Fractionated photothermal antitumor therapy with multidye nanoparticles.
ABSTRACT: Photothermal therapy is an emerging cancer treatment paradigm which involves highly localized heating and killing of tumor cells, due to the presence of nanomaterials that can strongly absorb near-infrared (NIR) light. In addition to having deep penetration depths in tissue, NIR light is innocuous to normal cells. Little is known currently about the fate of nanomaterials post photothermal ablation and the implications thereof. The purpose of this investigation was to define the intratumoral fate of nanoparticles (NPs) after photothermal therapy in vivo and characterize the use of novel multidye theranostic NPs (MDT-NPs) for fractionated photothermal antitumor therapy.The photothermal and fluorescent properties of MDT-NPs were first characterized. To investigate the fate of nanomaterials following photothermal ablation in vivo, novel MDT-NPs and a murine mammary tumor model were used. Intratumoral injection of MDT-NPs and real-time fluorescence imaging before and after fractionated photothermal therapy was performed to study the intratumoral fate of MDT-NPs. Gross tumor and histological changes were made comparing MDT-NP treated and control tumor-bearing mice.The dual dye-loaded mesoporous NPs (ie, MDT-NPs; circa 100 nm) retained both their NIR absorbing and NIR fluorescent capabilities after photoactivation. In vivo MDT-NPs remained localized in the intratumoral position after photothermal ablation. With fractionated photothermal therapy, there was significant treatment effect observed macroscopically (P = 0.026) in experimental tumor-bearing mice compared to control treated tumor-bearing mice.Fractionated photothermal therapy for cancer represents a new therapeutic paradigm enabled by the application of novel functional nanomaterials. MDT-NPs may advance clinical treatment of cancer by enabling fractionated real-time image guided photothermal therapy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Theranostic nanomaterials composed of fluorescent and photothermal agents can both image and provide a method of disease treatment in clinical oncology. For in vivo use, the near-infrared (NIR) window has been the focus of the majority of studies, because of greater light penetration due to lower absorption and scatter of biological components. Therefore, having both fluorescent and photothermal agents with optical properties in the NIR provides the best chance of improved theranostic capabilities utilizing nanotechnology.<h4>Methods</h4>We developed nonplasmonic multi-dye theranostic silica nanoparticles (MDT-NPs), combining NIR fluorescence visualization and photothermal therapy within a single nanoconstruct comprised of molecular components. A modified NIR fluorescent heptamethine cyanine dye was covalently incorporated into a mesoporous silica matrix and a hydrophobic metallo-naphthalocyanine dye with large molar absorptivity was loaded into the pores of these fluorescent particles. The imaging and therapeutic capabilities of these nanoparticles were demonstrated in vivo using a direct tumor injection model.<h4>Results</h4>The fluorescent nanoparticles are bright probes (300-fold enhancement in quantum yield versus free dye) that have a large Stokes shift (>110 nm). Incorporation of the naphthalocyanine dye and exposure to NIR laser excitation results in a temperature increase of the surrounding environment of the MDT-NPs. Tumors injected with these NPs are easily visible with NIR imaging and produce significantly elevated levels of tumor necrosis (95%) upon photothermal ablation compared with controls, as evaluated by bioluminescence and histological analysis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>MDT-NPs are novel, multifunctional nanomaterials that have optical properties dependent upon the unique incorporation of NIR fluorescent and NIR photothermal dyes within a mesoporous silica platform.
Project description:In this study we report semimetal nanomaterials of antimony (Sb) as highly efficient agent for photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and photothermal therapy (PTT). The Sb nanorod bundles have been synthesized through a facile route by mixing 1-octadecane (ODE) and oleyl amine (OAm) as the solvent. The aqueous dispersion of PEGylated Sb NPs, due to its broad and strong photoabsorption ranging from ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, is applicable as a photothermal agent driven by 808 nm laser with photothermal conversion efficiency up to 41%, noticeably higher than most of the PTT agents reported before. Our in vitro experiments also showed that cancer cell ablation effect of PEGylated Sb NPs was dependent on laser power. By intratumoral administration of PEGylated Sb NPs, 100% tumor ablation can be realized by using NIR laser irradiation with a lower power of 1 W/cm(2) for 5 min (or 0.5 W/cm(2) for 10 min) and no obvious toxic side effect is identified after photothermal treatment. Moreover, intense PA signal was also observed after intratumoral injection of PEGylated Sb NPs and NIR laser irradiation due to their strong NIR photoabsorption, suggesting PEGylated Sb NPs as a potential NIR PA agent. Based on the findings of this work, further development of using other semimetal nanocrystals as highly efficient NIR agents can be achieved for vivo tumor imaging and PTT.
Project description:We synthesized and evaluated a novel class of chelator-free [(64)Cu]CuS nanoparticles (NPs) suitable both for PET imaging and as photothermal coupling agents for photothermal ablation. These [(64)Cu]CuS NPs are simple to make, possess excellent stability, and allow robust noninvasive micro-PET imaging. Furthermore, the CuS NPs display strong absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region (peak at 930 nm); passive targeting prefers the tumor site, and mediated ablation of U87 tumor cells occurs upon exposure to NIR light both in vitro and in vivo after either intratumoral or intravenous injection. The combination of small diameter (?11 nm), strong NIR absorption, and integration of (64)Cu as a structural component makes these [(64)Cu]CuS NPs ideally suited for multifunctional molecular imaging and therapy.
Project description:Near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing metal-based nanomaterials have shown tremendous potential for cancer therapy, given their facile and controllable synthesis, efficient photothermal conversion, capability of spatiotemporal-controlled drug delivery, and intrinsic imaging function. Tantalum (Ta) is among the most biocompatible metals and arouses negligible adverse biological responses in either oxidized or reduced forms, and thus Ta-derived nanomaterials represent promising candidates for biomedical applications. However, Ta-based nanomaterials by themselves have not been explored for NIR-mediated photothermal ablation therapy. In this work, we report an innovative Ta-based multifunctional nanoplatform composed of biocompatible tantalum sulfide (TaS2) nanosheets (NSs) for simultaneous NIR hyperthermia, drug delivery, and computed tomography (CT) imaging. The TaS2 NSs exhibit multiple unique features including (i) efficient NIR light-to-heat conversion with a high photothermal conversion efficiency of 39%. (ii) high drug loading (177% by weight), (iii) controlled drug release triggered by NIR light and moderate acidic pH, (iv) high tumor accumulation via heat-enhanced tumor vascular permeability, (v) complete tumor ablation and negligible side effects, and (vi) comparable CT imaging contrast efficiency to the widely clinically used agent iobitridol. We expect that this multifunctional NS platform can serve as a promising candidate for imaging-guided cancer therapy and selection of cancer patients with high tumor accumulation.
Project description:A facile strategy to fabricate gold nanorod@polyacrylic acid/calcium phosphate (AuNR@PAA/CaP) yolk-shell nanoparticles (NPs) composed with a PAA/CaP shell and an AuNR yolk is reported. The as-obtained AuNR@PAA/CaP yolk-shell NPs possess ultrahigh doxorubicin (DOX) loading capability (1 mg DOX/mg NPs), superior photothermal conversion property (26%) and pH/near-infrared (NIR) dual-responsive drug delivery performance. The released DOX continuously increased due to the damage of the CaP shell at low pH values. When the DOX-loaded AuNR@PAA/CaP yolk-shell NPs were exposed to NIR irradiation, a burst-like drug release occurs owing to the heat produced by the AuNRs. Furthermore, AuNR@PAA/CaP yolk-shell NPs are successfully employed for synergic dual-mode X-ray computed tomography/photoacoustic imaging and chemo-photothermal cancer therapy. Therefore, this work brings new insights for the synthesis of multifunctional nanomaterials and extends theranostic applications.
Project description:Current surgical treatment for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) must be as precise as possible to fully resect tumors and preserve functional tissues. Thus, it is urgent to develop efficient fluorescent probes to clearly identify tumor delineation, as well as metastatic lymph nodes. Chemo-photothermal therapy combination attracted a growing attention to increase anti-tumor effect in various types of cancer, including OSCC. In the present study, we designed a multimodal NIR-II probe that involves combining photothermal therapy with chemotherapy, imaging OSCC tumors and detecting metastatic lymph nodes. <b>Methods</b>: In this study, we synthesized a novel near infrared (NIR)-II probe named TQTPA [4,4'-((6,7-bis(4-(hexyloxy)phenyl)-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo [3,4-g]quinoxaline-4,9-diyl)bis(thiophene-5,2-diyl))bis(N,N-diphenylaniline)] via the Suzuki reaction and prepared multimodal nanoparticles (NPs) loading TQTPA and <i>cis</i>-dichlorodiammine platinum (CDDP) (HT@CDDP) by hyaluronic acid. The characteristics of the NPs, including their photothermal and imaging capabilities were investigated <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. Their anti-tumor efficacy was evaluated using orthotopic, tongue tumor-bearing, nude mice. <b>Results</b>: The NPs possessed good stability and water solubility and were pH/hyaluronidase sensitive. The good tissue penetration quality and active targeting ability enabled the NPs to draw the outline of orthotopic tongue tumors and metastatic lymph nodes as small as 1 mm in nude mice by IR-808 under NIR exposure. <i>In vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> experiments validated the biocompatibility and low systematic toxicity of the NPs. At the same time, the NPs acted as multimodal therapy agents, combining photothermal therapy with chemotherapy. <b>Conclusion</b>: With a good imaging capability and anti-tumor efficacy, our NPs successfully outlined orthotopic tongue tumors and metastatic lymph nodes as well as enabled chemo-photothermal therapy combination. Our study established a solid foundation for the application of new clinical diagnosis and treatment patterns in the future.
Project description:Most photothermal converting systems are not biodegradable, which bring the uneasiness when they are administered into human body due to the uncertainty of their fate. Hereby, we developed a mussel-inspired PLGA/polydopamine core-shell nanoparticle for cancer photothermal and chemotherapy. With the help of an anti-EGFR antibody, the nanoparticle could effectively enter head and neck cancer cells and convert near-infrared light to heat to trigger drug release from PLGA core for chemotherapy as well as ablate tumors by the elevated temperature. Due to the unique nanoparticle concentration dependent peak working-temperature nature, an overheating or overburn situation can be easily prevented. Since the nanoparticle was retained in the tumor tissue and subsequently released its payload inside the cancer cells, no any doxorubicin-associated side effects were detected. Thus, the developed mussel-inspired PLGA/polydopamine core-shell nanoparticle could be a safe and effective tool for the treatment of head and neck cancer. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:The described EGFR targeted PLGA/polydopamine core-shell nanoparticle (PLGA/PD NP) is novel in the following aspects: Different from most photothermal converting nanomaterials, PLGA/PD NP is biodegradable, which eliminates the long-term safety concerns thwarting the clinical application of photothermal therapy. Different from most photothermal nanomaterials, upon NIR irradiation, PLGA/PD NP quickly heats its surrounding environment to a NP concentration dependent peak working temperature and uniquely keeps that temperature constant through the duration of light irradiation. Due to this unique property an overheating or overburn situation for the adjacent healthy tissue can be easily avoided. The PLGA/PD NP releases its payload through detaching PD shell under NIR laser irradiation. The EGFR-targeted doxorubicin-loaded PLGA/PD NP effectively eradicate head and neck tumor in vivo through the synergism of photothermal therapy and chemotherapy while not introducing doxorubicin associated cardiotoxicity.
Project description:Multifunctional nanomaterials that have integrated diagnostic and therapeutic functions and low toxicity, and can enhance treatment efficacy through combination therapy have drawn tremendous amounts of attention. Herein, a newly developed multifunctional theranostic agent is reported, which is PEGylated W-doped TiO2 (WTO) nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized via a facile organic route, and the results demonstrated strong absorbance of these WTO NPs in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) window due to successful doping with W. These PEGylated WTO NPs can absorb both NIR-II laser and ionizing radiation, rendering them well suited for dual-modal computed tomography/NIR-II photoacoustic imaging and synergistic NIR-II photothermal/radiotherapy of tumors. In addition, the long-term in vivo studies indicated that these PEGylated WTO NPs had no obvious toxicity on mice in vivo, and they can be cleared after a 30-day period. In summary, this multifunctional theranostic agent can absorb both NIR-II laser and ionizing radiation with negligible toxicity and rapid clearance, therefore it has great promise for applications in imaging and therapeutics in biomedicine.
Project description:Photothermal therapy in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) exhibits a significant advantage over the first near-infrared window (NIR-I, 650-950 nm) in terms of both maximum permissible exposure (MPE) and penetration depth. However, the thus far reported NIR-II photothermal agents (PTAs) have been focused just on inorganic semiconducting and organic polymeric semiconducting nanoparticles. Herein a novel cruciform phthalocyanine pentad was designed, synthesized, and characterized for the first time. The water-soluble nanoparticles (Zn4-H2Pc/DP NPs) assembled from this single molecular material with the help of DSPE-PEG2000-OCH3 exhibit characteristic absorption in the NIR-II region at 1064 nm with a large extinction coefficient of 52 L g-1 cm-1, high photothermal conversion efficiency of 58.3%, and intense photoacoustic signal. Moreover, both in vitro and in vivo studies reveal the good biocompatibility and notable tumor ablation ability of Zn4-H2Pc/DP NPs under 1064 nm laser irradiation. Theoretical density functional theory calculations interpret the two-dimensional compressional wave energy-dissipation pathway over the broad saddle curved framework of the cruciform conjugated phthalocyanine pentad, rationalizing the efficient photothermal properties of corresponding Zn4-H2Pc/DP NPs in the NIR-II window.
Project description:Our exploiting versatile multimodal theranostic agent aims to integrate the complementary superiorities of photoacoustic imaging (PAI), second near-infrared (NIR-II, 1000-1700) fluorescence and T<sub>1</sub>-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an ultimate objective of perfecting cancer diagnosis, thus improving cancer therapy efficacy. Herein, we engineered and prepared a water-soluble gadolinium-chelated conjugated polymer-based theranostic nanomedicine (PFTQ-PEG-Gd NPs) for in vivo tri-mode PA/MR/NIR-II imaging-guided tumor photothermal therapy (PTT). <b>Methods</b>: We firstly constructed a semiconducting polymer composed of low-bandgap donor-acceptor (D-A) which afforded the strong NIR absorption for PAI/PTT and long fluorescence emission to NIR-II region for in vivo imaging. Then, the remaining carboxyl groups of the polymeric NPs could effectively chelate with Gd<sup>3+</sup> ions for MRI. The in vitro characteristics of the PFTQ-PEG-Gd NPs were studied and the in vivo multimode imaging as well as anti-tumor efficacy of the NPs was evaluated using 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. <b>Results</b>: The obtained theranostic agent showed excellent chemical and optical stability as well as low biotoxicity. After 24 h of systemic administration using PQTF-PEG-Gd NPs, the tumor sites of living mice exhibited obvious enhancement in PA, NIR-II fluorescence and positive MR signal intensities. Better still, a conspicuous tumor growth restraint was detected under NIR light irradiation after administration of PQTF-PEG-Gd NPs, indicating the efficient photothermal potency of the nano-agent. <b>Conclusion</b>: we triumphantly designed and synthesized a novel and omnipotent semiconducting polymer nanoparticles-based theranostic platform for PAI, NIR-II fluorescence imaging as well as positive MRI-guided tumor PTT in living mice. We expect that such a novel organic nano-platform manifests a great promise for high spatial resolution and deep penetration cancer theranostics.