75-kd sirtuin 1 blocks tumor necrosis factor ?-mediated apoptosis in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Sirtuin 1 (SirT1) has been implicated in the regulation of human cartilage homeostasis and chondrocyte survival. Exposing human osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes to tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) generates a stable and enzymatically inactive 75-kd form of SirT1 (75SirT1) via cathepsin B-mediated cleavage. Because 75SirT1 is resistant to further degradation, we hypothesized that it has a distinct role in OA, and the present study was undertaken to identify this role. METHODS:The presence of cathepsin B and 75SirT in OA and normal human chondrocytes was analyzed. Confocal imaging of SirT1 was used to monitor its subcellular trafficking following TNF? stimulation. Coimmunofluorescence staining for cathepsin B, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit IV, and lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 together with SirT1 was performed. Human chondrocytes were tested for apoptosis by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and immunoblotting for caspases 3 and 8. Human chondrocyte mitochondrial extracts were obtained and analyzed for 75SirT1-cytochrome c association. RESULTS:Confocal imaging and immunoblot analyses following TNF? challenge of human chondrocytes demonstrated that 75SirT1 was exported to the cytoplasm and colocalized with the mitochondrial membrane. Consistent with this, immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analyses revealed that 75SirT1 is enriched in mitochondrial extracts and associates with cytochrome c following TNF? stimulation. Preventing nuclear export of 75SirT1 or reducing levels of full-length SirT1 and 75SirT1 augmented chondrocyte apoptosis in the presence of TNF?. Levels of cathepsin B and 75SirT1 were elevated in OA versus normal chondrocytes. Additional analyses showed that human chondrocytes exposed to OA-derived synovial fluid generated the 75SirT1 fragment. CONCLUSION:These data suggest that 75SirT1 promotes chondrocyte survival following exposure to proinflammatory cytokines.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Previous work has established that the deacetylase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is cleaved by cathepsin B in chondrocytes subjected to proinflammatory stress, yielding a stable but inactive N-terminal (NT) polypeptide (75SIRT1) and a C-terminal (CT) fragment. The present work examined if chondrocyte-derived NT-SIRT1 is detected in serum and may serve as an investigative and exploratory biomarker of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS:We developed a novel ELISA assay to measure the ratio of NT to CT of SIRT1 in the serum of human individuals and mice subjected to post-traumatic OA (PTOA) or age-dependent OA (ADOA). We additionally monitored NT/CT SIRT1 in mice subject to ADOA/PTOA followed by senolytic clearance. Human chondrosenescent and non-senescent chondrocytes were exposed to cytokines and analysed for apoptosis and NT/CT SIRT1 ratio in conditioned medium. RESULTS:Wild-type mice with PTOA or ADOA of moderate severity exhibited increased serum NT/CT SIRT1 ratio. In contrast, this ratio remained low in cartilage-specific Sirt1 knockout mice despite similar or increased PTOA and ADOA severity. Local clearance of senescent chondrocytes from old mice with post-traumatic injury resulted in a lower NT/CT ratio and reduced OA severity. While primary chondrocytes exhibited NT/CT ratio increased in conditioned media after prolonged cytokine stimulation, this increase was not evident in cytokine-stimulated chondrosenescent cells. Finally, serum NT/CT ratio was elevated in humans with early-stage OA. CONCLUSIONS:Increased levels of serum NT/CT SIRT1 ratio correlated with moderate OA in both mice and humans, stemming at least in part from non-senescent chondrocyte apoptosis, possibly a result of prolonged inflammatory insult.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The protein deacetylase SirT1 positively regulates cartilage-specific gene expression, while the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) negatively regulates these same genes. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that SirT1 is adversely affected by TNF?, resulting in altered gene expression. METHODS:Cartilage-specific gene expression, SirT1 activity, and results of chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis at the ?2(I) collagen enhancer site were determined in RNA, protein extracts, and nuclei of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes left untreated or treated with TNF?. Protein extracts from human chondrocytes transfected with epitope-tagged SirT1 that had been left untreated or had been treated with TNF? were analyzed by immunoblotting with SirT1 and epitope-specific antibodies. The 75-kd SirT1-reactive protein present in TNF?-treated extracts was identified by mass spectroscopy, and its amino-terminal cleavage site was identified via Edman sequencing. SirT1 activity was assayed following an in vitro cathepsin B cleavage reaction. Cathepsin B small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected into chondrocytes left untreated or treated with TNF?. RESULTS:TNF?-treated chondrocytes had impaired SirT1 enzymatic activity and displayed 2 forms of the enzyme: a full-length 110-kd protein and a smaller 75-kd fragment. The 75-kd SirT1 fragment was found to lack the carboxy-terminus. Cathepsin B was identified as the TNF?-responsive protease that cleaves SirT1 at residue 533. Reducing cathepsin B levels via siRNA following TNF? exposure blocked the generation of the 75-kd SirT1 fragment. CONCLUSION:These data indicate that TNF?, a cytokine that mediates joint inflammation in arthritis, induces cathepsin B-mediated cleavage of SirT1, resulting in reduced SirT1 activity. This reduced SirT1 activity correlates with the reduced cartilage-specific gene expression evident in these TNF?-treated cells.
Project description:The etiology of chondrocyte mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoarthritis (OA) is not completely understood. OA chondrocytes are deficient in the metabolic biosensors active AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT-1), which modulate the mitochondrial biogenesis "master regulator" peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?). Moreover, PGC-1? critically mediates AMPK anticatabolic activity in chondrocytes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial biogenesis is deficient in human OA chondrocytes and that this deficiency functionally increases chondrocyte procatabolic responses, which are reversed by activation of the AMPK/SIRT-1/PGC-1? pathway.We assessed the expression and activity (phosphorylation) of AMPK?, SIRT-1, and PGC-1? in human knee chondrocytes and human and mouse knee cartilage, and we defined and compared the content and function of mitochondria, including oxidative phosphorylation and expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors (mitochondrial transcriptional factor A [TFAM] and nuclear respiratory factors [NRFs]).Human knee OA chondrocytes had a decreased mitochondrial biogenesis capacity, which was linked to reduced AMPK? activity and decreased expression of SIRT-1, PGC-1?, TFAM, NRF-1, and NRF-2. Human knee OA and aging mouse knee cartilage had decreased expression of TFAM and ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein, a subunit of mitochondrial complex III, in situ. Chondrocyte TFAM knockdown inhibited mitochondrial biogenesis and enhanced procatabolic responses to interleukin-1?. Finally, activation of AMPK by A-769662 increased PGC-1? expression via SIRT-1 and reversed impairments in mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and intracellular ATP in human knee OA chondrocytes.Mitochondrial biogenesis is deficient in human OA chondrocytes, and this deficiency promotes chondrocyte procatabolic responses. TFAM-mediated activation of the AMPK/SIRT-1/PGC-1? pathway reverses these effects, suggesting translational potential of pharmacologic AMPK activators to limit OA progression.
Project description:Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) stimulate chondrocyte matrix catabolic responses, thereby compromising cartilage homeostasis in osteoarthritis (OA). AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which regulates energy homeostasis and cellular metabolism, also exerts antiinflammatory effects in multiple tissues. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that AMPK activity limits chondrocyte matrix catabolic responses to IL-1? and TNF?.Expression of AMPK subunits was examined, and AMPK? activity was ascertained by the phosphorylation status of AMPK? Thr(172) in human knee articular chondrocytes and cartilage by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Procatabolic responses to IL-1? and TNF?, such as release of glycosaminoglycan, nitric oxide, and matrix metalloproteinases 3 and 13 were determined by dimethylmethylene blue assay, Griess reaction, and Western blotting, respectively, in cartilage explants and chondrocytes with and without knockdown of AMPK? by small interfering RNA.Normal human knee articular chondrocytes expressed AMPK?1, ?2, ?1, ?2, and ?1 subunits. AMPK activity was constitutively present in normal articular chondrocytes and cartilage, but decreased in OA articular chondrocytes and cartilage and in normal chondrocytes treated with IL-1? and TNF?. Knockdown of AMPK? resulted in enhanced catabolic responses to IL-1? and TNF? in chondrocytes. Moreover, AMPK activators suppressed cartilage/chondrocyte procatabolic responses to IL-1? and TNF? and the capacity of TNF? and CXCL8 (IL-8) to induce type X collagen expression.Our findings indicate that AMPK activity is reduced in OA cartilage and in chondrocytes following treatment with IL-1? or TNF?. AMPK activators attenuate dephosphorylation of AMPK? and procatabolic responses in chondrocytes induced by these cytokines. These observations suggest that maintenance of AMPK activity supports cartilage homeostasis by protecting cartilage matrix from inflammation-induced degradation.
Project description:Mutations in LMNA encoding the A-type lamins cause several diseases, including those with features of premature aging and skeletal abnormalities. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of lamin A in cartilage from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and the effects of its overexpression on chondrocyte senescence and apoptosis.Human chondrocyte-like cells (SW-1353) were used. RNA isolated from human OA and non-OA cartilage was used for profiling messenger RNA expression, using Affymetrix microarray analysis. The effects of lamin A overexpression on mitochondrial function and apoptosis were examined by assessing mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP levels, and cytochrome c release, and with a TUNEL assay. Western blotting was performed to determine protein expression.Lamin A expression was markedly elevated in OA cartilage samples compared with non-OA control samples. Western blot analysis confirmed increased expression of lamin A in OA compared with non-OA cartilage. Interleukin-1? treatment inhibited lamin A accumulation, whereas treatment with prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2) ) caused a marked increase in lamin A accumulation. These effects of exogenous PGE(2) on lamin A expression were mediated via the EP(2) /EP(4) receptors. Transfected chondrocytes that expressed lamin A displayed markers of early senescence/apoptosis.The results of this study suggest that lamin A is up-regulated in OA chondrocytes, and that increased nuclear accumulation of lamin A in response to catabolic stress may account for the premature aging phenotype and apoptosis of OA chondrocytes.
Project description:Changes in the content of aggrecan, an essential proteoglycan of articular cartilage, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA), a prevalent age-related, degenerative joint disease. Here, we examined the effect of SOX9 acetylation on ACAN transactivation in the context of osteoarthritis. Primary chondrocytes freshly isolated from degenerated OA cartilage displayed lower levels of ACAN mRNA and higher levels of acetylated SOX9 compared with cells from intact regions of OA cartilage. Degenerated OA cartilage presented chondrocyte clusters bearing diffused immunostaining for SOX9 compared with intact cartilage regions. Primary human chondrocytes freshly isolated from OA knee joints were cultured in monolayer or in three-dimensional alginate microbeads (3D). SOX9 was hypo-acetylated in 3D cultures and displayed enhanced binding to a -10 kb ACAN enhancer, a result consistent with higher ACAN mRNA levels than in monolayer cultures. It also co-immunoprecipitated with SIRT1, a major deacetylase responsible for SOX9 deacetylation. Finally, immunofluorescence assays revealed increased nuclear localization of SOX9 in primary chondrocytes treated with the NAD SIRT1 cofactor, than in cells treated with a SIRT1 inhibitor. Inhibition of importin ? by importazole maintained SOX9 in the cytoplasm, even in the presence of NAD. Based on these data, we conclude that deacetylation promotes SOX9 nuclear translocation and hence its ability to activate ACAN.
Project description:In OA chondrocytes, there is diminished mitochondrial production of ATP and diminished extracellular adenosine resulting in diminished adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) stimulation and altered chondrocyte homeostasis which contributes to the pathogenesis of OA. We tested the hypothesis that A2AR stimulation maintains or enhances mitochondrial function in chondrocytes. The effect of A2AR signaling on mitochondrial health and function was determined in primary murine chondrocytes, a human chondrocytic cell line (T/C-28a2), primary human chondrocytes, and a murine model of OA by transmission electron microscopy analysis, mitochondrial stress testing, confocal live imaging for mitochondrial inner membrane polarity, and immunohistochemistry. In primary murine chondrocytes from A2AR-/- null mice, which develop spontaneous OA by 16 weeks, there is mitochondrial swelling, dysfunction, and reduced mitochondrial content with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) burden and diminished mitophagy, as compared to chondrocytes from WT animals. IL-1-stimulated T/C-28a2 cells treated with an A2AR agonist had reduced ROS burden with increased mitochondrial dynamic stability and function, findings which were recapitulated in primary human chondrocytes. In an obesity-induced OA mouse model, there was a marked increase in mitochondrial oxidized material which was markedly improved after intraarticular injections of liposomal A2AR agonist. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that A2AR ligation is mitoprotective in OA.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and chondrocyte death are important contributors to the development and pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, we determined the expression and role of Parkin in the clearance of damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and chondrocyte survival under pathological conditions. METHODS:Human chondrocytes were from the unaffected area of knee OA cartilage (n = 12) and were stimulated with IL-1? to mimic pathological conditions. Mitochondrial membrane depolarization and ROS levels were determined using specific dyes and flow cytometry. Autophagy was determined by Western blotting for ATG5, Beclin1, immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy. Gene expression was determined by RT-qPCR. siRNA, wild-type and mutant Parkin plasmids were transfected using Amaxa system. Apoptosis was determined by PI staining of chondrocytes and TUNEL assay. RESULTS:IL-1?-stimulated OA chondrocytes showed high levels of ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane damage, accumulation of damaged mitochondria and higher incidence of apoptosis. IL-1? stimulation of chondrocytes with depleted Parkin expression resulted in sustained high levels of ROS, accumulation of damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria and enhanced apoptosis. Parkin translocation to depolarized/damaged mitochondria and recruitment of p62/SQSTM1 was required for the elimination of damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria in IL-1?-stimulated OA chondrocytes. Importantly we demonstrate that Parkin elimination of depolarized/damaged mitochondria required the Parkin ubiquitin ligase activity and resulted in reduced ROS levels and inhibition of apoptosis in OA chondrocytes under pathological conditions. CONCLUSIONS:Our data demonstrates that Parkin functions to eliminate depolarized/damaged mitochondria in chondrocytes which is necessary for mitochondrial quality control, regulation of ROS levels and chondrocyte survival under pathological conditions.
Project description:To identify long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), including long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs), antisense RNAs, and pseudogenes, associated with the inflammatory response in human primary osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes and to explore their expression and function in OA.OA cartilage was obtained from patients with hip or knee OA following joint replacement surgery. Non-OA cartilage was obtained from postmortem donors and patients with fracture of the neck of the femur. Primary OA chondrocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion. LncRNA expression analysis was performed by RNA sequencing (RNAseq) and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Modulation of lncRNA chondrocyte expression was achieved using LNA longRNA GapmeRs (Exiqon). Cytokine production was measured with Luminex.RNAseq identified 983 lncRNAs in primary human hip OA chondrocytes, 183 of which had not previously been identified. Following interleukin-1? (IL-1?) stimulation, we identified 125 lincRNAs that were differentially expressed. The lincRNA p50-associated cyclooxygenase 2-extragenic RNA (PACER) and 2 novel chondrocyte inflammation-associated lincRNAs (CILinc01 and CILinc02) were differentially expressed in both knee and hip OA cartilage compared to non-OA cartilage. In primary OA chondrocytes, these lincRNAs were rapidly and transiently induced in response to multiple proinflammatory cytokines. Knockdown of CILinc01 and CILinc02 expression in human chondrocytes significantly enhanced the IL-1-stimulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines.The inflammatory response in human OA chondrocytes is associated with widespread changes in the profile of lncRNAs, including PACER, CILinc01, and CILinc02. Differential expression of CILinc01 and CIinc02 in hip and knee OA cartilage, and their role in modulating cytokine production during the chondrocyte inflammatory response, suggest that they may play an important role in mediating inflammation-driven cartilage degeneration in OA.
Project description:Despite the numerous studies of protein kinase CK2, little progress has been made in understanding its function in chondrocyte death. Our previous study first demonstrated that CK2 is involved in apoptosis of rat articular chondrocytes. Recent studies have suggested that CK2 downregulation is associated with aging. Thus examining the involvement of CK2 downregulation in chondrocyte death is an urgently required task. We undertook this study to examine whether CK2 downregulation modulates chondrocyte death. We first measured CK2 activity in articular chondrocytes of 6-, 21- and 30-month-old rats. Noticeably, CK2 activity was downregulated in chondrocytes with advancing age. To build an in vitro experimental system for simulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-induced cell death in aged chondrocytes with decreased CK2 activity, chondrocytes were co-treated with CK2 inhibitors and TNF-?. Viability assay demonstrated that CK2 inhibitors facilitated TNF-?-mediated chondrocyte death. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, nuclear staining, flow cytometry, TUNEL staining, confocal microscopy, western blot and transmission electron microscopy were conducted to assess cell death modes. The results of multiple assays showed that this cell death was mediated by apoptosis. Importantly, autophagy was also involved in this process, as supported by the appearance of a punctuate LC3 pattern and autophagic vacuoles. The inhibition of autophagy by silencing of autophage-related genes 5 and 7 as well as by 3-methyladenine treatment protected chondrocytes against cell death and caspase activation, indicating that autophagy led to the induction of apoptosis. Autophagic cells were observed in cartilage obtained from osteoarthritis (OA) model rats and human OA patients. Our findings indicate that CK2 down regulation facilitates TNF-?-mediated chondrocyte death through apoptosis and autophagy. It should be clarified in the future if autophagy observed is a consequence versus a cause of the degeneration in vivo.