions of multiple stresses. This was supported by the result of a significant destabilization of the PSI complex in the absence of NDH-1 but the presence of multiple stresses. Based on the above results, we propose that NDH-1 is important for PSI function of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 mainly via maintaining stabilization of PSI under conditions of environmental stresses.
Project description:NDH (NADH-quinone oxidoreductase)-1 complexes in cyanobacteria have specific functions in respiration and cyclic electron flow as well as in active CO2 uptake. In order to isolate NDH-1 complexes and to study complex-complex interactions, several strains of Thermosynechococcus elongatus were constructed by adding a His-tag (histidine tag) to different subunits of NDH-1. Two strains with His-tag on CupA and NdhL were successfully used to isolate NDH-1 complexes by one-step Ni2+ column chromatography. BN (blue-native)/SDS/PAGE analysis of the proteins eluted from the Ni2+ column revealed the presence of three complexes with molecular masses of about 450, 300 and 190 kDa, which were identified by MS to be NDH-1L, NDH-1M and NDH-1S respectively, previously found in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. A larger complex of about 490 kDa was also isolated from the NdhL-His strain. This complex, designated 'NDH-1MS', was composed of NDH-1M and NDH-1S. NDH-1L complex was recovered from WT (wild-type) cells of T. elongatus by Ni2+ column chromatography. NdhF1 subunit present only in NDH-1L has a sequence of -HHDHHSHH- internally, which appears to have an affinity for the Ni2+ column. NDH-1S or NDH-1M was not recovered from WT cells by chromatography of this kind. The BN/SDS/PAGE analysis of membranes solubilized by a low concentration of detergent indicated the presence of abundant NDH-1MS, but not NDH-1M or NDH-1S. These results clearly demonstrated that NDH-1S is associated with NDH-1M in vivo.
Project description:BACKGROUND:RNA editing is common in terrestrial plants, especially in mitochondria and chloroplast. In the photosynthesis process, NAD dehydrogenase plays a very important role. Subunit 2 of NADH-dehydrogenase is one of the major subunits in NAD dehydrogenase complex. Using desert plant Calotropis (Calotropis procera), this study focuses on the RNA editing activity of ndhB based on light time. RESULTS:NdhB (NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 2) gene accession no. MK144329 was isolated from Calotropis procera genomic data (PRJNA292713). Additionally, using RNA-seq data, the cDNA of the ndhB gene of C. procera was isolated at three daylight periods, i.e., dawn (accession no. MK165161), at midday (accession no. MK165160), and pre-dusk (accession no. MK165159). Seven RNA editing sites have been found in several different positions (nucleotide no. C467, C586, C611, C737, C746, C830, and C1481) within the ndhB coding region. The rate of these alterations was deferentially edited across the three daylight periods. RNA editing rate of ndhB gene was highest at dawn, (87.5, 79.6, 78.5, 76, 68.6, 39.3, and 96.9%, respectively), less in midday (74.8, 54.1, 62.6, 47.4, 45.5, 47.4, and 93.4%, respectively), and less at pre-dusk (67, 52.6, 56.9, 40.1, 40.7, 33.2, and 90%, respectively), also all these sites were validated by qRT-PCR. CONCLUSION:The differential editing of chloroplast ndhB gene across light periods may be led to a somehow relations between the RNA editing and control of photosynthesis.
Project description:The biogenesis of photosystem I (PSI), cytochrome b 6 f (Cytb 6 f) and NADH dehydrogenase (NDH) complexes relies on the spatially and temporally coordinated expression and translation of both nuclear and chloroplast genes. Here we report the identification of photosystem biogenesis regulator 1 (PBR1), a nuclear-encoded chloroplast RNA-binding protein that regulates the concerted biogenesis of NDH, PSI and Cytb 6 f complexes. We identified Ycf1, one of the two largest chloroplast genome-encoded open reading frames as the direct downstream target protein of PBR1. Biochemical and molecular analyses reveal that PBR1 regulates Ycf1 translation by directly binding to its mRNA. Surprisingly, we further demonstrate that relocation of the chloroplast gene Ycf1 fused with a plastid-transit sequence to the nucleus bypasses the requirement of PBR1 for Ycf1 translation, which sufficiently complements the defects in biogenesis of NDH, PSI and Cytb 6 f complexes in PBR1-deficient plants. Remarkably, the nuclear-encoded PBR1 tightly controls the expression of the chloroplast gene Ycf1 at the translational level, which is sufficient to sustain the coordinated biogenesis of NDH, PSI and Cytb 6 f complexes as a whole. Our findings provide deep insights into better understanding of how a predominant nuclear-encoded factor can act as a migratory mediator and undergoes selective translational regulation of the target plastid gene in controlling biogenesis of photosynthetic complexes.
Project description:Cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I (PSI) can protect photosynthetic electron carriers under conditions of stromal over-reduction. The goal of the research reported in this paper was to investigate the responses of both PSI and photosystem II (PSII) to a short-term heat stress in two rice lines with different capacities of cyclic electron transfer, i.e., Q4149 with a high capacity (hcef) and C4023 with a low capacity (lcef). The absorbance change at 820 nm (?A820) was used here to assess the charge separation in the PSI reaction center (P700). The results obtained show that short-term heat stress abolishes the ferredoxin-quinone oxidoreductase (FQR)-dependent CEF in rice and accelerates the initial rate of P700 (+) re-reduction. The P700 (+) amplitude was slightly increased at a moderate heat-stress (35°C) because of a partial restriction of FQR but it was decreased following high heat-stress (42°C). Assessment of PSI and PSII activities shows that PSI is more susceptible to heat stress than PSII. Under high temperature, FQR-dependent CEF was completely removed and NDH-dependent CEF was up-regulated and strengthened to a higher extent in C4023 than in Q4149. Specifically, under normal growth temperature, hcef (Q4149) was characterized by higher FQR- and chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH)-dependent CEF rates than lcef (C4023). Following thermal stress, the activation of NDH-pathway was 130 and 10% for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. Thus, the NDH-dependent CEF may constitute the second layer of plant protection and defense against heat stress after the main route, i.e., FQR-dependent CEF, reaches its capacity. We discuss the possibility that under high heat stress, the NDH pathway serves as a safety valve to dissipate excess energy by cyclic photophosphorylation and overcome the stroma over-reduction following inhibition of CO2 assimilation and any shortage or lack in the FQR pathway. The potential role of the NDH-dependent pathway during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis is briefly discussed.
Project description:Three evergreen (Laurus nobilis, Viburnum tinus and Thuja plicata) and two autumnal abscission deciduous trees (Cydonia oblonga and Prunus domestica) have been investigated for the presence (zymogram and immunodetection) and functionality (post-illumination chlorophyll fluorescence) of the thylakoid Ndh complex. The presence of encoding ndh genes has also been investigated in T. plicata. Western assays allowed tentative identification of zymogram NADH dehydrogenase bands corresponding to the Ndh complex after native electrophoresis of solubilized fractions from L. nobilis, V. tinus, C. oblonga and P. domestica leaves, but not in those of T. plicata. However, Ndh subunits were detected after SDS-PAGE of thylakoid solubilized proteins of T. plicata. The leaves of the five plants showed the post-illumination chlorophyll fluorescence increase dependent on the presence of active Ndh complex. The fluorescence increase was higher in autumn in deciduous, but not in evergreen trees, which suggests that the thylakoid Ndh complex could be involved in autumnal leaf senescence. Two ndhB genes were sequenced from T. plicata that differ at the 350 bp 3' end sequence. Comparison with the mRNA revealed that ndhB genes have a 707-bp type II intron between exons 1 (723 bp) and 2 (729 bp) and that the UCA 259th codon is edited to UUA in mRNA. Phylogenetically, the ndhB genes of T. plicata group close to those of Metasequoia, Cryptomeria, Taxodium, Juniperus and Widdringtonia in the cupresaceae branch and are 5' end shortened by 18 codons with respect to that of angiosperms.