Current approaches to the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) has long been a standard treatment for lymphoma. Improvements to the efficacy of this regimen can be made by increasing the doses of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, as in the chemotherapeutic regimen of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vindesine, bleomycin, and prednisone (ACVBP), and by reducing the standard dosing interval, as seen with the CHOP-14 regimen. Adding the immunotherapeutic agent rituximab (R) to either CHOP or ACVBP has been shown to improve outcomes significantly, such that six cycles of R-CHOP plus two cycles of ritux-imab are as effective as eight cycles of R-CHOP, and R-CHOP-21 appears to be at least as effective as the more dose-intense R-CHOP-14. In patients who have several adverse prognostic factors, R-ACVBP plus autologous stem-cell transplantation has been shown to produce good treatment outcomes. The use of positron emission tomography scanning before and early in treatment should allow prediction of long-term outcomes, and therefore the adaptation of treatment to individual prognosis and treatment needs. In patients with follicular lymphoma, rituximab has been shown to improve the efficacy of conventional chemotherapies. In addition, rituximab alone or yttrium-90-ibritumomab tiuxetan are effective maintenance therapies in this condition.
Project description:Limited comparative data exist for the treatment of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We analyzed pooled individual patient data for 1546 patients from 19 prospective clinical trials to assess treatment-specific factors (type of chemotherapy, rituximab, and concurrent combination antiretroviral [cART] use) and their influence on the outcomes complete response (CR), progression free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). In our analysis, rituximab was associated with a higher CR rate (odds ratio [OR] 2.89; P < .001), improved PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.50; P < .001), and OS (HR 0.51; P < .0001). Compared with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP), initial therapy with more dose-intense regimens resulted in better CR rates (ACVBP [doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vindesine, bleomycin and prednisolone]: OR 1.70; P < .04), PFS (ACVBP: HR 0.72; P = .049; "intensive regimens": HR 0.35; P < .001) and OS ("intensive regimens": HR 0.54; P < .001). Infusional etoposide, prednisone, infusional vincristine, infusional doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (EPOCH) was associated with significantly better OS in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (HR 0.33; P = .03). Concurrent use of cART was associated with improved CR rates (OR 1.89; P = .005) and trended toward improved OS (HR 0.78; P = .07). These findings provide supporting evidence for current patterns of care where definitive evidence is unavailable.
Project description:This randomized, noninferiority (NI), global, phase 3 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of bendamustine plus rituximab (BR) vs a standard rituximab-chemotherapy regimen (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone [R-CHOP] or rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone [R-CVP]) for treatment-naive patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or mantle cell lymphoma. Investigators preassigned the standard treatment regimen they considered most appropriate for each patient; patients were randomized to receive BR (n = 224) or standard therapy (R-CHOP/R-CVP, n = 223) for 6 cycles; 2 additional cycles were permitted at investigator discretion. Response was assessed by a blinded independent review committee. BR was noninferior to R-CHOP/R-CVP, as assessed by the primary end point of complete response rate (31% vs 25%, respectively; P = .0225 for NI [0.88 margin]). The overall response rates for BR and R-CHOP/R-CVP were 97% and 91%, respectively (P = .0102). Incidences of vomiting and drug-hypersensitivity reactions were significantly higher in patients treated with BR (P < .05), and incidences of peripheral neuropathy/paresthesia and alopecia were significantly higher in patients treated with standard-therapy regimens (P < .05). These data indicate BR is noninferior to standard therapy with regard to clinical response with an acceptable safety profile. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00877006.
Project description:This phase 2 study evaluated whether substituting bortezomib for vincristine in frontline rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy could improve efficacy in non-germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (non-GCB DLBCL), centrally confirmed by immunohistochemistry (Hans method). In total, 164 patients were randomized 1:1 to receive six 21-day cycles of rituximab 375 mg/m(2), cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m(2), and doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2), all IV day 1, prednisone 100 mg/m(2) orally days 1-5, plus either bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2) IV days 1, 4, 8, 11 (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone with bortezomib [VR-CAP]; n = 84) or vincristine 1.4 mg/m(2) (maximum 2 mg) IV day 1 (R-CHOP; n = 80). There were no significant differences between VR-CAP and R-CHOP in complete response rate (64.5%, 66.2%; odds ratio [OR], 0.91; P = .80), overall response rate (93.4%, 98.6%; OR, 0.21; P = .11), progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; P = .76), or overall survival (HR, 0.89; P = .75). Rates of grade ?3 adverse events (AEs; 88%, 89%), serious AEs (38%, 34%), discontinuations due to AEs (7%, 3%), and deaths due to AEs (2%, 5%) were similar with VR-CAP and R-CHOP. Grade ?3 peripheral neuropathy rates were 6% and 3%, respectively. VR-CAP did not improve efficacy vs R-CHOP in non-GCB DLBCL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01040871.
Project description:Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity influences treatment selection and may negatively affect clinical outcomes in lymphoma patients. While epirubicin induced cardiotoxicity less often than the same dose of doxorubicin in breast cancer, higher doses of epirubicin are required in lymphoma regimens for equivalent efficacy. Whether a higher dosage of epirubicin also induces cardiotoxicity less often than doxorubicin in lymphoma remains unknown. We therefore administered 6-8 cycles of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone (CEpOP) +/- rituximab (R) with either epirubicin (CEpOP) or doxorubicin (CHOP) to patients (N=398) with untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or follicular lymphoma grade 3 (FLG3). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and high-sensitivity serum cardiac troponin T (HsTnT) were assessed at baseline and after 4 cycles of treatment. Epirubicin (70 mg/m2/dose) was equivalent to doxorubicin (50 mg/m2/dose) in terms of 3-year progression-free survival. The risk of decreased LVEF was similar between the two regimens. CEpOP+/-R induced HsTnT elevation less often than CHOP+/-R. We conclude that CEpOP+/-R is a more acceptable regimen with short-term efficacy similar to CHOP+/-R in lymphoma patients. Longer follow-up is needed to monitor the risk of cardiac dysfunction and determine whether differences in the induction of elevated HsTnT between epirubicin and doxorubicin justify changes in clinical practice.
Project description:The standard of care for first-line therapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) regimen. For patients who fail to respond, have an incomplete response or relapse, numerous effective options exists besides salvage cisplatin-based regimen and autologous stem cell therapy. Even with this approach, the outcome remains very poor for this group of patients. The present case illustrates a 55-year-old woman diagnosed with DLBCL, who experienced an early incomplete response, later progression during treatment with the R-CHOP regimen. The patient received salvage therapy with rituximab, cisplatin and gemcitabine, again with an incomplete response. The patient declined consideration for stem cell therapy. Her disease progressed and she enrolled in the present phase I trial using azacitadine priming and nanoalbumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel. After three cycles, follow-up positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed a complete response for the first time since her initial diagnosis and the patient has remained disease-free for >6 years. Azacitadine and nab-paclitaxel combination appeared to be an effective regimen for the treatment of this patient with refractory DLBCL.
Project description:Although the combination of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) is considered standard therapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), patterns of use and the impact of R-CHOP on survival in patients aged >80 years are less clear.The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database was used to characterize presentation, treatment, and survival patterns in patients with DLBCL who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2009. Chi-square tests compared characteristics and initial treatments among patients with DLBCL who were aged >80 years and ?80 years. Multivariable logistic regression models examined factors associated with treatment selection in patients aged >80 years; standard and propensity score-adjusted multivariable Cox proportional hazards models examined relationships between treatment regimen, treatment duration, and survival.Among 4635 patients with DLBCL, 1156 (25%) were aged >80 years. Patients aged >80 years were less likely to receive R-CHOP and more likely to be observed or receive the combination of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (P<.0001 for both). Marital status, stage of disease, disease site, performance status, radiotherapy, and growth factor support were associated with initial R-CHOP in patients aged >80 years. In propensity score-matched multivariable Cox proportional hazards models examining relationships between treatment regimen and survival, R-CHOP was the only regimen found to be associated with improved overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.62) and lymphoma-related survival (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.88).Although patients with DLBCL who were aged >80 years were less likely to receive R-CHOP, this regimen conferred the longest survival and should be considered for this population. Further studies are needed to characterize the impact of treatment of DLBCL on quality of life among patients in this age group.
Project description:The phase 2 CAVALLI (NCT02055820) study assessed efficacy and safety of venetoclax, a selective B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) inhibitor, with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) in first-line (1L) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), including patients demonstrating Bcl-2 protein overexpression by immunohistochemistry (Bcl-2 IHC+). Eligible patients were ?18 years of age and had previously untreated DLBCL, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ?2, and International Prognostic Index 2 to 5. Venetoclax 800 mg (days 4-10, cycle 1; days 1-10, cycles 2-8) was administered with rituximab (8 cycles) and cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (6-8 cycles) in 21-day cycles. Primary end points were safety, tolerability, and research_plete response (CR) at end of treatment (EOT). Secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival. Comparative analyses used covariate-adjusted R-CHOP controls from the GOYA/BO21005 study, an appropriate contemporary benchmark for safety and efficacy. Safety and efficacy analyses included 206 patients. CR rate at EOT was 69% in the overall population and was maintained across Bcl-2 IHC+ subgroups. With a median follow-up of 32.2 months, trends were observed for improved investigator-assessed PFS for venetoclax plus R-CHOP in the overall population (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.87) and Bcl-2 IHC+ subgroups (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.89) vs R-CHOP. Despite a higher incidence of grade 3/4 hematologic adverse events (86%), related mortality was not increased (2%). Chemotherapy dose intensity was similar in CAVALLI vs GOYA. The addition of venetoclax to R-CHOP in 1L DLBCL demonstrates increased, but manageable, myelosuppression and the potential of improved efficacy, particularly in high-risk Bcl-2 IHC+ patient subgroups.
Project description:R-CVP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone) and R-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone + rituximab) are immunochemotherapy regimens frequently used for remission induction of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas (iNHLs). Rituximab maintenance (RM) significantly improves progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with complete/partial remission (CR/PR). Here we report the final results of a randomized study comparing R-CVP to R-CHOP both followed by RM. Untreated patients in need of systemic therapy with symptomatic and progressive iNHLs including follicular (FL) and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), small lymphocytic (SLL), and lymphoplasmacytic (LPL) lymphoma were eligible. Patients were randomized to receive R-CVP or R-CHOP for eight cycles or until complete response (CR). All patients with CR/PR (partial response) received RM 375 mg/m2 q 2 months for 12 cycles. Primary endpoint was event-free survival (EFS). Two-hundred and fifty patients [FL 42%, MZL/MALT 38%, LPL/ Waldenström Macroglobulinaemia (WM) 11%, SLL 9%] were enrolled and randomized (R-CHOP: 127, R-CVP: 123). Median age was 56 years (21-85), 44% were male, 90% were in stage III-IV, 43% of FL patients had a Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) score ?3, and 33·4% of all patients had an IPI score ?3. At the end of induction treatment, the CR/PR rate was 43·6/50·9% and 36·3/60·8% in the R-CHOP and R-CVP groups (P = 0·218) respectively. After a median follow-up of 67, 66, and 70 months, five-year EFS was 61% vs. 56% (not significant), progression-free survival (PFS) was 71% vs. 69% (not significant) and overall survival (OS) was 84% vs. 89% in the R-CHOP vs. the R-CVP arm respectively. Grade III/IV adverse events (65 vs. 22) occurred in 40 (33·1%) and 18 (15·3%) patients, P = 0·001; neutropenia in 16 (11·6%) and 4 (3·4%) patients, P = 0·017; infection in 14 (10·7%) and 3 (2·5%) patients,; P = 0·011; and a second neoplasm in three versus seven patients., in the R-CHOP and the R-CVP groups respectively. This multicentre randomized study with >five-year follow-up shows similar outcome in patients with indolent lymphoma in need of systemic therapy treated with R-CVP or R-CHOP immunochemotherapy and rituximab maintenance in both arms. The minor toxicity of the R-CVP regimen makes it a reasonable choice for induction treatment, leaving other active agents like doxorubicin or bendamustin for second-line therapy.
Project description:PURPOSE:The BRIGHT study ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00877006) was initiated to compare the efficacy and safety of bendamustine plus rituximab (BR) with either rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) or rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CVP) for treatment-naive patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma or mantle-cell lymphoma. This publication provides long-term follow-up data. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients were monitored for a minimum of 5 years after completion of study treatment for the time-to-event end points of progression-free survival (PFS), event-free survival, duration of response, and overall survival per investigator assessment. Data on the number of patients who received second-line anticancer treatment and the occurrence of other malignancies were also collected. RESULTS:The medians were not reached for any of the time-to event end points for either the BR or R-CHOP/R-CVP study treatment groups by study completion. PFS rates at 5 years were 65.5% in the BR treatment group and 55.8% in the R-CHOP/R-CVP group. The difference in PFS was considered significant with a hazard ratio of 0.61 (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.85; P = .0025). The hazard ratio for event-free survival and duration of response (P = .0020 and .0134, respectively) also favored the BR regimen over R-CHOP/R-CVP. However, no significant difference in overall survival was observed. The overall safety profiles of BR, R-CHOP, and R-CVP were as expected; no new safety data were collected during long-term follow-up. A higher number of secondary malignancies was noted in the BR treatment group. CONCLUSION:Overall, BR demonstrated better long-term disease control than R-CHOP/R-CVP and should be considered as a first-line treatment option for patients with indolent and mantle-cell lymphoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIMS:Real-world data about the treatment outcomes of patients receiving rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy followed by rituximab maintenance are required to understand better the treatment for follicular lymphoma (FL). METHODS:A cross-sectional study analyzed FL patients who were treated with R-CVP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone) or R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) and rituximab maintenance. RESULTS:Of 139 patients, 85 patients received R-CVP and 54 received R-CHOP. The characteristics did not differ significantly between the groups. Only grade 3 of FL was more common in R-CHOP. The complete response rate did not differ significantly between R-CHOP (50/54, 92.6%) and R-CVP (77/85, 90.6%). The number of disease relapses during rituximab maintenance did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.798). Therefore, the comparison of progression-free survival (PFS) showed no significant difference: the 3-year PFS rates for R-CVP and R-CHOP were 77% and 85%, respectively (p = 0.567). Although five of 56 hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antibody (anti-HBc)-positive patients experienced HBV reactivation, all cases of HBV reactivation were identified during regular monitoring for HBV DNA in blood, and were successfully managed with antiviral treatment. CONCLUSION:The survival outcomes of FL patients on rituximab maintenance after responding to R-CVP or R-CHOP were similar. Rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy followed by rituximab maintenance can be safely used for anti-HBc-positive patients if HBV DNA titer in blood can be regularly monitored.