Conditional peripheral membrane proteins: facing up to limited specificity.
ABSTRACT: Regulated relocalization of signaling and trafficking proteins is crucial for the control of many cellular processes and is driven by a series of domains that respond to alterations at membrane surfaces. The first examples of these domains--conditional peripheral membrane proteins--included C1, C2, PH, PX, and FYVE domains, which specifically recognize single tightly regulated membrane components such as diacylglycerol or phosphoinositides. The structural basis for this recognition is now well understood. Efforts to identify additional domains with similar functions that bind other targets (or participate in unexplained cellular processes) have not yielded many more examples of specific phospholipid-binding domains. Instead, most of the recently discovered conditional peripheral membrane proteins bind multiple targets (each with limited specificity), relying on coincidence detection and/or recognizing broader physical properties of the membrane such as charge or curvature. This broader range of recognition modes presents significant methodological challenges for a full structural understanding.
Project description:Anionic lipids act as signals for the recruitment of proteins containing cationic clusters to biological membranes. A family of anionic lipids known as the phosphoinositides (PIPs) are low in abundance, yet play a critical role in recruitment of peripheral proteins to the membrane interface. PIPs are mono-, bis-, or trisphosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PI) yielding seven species with different structure and anionic charge. The differential spatial distribution and temporal appearance of PIPs is key to their role in communicating information to target proteins. Selective recognition of PIPs came into play with the discovery that the substrate of protein kinase C termed pleckstrin possessed the first PIP binding region termed the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Since the discovery of the PH domain, more than ten PIP binding domains have been identified including PH, ENTH, FYVE, PX, and C2 domains. Representative examples of each of these domains have been thoroughly characterized to understand how they coordinate PIP headgroups in membranes, translocate to specific membrane docking sites in the cell, and function to regulate the activity of their full-length proteins. In addition, a number of novel mechanisms of PIP-mediated membrane association have emerged, such as coincidence detection-specificity for two distinct lipid headgroups. Other PIP-binding domains may also harbor selectivity for a membrane physical property such as charge or membrane curvature. This review summarizes the current understanding of the cellular distribution of PIPs and their molecular interaction with peripheral proteins.
Project description:Protrudin is a FYVE (Fab 1, YOTB, Vac 1, and EEA1) domain-containing protein involved in transport of neuronal cargoes and implicated in the onset of hereditary spastic paraplegia. Our image-based screening of the lipid binding domain library revealed novel plasma membrane localization of the FYVE domain of protrudin unlike canonical FYVE domains that are localized to early endosomes. The membrane binding study by surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that this FYVE domain preferentially binds phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)), phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P(2)), and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)) unlike canonical FYVE domains that specifically bind phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P). Furthermore, we found that these phosphoinositides (PtdInsP) differentially regulate shuttling of protrudin between endosomes and plasma membrane via its FYVE domain. Protrudin mutants with reduced PtdInsP-binding affinity failed to promote neurite outgrowth in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. These results suggest that novel PtdInsP selectivity of the protrudin-FYVE domain is critical for its cellular localization and its role in neurite outgrowth.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate is involved in regulation of several key cellular processes, mainly endocytosis, signaling, nuclear processes, cytoskeletal remodelling, cell survival, membrane trafficking, phagosome maturation and autophagy. In most cases effector proteins bind to this lipid, using either FYVE or PX domain. These two domains are distributed amongst varied life forms such as virus, protists, fungi, viridiplantae and metazoa. As the binding ligand is identical for both domains, the goal of this study was to understand if there is any selectivity for either of these domains in different taxa. Further, to understand the different cellular functions that these domains may be involved in, we analyzed the taxonomic distribution of additional domains that associate with FYVE and PX. RESULTS: There is selectivity for either FYVE or PX in individual genomes where both domains are present. Fungi and metazoa encode more PX, whereas streptophytes in viridiplantae encode more FYVE. Excess of FYVE in streptophytes results from proteins containing RCC1and DZC domains and FYVE domains in these proteins have a non-canonical ligand-binding site. Within a taxonomic group the selected domain associates with a higher number of other domains and is thus expected to discharge a larger number of cellular functions. Also, while certain associated domains are present in all taxonomic groups, most of them are unique to a specific group indicating that while certain common functions are discharged by these domains in all taxonomic groups, some functions appear to be group specific. CONCLUSIONS: Although both FYVE and PX bind to PtdIns(3)P, genomes of different taxa show distinct selectivity of encoding either of the two. Higher numbers of taxonomic group specific domains co-occur with the more abundant domain (FYVE/PX) indicating that group-specific rare domain architectures might have emerged to accomplish certain group-specific functions.
Project description:A growing number of modules including FYVE domains target key signaling proteins to membranes through specific recognition of lipid headgroups and hydrophobic insertion into bilayers. Despite the critical role of membrane insertion in the function of these modules, the structural mechanism of membrane docking and penetration remains unclear. In particular, the three-dimensional orientation of the inserted proteins with respect to the membrane surface is difficult to define quantitatively. Here, we determined the geometry of the micelle penetration of the early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) FYVE domain by obtaining NMR-derived restraints that correlate with the distances between protein backbone amides and spin-labeled probes. The 5- and 14-doxyl-phosphatidylcholine spin-labels were incorporated into dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles, and the reduction of amide signal intensities of the FYVE domain due to paramagnetic relaxation enhancement was measured. The vector of the FYVE domain insertion was estimated relative to the molecular axis by minimizing the paramagnetic restraints obtained in phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P)-enriched micelles containing only DPC or mixed with phosphatidylserine (PS). Additional distance restraints were obtained using a novel spin-label mimetic of PI(3)P that contains a nitroxyl radical near the threitol group of the lipid. Conformational changes indicative of elongation of the membrane insertion loop (MIL) were detected upon micelle interaction, in which the hydrophobic residues of the loop tend to move deeper into the nonpolar core of micelles. The micelle insertion mechanism of the FYVE domain defined in this study is consistent with mutagenesis data and chemical shift perturbations and demonstrates the advantage of using the spin-label NMR approach for investigating the binding geometry by peripheral membrane proteins.
Project description:Eukaryotic signaling and trafficking proteins are rich in modular domains that bind cell membranes. These binding events are tightly regulated in space and time. The structural, biochemical, and biophysical mechanisms for targeting have been worked out for many families of membrane binding domains. This review takes a comparative view of seven major classes of membrane binding domains, the C1, C2, PH, FYVE, PX, ENTH, and BAR domains. These domains use a combination of specific headgroup interactions, hydrophobic membrane penetration, electrostatic surface interactions, and shape complementarity to bind to specific subcellular membranes.
Project description:The FYVE domain is a small zinc binding module that recognizes phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P], a phospholipid enriched in membranes of early endosomes and other endocytic vesicles. It is usually present as a single module or rarely as a tandem repeat in eukaryotic proteins involved in a variety of biological processes including endo- and exocytosis, membrane trafficking and phosphoinositide metabolism. A number of FYVE domain-containing proteins are recruited to endocytic membranes through the specific interaction of their FYVE domains with PtdIns(3)P. Structures and PtdIns(3)P binding modes of several FYVE domains have recently been characterized, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying multiple cellular functions of these proteins. Here, structural and functional aspects and the current mechanism of the multivalent membrane anchoring by monomeric or dimeric FYVE domain are reviewed. This mechanism involves stereospecific recognition of PtdIns(3)P that is facilitated by non-specific electrostatic contacts and modulated by the histidine switch, and is accompanied by hydrophobic insertion. Contributions of each component to the FYVE domain specificity and affinity for PtdIns(3)P-containing membranes are discussed.
Project description:Many signaling and trafficking proteins contain modular domains that bind reversibly to cellular membranes. The structural basis of the intermolecular interactions which mediate these membrane-targeting events remains elusive since protein-membrane complexes are not directly accessible to standard structural biology techniques. Here we report a fast protein-micelle docking methodology that yields three-dimensional model structures of proteins inserted into micelles, revealing energetically favorable orientations, convergent insertion angles, and an array of protein-lipid interactions at atomic resolution. The method is applied to two peripheral membrane proteins, the early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) FYVE (a zinc finger domain found in the proteins Fab1, YOTB/ZK632.12, Vac1, and EEA1) and Vam7p phagocyte oxidase homology domains, which are revealed to form extensive networks of interactions with multiple phospholipid headgroups and acyl chains. The resulting structural models explain extensive published mutagenesis data and reveal novel binding determinants. The docking restraints used here were based on NMR data, but can be derived from any technique that detects insertion of protein residues into a membrane, and can be applied to virtually any peripheral membrane protein or membrane-like structure.
Project description:Specific recognition of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns3P] by the FYVE domain targets cytosolic proteins to endosomal membranes during key signaling and trafficking events within eukaryotic cells. Here, we show that this membrane targeting is regulated by the acidic cellular environment. Lowering the cytosolic pH enhances PtdIns3P affinity of the FYVE domain, reinforcing the anchoring of early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) to endosomal membranes. Reversibly, increasing the pH disrupts phosphoinositide binding and leads to cytoplasmic redistribution of EEA1. pH dependency is due to a pair of conserved His residues, the successive protonation of which is required for PtdIns3P head group recognition as revealed by NMR. Substitution of the His residues abolishes PtdIns3P binding by the FYVE domain in vitro and in vivo. Another PtdIns3P-binding module, the PX domain of Vam7 and p40phox is shown to be pH-independent. This provides the fundamental functional distinction between the two phosphoinositide-recognizing domains. The presented mode of FYVE regulation establishes the unique function of FYVE proteins as low pH sensors of PtdIns3P and reveals the critical role of the histidine switch in targeting of these proteins to endosomal membranes.
Project description:Ras-like small GTPases are regulatory proteins that control multiple aspects of cellular function, and are particularly prevalent in vesicular transport. A proportion of GTPase paralogs appear restricted to certain eukaryote lineages, suggesting roles specific to a restricted lineage, and hence potentially reflecting adaptation to individual lifestyles or ecological niche. Here we describe the role of a GTPase, TbFRP, a FYVE domain N-terminally fused to a Ras-like GTPase, originally identified in Trypanosoma brucei. As FYVE-domains specifically bind phosphoinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P), which associates with endosomes, we suggest that TbFRP may unite phosphoinositide and small G protein endosomal signaling in trypanosomatids. TbFRP orthologs are present throughout the Euglenazoa suggesting that FRP has functions throughout the group. We show that the FYVE domain of TbFRP is functional in PI3P-dependent membrane targeting and localizes at the endosomal region. Further, while TbFRP is apparently non-essential, knockdown and immunochemical evidence indicates that TbFRP is rapidly cleaved upon synthesis, releasing the GTPase and FYVE-domains. Finally, TbFRP expression at both mRNA and protein levels is cell density-dependent. Together, these data suggest that TbFRP is an endocytic GTPase with a highly unusual mechanism of action that involves proteolysis of the nascent protein and membrane targeting via PI3P.
Project description:BACKGROUND: FYVE domains have emerged as membrane-targeting domains highly specific for phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P). They are predominantly found in proteins involved in various trafficking pathways. Although FYVE domains may function as individual modules, dimers or in partnership with other proteins, structurally, all FYVE domains share a fold comprising two small characteristic double-stranded beta-sheets, and a C-terminal alpha-helix, which houses eight conserved Zn2+ ion-binding cysteines. To date, the structural, biochemical, and biophysical mechanisms for subcellular targeting of FYVE domains for proteins from various model organisms have been worked out but plant FYVE domains remain noticeably under-investigated. RESULTS: We carried out an extensive examination of all Arabidopsis FYVE domains, including their identification, classification, molecular modeling and biophysical characterization using computational approaches. Our classification of fifteen Arabidopsis FYVE proteins at the outset reveals unique domain architectures for FYVE containing proteins, which are not paralleled in other organisms. Detailed sequence analysis and biophysical characterization of the structural models are used to predict membrane interaction mechanisms previously described for other FYVE domains and their subtle variations as well as novel mechanisms that seem to be specific to plants. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes to the understanding of the molecular basis of FYVE-based membrane targeting in plants on a genomic scale. The results show that FYVE domain containing proteins in plants have evolved to incorporate significant differences from those in other organisms implying that they play a unique role in plant signaling pathways and/or play similar/parallel roles in signaling to other organisms but use different protein players/signaling mechanisms.