Percent-predicted 6-minute walk distance in duchenne muscular dystrophy to account for maturational influences.
ABSTRACT: We recently described a modified version of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) based partly on the American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines. This measure has shown reliability, validity and utility as a primary outcome measure in DMD clinical trials. Because loss of muscle function in DMD occurs against the background of normal childhood growth and development, younger children with DMD can show increase in distance walked during 6MWT over ~1 year despite progressive muscular impairment. In this study, we compare 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) data from DMD boys (n=17) and typically developing control subjects (n=22) to existing normative data from age- and sex-matched children and adolescents. An age- and height-based equation fitted to normative data by Geiger and colleagues was used to convert 6MWD to a percent-predicted (%-predicted) value in boys with DMD. Analysis of %-predicted 6MWD data represents a method to account for normal growth and development, and shows that gains in function at early ages represents stable rather than improving abilities in boys with DMD. Boys with DMD from 4-7 years of age maintain a stable 6MWD approximately 80% of that of typically developing peers, with the deficit progressing at a variable rate thereafter.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Data is currently lacking anchoring a 30-meter longitudinal change in walking ability by 6-minute walk test (6MWT) in Duchenne muscular dystrophy as a minimal clinically important difference and "clinically meaningful" person-reported outcomes (PROs) at differing levels of ambulatory ability.<h4>Methods</h4>We describe correlation between measures, 1-year change in measures, and correlation of 1-year changes between measures for the six-minute walk test (6MWT), 10-meter run/walk velocity, PedsQL and POSNA Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) in 24 4-12 year old. ambulatory DMD and 36 typical controls, and determine if minimal clinically important differences (MCID) of PROs contribute to different estimates of 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) change at differing levels of ability.<h4>Results</h4>PedsQL total and physical function and PODCI global, transfer/mobility and sports/physical function PROs demonstrated significant differences between DMD and controls (p<0.00001). In DMD, 6MWD and 10-meter run/walk velocity were correlated with PODCI domain scores, with the transfer/mobility scale showing the strongest relationship (r=0.79 and r=0.76). In DMD, 6MWD distance and 10-meter run/walk velocity weakly correlated with PedsQL domain scores. In DMD, 6MWD, 10-meter run/walk velocity, and PODCI global and transfer and basic mobility demonstrated significant one-year change and exceeded the amount of change representing MCID. In DMD, 6MWD change highly correlated with change in PODCI global and PODCI transfer/mobility scores (r=0.76 and r=0.93). PODCI global and PODCI transfer/mobility scales provided the best estimates of 6MWT performance. A "meaningful" 4.5 point change in a low PODCI transfer / basic mobility score of 30 to 34.5 was associated with a 5.6m 6MWD change from 150.3 to 155.9m. At PODCI levels closer to normative levels for healthy controls, the change in 6MWD distance associated with a "meaningful" change in PODCI scores was almost 46m.<h4>Discussion</h4>At lower levels of function, smaller increases in 6MWD result in meaningful change in quality of life (QoL) instrument scores. At higher levels of function, larger increases may be necessary to achieve the same QoL change score.
Project description:An international clinical trial enrolled 174 ambulatory males ?5 years old with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (nmDMD). Pretreatment data provide insight into reliability, concurrent validity, and minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and other endpoints.Screening and baseline evaluations included the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), timed function tests (TFTs), quantitative strength by myometry, the PedsQL, heart rate-determined energy expenditure index, and other exploratory endpoints.The 6MWT proved feasible and reliable in a multicenter context. Concurrent validity with other endpoints was excellent. The MCID for 6MWD was 28.5 and 31.7 meters based on 2 statistical distribution methods.The ratio of MCID to baseline mean is lower for 6MWD than for other endpoints. The 6MWD is an optimal primary endpoint for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) clinical trials that are focused therapeutically on preservation of ambulation and slowing of disease progression.
Project description:Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) subjects ?5 years with nonsense mutations were followed for 48 weeks in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ataluren. Placebo arm data (N = 57) provided insight into the natural history of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and other endpoints.Evaluations performed every 6 weeks included the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), timed function tests (TFTs), and quantitative strength using hand-held myometry.Baseline age (?7 years), 6MWD, and selected TFT performance are strong predictors of decline in ambulation (?6MWD) and time to 10% worsening in 6MWD. A baseline 6MWD of <350 meters was associated with greater functional decline, and loss of ambulation was only seen in those with baseline 6MWD <325 meters. Only 1 of 42 (2.3%) subjects able to stand from supine lost ambulation.Findings confirm the clinical meaningfulness of the 6MWD as the most accepted primary clinical endpoint in ambulatory DMD trials.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Tests of ambulatory function are common clinical trial endpoints in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Using these tests, the ImagingDMD study has generated a large data set that can describe the contemporary natural history of DMD in 5-12.9-year-olds. METHODS:Ninety-two corticosteroid-treated boys with DMD and 45 controls participated in this longitudinal study. Participants performed the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and timed function tests (TFT: 10-m walk/run, climbing 4 stairs, supine to stand). RESULTS:Boys with DMD had impaired functional performance even at 5-6.9 years old. Boys older than 7 had significant declines in function over 1 year for 10-m walk/run and 6MWT. Eighty percent of participants could perform all functional tests at 9 years old. TFTs appear to be slightly more responsive and predictive of disease progression than the 6MWT in 7-12.9 year olds. DISCUSSION:This study provides insight into the contemporary natural history of key functional endpoints in DMD. Muscle Nerve 58: 631-638, 2018.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:In the last few years some of the therapeutical approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are specifically targeting distinct groups of mutations, such as deletions eligible for skipping of individual exons. The aim of this observational study was to establish whether patients with distinct groups of mutations have different profiles of changes on the 6 minute walk test (6MWT) over a 12 month period. METHODS:The 6MWT was performed in 191 ambulant DMD boys at baseline and 12 months later. The results were analysed using a test for heterogeneity in order to establish possible differences among different types of mutations (deletions, duplications, point mutations) and among subgroups of deletions eligible to skip individual exons. RESULTS:At baseline the 6MWD ranged between 180 and 560,80 metres (mean 378,06, SD 74,13). The 12 month changes ranged between -325 and 175 (mean -10.8 meters, SD 69.2). Although boys with duplications had better results than those with the other types of mutations, the difference was not significant. Similarly, boys eligible for skipping of the exon 44 had better baseline results and less drastic changes than those eligible for skipping exon 45 or 53, but the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS:even if there are some differences among subgroups, the mean 12 month changes in each subgroup were all within a narrow Range: from the mean of the whole DMD cohort. This information will be of help at the time of designing clinical trials with small numbers of eligible patients.
Project description:High variability in patients' changes in 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) over time has complicated clinical trials of treatment efficacy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We assessed whether boys with DMD could be grouped into classes that shared similar ambulatory function trajectories as measured by 6MWD. Ambulatory boys aged 5 years or older with genetically confirmed DMD who were enrolled in a natural history study at 11 care centers throughout Italy were included. For each boy, standardized assessments of 6MWD were available at annual intervals spanning 3 years. Trajectories of 6MWD vs. age and trajectories of 6MWD vs. time from enrollment were examined using latent class analysis. A total of 96 boys were included. At enrollment, the mean age was 8.3 years (mean 6MWD: 374 meters). After accounting for age, baseline 6MWD, and steroid use, four latent trajectory classes were identified as explaining 3-year 6MWD outcomes significantly better than a single average trajectory. Patient trajectories of 6MWD change from enrollment were categorized as having fast decline (n?=?25), moderate decline (n?=?19), stable function (n?=?37), and improving function (n?=?15) during the 3-year follow-up. After accounting for trajectory classes, the standard deviation of variation in 6MWD was reduced by approximately 40%. The natural history of ambulatory function in DMD may be composed of distinct trajectory classes. The extent to which trajectories are associated with novel and established prognostic factors warrants further study. Reducing unexplained variation in patient outcomes could help to further improve DMD clinical trial design and analysis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To conduct a randomized trial to test the primary hypothesis that once-daily tadalafil, administered orally for 48 weeks, lessens the decline in ambulatory ability in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). METHODS:Three hundred thirty-one participants with DMD 7 to 14 years of age taking glucocorticoids were randomized to tadalafil 0.3 mg·kg-1·d-1, tadalafil 0.6 mg·kg-1·d-1, or placebo. The primary efficacy measure was 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) after 48 weeks. Secondary efficacy measures included North Star Ambulatory Assessment and timed function tests. Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) was a prespecified exploratory outcome. RESULTS:Tadalafil had no effect on the primary outcome: 48-week declines in 6MWD were 51.0 ± 9.3 m with placebo, 64.7 ± 9.8 m with low-dose tadalafil (p = 0.307 vs placebo), and 59.1 ± 9.4 m with high-dose tadalafil (p = 0.538 vs placebo). Tadalafil also had no effect on secondary outcomes. In boys >10 years of age, total PUL score and shoulder subscore declined less with low-dose tadalafil than placebo. Adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of tadalafil and the DMD disease state. CONCLUSIONS:Tadalafil did not lessen the decline in ambulatory ability in boys with DMD. Further studies should be considered to confirm the hypothesis-generating upper limb data and to determine whether ambulatory decline can be slowed by initiation of tadalafil before 7 years of age. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER:NCT01865084. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE:This study provides Class I evidence that tadalafil does not slow ambulatory decline in 7- to 14-year-old boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to describe Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) disease progression in the lower extremity muscles over 12 months using quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) biomarkers, collected across three sites in a large cohort. METHODS:A total of 109 ambulatory boys with DMD (8.7 ± 2.0 years; range, 5.0-12.9) completed baseline and 1-year follow-up quantitative MR imaging (transverse relaxation time constant; MRI-T2 ), MR spectroscopy (fat fraction and (1) H2 O T2 ), and 6-minute walk test (6MWT) measurements. A subset of boys completed additional measurements after 3 or 6 months. RESULTS:MRI-T2 and fat fraction increased significantly over 12 months in all age groups, including in 5- to 6.9-year-old boys. Significant increases in vastus lateralis (VL) fat fraction were observed in 3 and 6 months. Even in boys whose 6MWT performance improved or remained stable over 1 year, significant increases in MRI-T2 and fat fraction were found. Of all the muscles examined, the VL and biceps femoris long head were the most responsive to disease progression in boys with DMD. INTERPRETATION:MR biomarkers are responsive to disease progression in 5- to 12.9-year-old boys with DMD and able to detect subclinical disease progression in DMD, even within short (3-6 months) time periods. The measured sensitivity of MR biomarkers in this multicenter study may be critically important to future clinical trials, allowing for smaller sample sizes and/or shorter study windows in this fatal rare disease.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Deficits in ambulatory function progress at heterogeneous rates among individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The resulting inherent variability in ambulatory outcomes has complicated the design of drug efficacy trials and clouded the interpretation of trial results. We developed a prediction model for 1-year change in the six minute walk distance (6MWD) among DMD patients, and compared its predictive value to that of commonly used prognostic factors (age, baseline 6MWD, and steroid use).<h4>Methods</h4>Natural history data were collected from DMD patients at routine follow up visits approximately every 6 months over the course of 2-5 years. Assessments included ambulatory function and steroid use. The annualized change in 6MWD (?6MWD) was studied between all pairs of visits separated by 8-16 months. Prediction models were developed using multivariable regression for repeated measures, and evaluated using cross-validation.<h4>Results</h4>Among n = 191 follow-up intervals (n = 39 boys), mean starting age was 9.4 years, mean starting 6MWD was 351.8 meters, and 75% had received steroids for at least one year. Over the subsequent 8-16 months, mean ?6MWD was -37.0 meters with a standard deviation (SD) of 93.7 meters. Predictions based on a composite of age, baseline 6MWD, and steroid use explained 28% of variation in ?6MWD (R2 = 0.28, residual SD = 79.4 meters). A broadened prognostic model, adding timed 10-meter walk/run, 4-stair climb, and rise from supine, as well as height and weight, significantly improved prediction, explaining 59% of variation in ?6MWD after cross-validation (R2 = 0.59, residual SD = 59.7 meters).<h4>Conclusions</h4>A prognostic model incorporating timed function tests significantly improved prediction of 1-year changes in 6MWD. Explained variation was more than doubled compared to predictions based only on age, baseline 6MWD, and steroid use. There is significant potential for composite prognostic models to inform DMD clinical trials and clinical practice.
Project description:The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is used as a clinical endpoint to evaluate drug efficacy in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) trials. A model was developed using digitized 6MWT data that estimated two slopes and two intercepts to characterize 6MWT improvement during development and 6MWT decline. Mean baseline 6MWT was 362 (±87) meters. The model predicted an improvement at a rate of 20 meters/year (95% confidence interval (CI) = 9.4-30) up until 10 years old (95% CI?=?6.78-13.1), and then a decline at a rate of 85 meters/year (95% CI?=?72-98). Interpatient slope variability for improvement and decline were similar at 21.9 percentage of coefficient of variation (%CV) and 23.3%CV, respectively. Model simulations using age demographics from a previous DMD natural history study could reasonably predict the trend in improvement and decline in the 6MWT. This model can be used to quantitate individual patient trajectories, identify prognostic factors for disease progression, and evaluate drug effect.