Histone deacetylase inhibitors are potent inducers of gene expression in latent EBV and sensitize lymphoma cells to nucleoside antiviral agents.
ABSTRACT: Induction of EBV lytic-phase gene expression, combined with exposure to an antiherpes viral drug, represents a promising targeted therapeutic approach to EBV-associated lymphomas. Short-chain fatty acids or certain chemotherapeutics have been used to induce EBV lytic-phase gene expression in cultured cells and mouse models, but these studies generally have not translated into clinical application. The recent success of a clinical trial with the pan-histone deacetylase (pan-HDAC) inhibitor arginine butyrate and the antiherpes viral drug ganciclovir in the treatment of EBV lymphomas prompted us to investigate the potential of several HDAC inhibitors, including some new, highly potent compounds, to sensitize EBV(+) human lymphoma cells to antiviral agents in vitro. Our study included short-chain fatty acids (sodium butyrate and valproic acid); hydroxamic acids (oxamflatin, Scriptaid, suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid, panobinostat [LBH589], and belinostat [PXD101]); the benzamide MS275; the cyclic tetrapeptide apicidin; and the recently discovered HDAC inhibitor largazole. With the exception of suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid and PXD101, all of the other HDAC inhibitors effectively sensitized EBV(+) lymphoma cells to ganciclovir. LBH589, MS275, and largazole were effective at nanomolar concentrations and were 10(4) to 10(5) times more potent than butyrate. The effectiveness and potency of these HDAC inhibitors make them potentially applicable as sensitizers to antivirals for the treatment of EBV-associated lymphomas.
Project description:We analyzed the activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) suberoyl-anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) on Kasumi-1 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells expressing AML1/ETO. We also compared the effects of SAHA to those of valproic acid (VPA), a short-chain fatty acid HDACi. SAHA and VPA induced histone H3 and H4 acetylation, myeloid differentiation and massive early apoptosis. The latter effects were not determined by either drug in AML cell lines, such as NB4 or THP-1, not expressing AML1/ETO. SAHA was more rapid and effective than VPA in increasing H3 and H4 acetylation in total Kasumi-1 cell lysates and more effective than VPA in inducing acetylation of H4K8, H4K12, H4K16 residues. At the promoter of IL3, a transcriptionally-silenced target of AML1/ETO, SAHA was also more rapid than VPA in inducing total H4, H4K5, H4K8 and H3K27 acetylation, while VPA was more effective than SAHA at later times in inducing acetylation of total H4, H4K12, H4K16, as well as total H3. Consistent with these differences, SAHA induced the expression of IL3 mRNA more rapidly than VPA, while the effect of VPA was delayed. These differences might be exploited to design clinical trials specifically directed to AML subtypes characterized by constitutive HDAC activation. Our results led to include SAHA, an FDA-approved drug, among the HDACi active in the AML1/ETO-expressing AML cells.
Project description:Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are validated targets for anticancer therapy as attested by the approval of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and romidepsin (FK228) for treating cutaneous T cell lymphoma. We recently described the bioassay-guided isolation, structure determination, synthesis, and target identification of largazole, a marine-derived antiproliferative natural product that is a prodrug that releases a potent HDAC inhibitor, largazole thiol. Here, we characterize the anticancer activity of largazole by using in vitro and in vivo cancer models. Screening against the National Cancer Institute's 60 cell lines revealed that largazole is particularly active against several colon cancer cell types. Consequently, we tested largazole, along with several synthetic analogs, for HDAC inhibition in human HCT116 colon cancer cells. Enzyme inhibition strongly correlated with the growth inhibitory effects, and differential activity of largazole analogs was rationalized by molecular docking to an HDAC1 homology model. Comparative genomewide transcript profiling revealed a close overlap of genes that are regulated by largazole, FK228, and SAHA. Several of these genes can be related to largazole's ability to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Stability studies suggested reasonable bioavailability of the active species, largazole thiol. We established that largazole inhibits HDACs in tumor tissue in vivo by using a human HCT116 xenograft mouse model. Largazole strongly stimulated histone hyperacetylation in the tumor, showed efficacy in inhibiting tumor growth, and induced apoptosis in the tumor. This effect probably is mediated by the modulation of levels of cell cycle regulators, antagonism of the AKT pathway through insulin receptor substrate 1 down-regulation, and reduction of epidermal growth factor receptor levels.
Project description:Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) thalidomide, lenalidomide (Len) and pomalidomide trigger anti-tumor activities in multiple myeloma (MM) by targetting cereblon and thereby impacting IZF1/3, c-Myc and IRF4. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) also downregulate c-Myc. We therefore determined whether IMiDs with HDACi trigger significant MM cell growth inhibition by inhibiting or downregulating c-Myc. Combination treatment of Len with non-selective HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid or class-I HDAC-selective inhibitor MS275 induces synergic cytotoxicity, associated with downregulation of c-Myc. Unexpectedly, we observed that decreased levels of cereblon (CRBN), a primary target protein of IMiDs, was triggered by these agents. Indeed, sequential treatment of MM cells with MS275 followed by Len shows less efficacy than simultaneous treatment with this combination. Importantly ACY1215, an HDAC6 inhibitor with minimal effects on class-I HDACs, together with Len induces synergistic MM cytotoxicity without alteration of CRBN expression. Our results showed that only modest class-I HDAC inhibition is able to induce synergistic MM cytotoxicity in combination with Len. These studies may provide the framework for utilizing HDACi in combination with Len to both avoid CRBN downregulation and enhance anti-MM activities.
Project description:Histone acetylation is an extensively investigated post-translational modification that plays an important role as an epigenetic regulator. It is controlled by histone acetyl transferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). The overexpression of HDACs and consequent hypoacetylation of histones have been observed in a variety of different diseases, leading to a recent focus of HDACs as attractive drug targets. The natural product largazole is one of the most potent natural HDAC inhibitors discovered so far and a number of largazole analogs have been prepared to define structural requirements for its HDAC inhibitory activity. However, previous structure-activity relationship studies have heavily investigated the macrocycle region of largazole, while there have been only limited efforts to probe the effect of various zinc-binding groups (ZBGs) on HDAC inhibition. Herein, we prepared a series of largazole analogs with various ZBGs and evaluated their HDAC inhibition and cytotoxicity. While none of the analogs tested were as potent or selective as largazole, the Zn2+-binding affinity of each ZBG correlated with HDAC inhibition and cytotoxicity. We expect that our findings will aid in building a deeper understanding of the role of ZBGs in HDAC inhibition as well as provide an important basis for the future development of new largazole analogs with non-thiol ZBGs as novel therapeutics for cancer.
Project description:Largazole, isolated from a marine Cyanobacterium of the genus Symploca, is a potent and selective Class I HDAC (histone deacetylation enzymes) inhibitor. This natural 16-membered macrocyclic depsipeptide features an interesting side chain unit, namely 3-hydroxy-7-mercaptohept-4-enoic acid, which occurs in many other natural sulfur-containing HDAC inhibitors. Notably, one similar fragment, where the amide moiety replaces the trans alkene moiety, appears in Psammaplin A, another marine natural product with potent HDAC inhibitory activities. Inspired by such a structural similarity, we hypothesized the fluoroolefin moiety would mimic both the alkene moiety in Largazole and the amide moiety in Psammaplin A, and thus designed and synthesized two novel fluoro olefin analogs of Largazole. The preliminary biological assays showed that the fluoro analogs possessed comparable Class I HDAC inhibitory effects, indicating that this kind of modification on the side chain of Largazole was tolerable.
Project description:The Bcl-2 antagonist ABT-737 kills transformed cells in association with displacement of Bim from Bcl-2. The histone deactetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid (SBHA) was employed to determine whether and by what mechanism ABT-737 might interact with agents that upregulate Bim. Expression profiling of BH3-only proteins indicated that SBHA increased Bim, Puma, and Noxa expression, while SBHA concentrations that upregulated Bim significantly potentiated ABT-737 lethality. Concordance between SBHA-mediated Bim upregulation and interactions with ABT-737 was observed in various human leukemia and myeloma cells. SBHA-induced Bim was largely sequestered by Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L), rather than Mcl-1; ABT-737 attenuated these interactions, thereby triggering Bak/Bax activation and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Knockdown of Bim (but not Puma or Noxa) by shRNA or ectopic overexpression of Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L), or Mcl-1 diminished Bax/Bak activation and apoptosis. Notably, ectopic expression of these antiapoptotic proteins disabled death signaling by sequestering different proapoptotic proteins, i.e., Bim by Bcl-2, both Bim and Bak by Bcl-x(L), and Bak by Mcl-1. Together, these findings indicate that HDAC inhibitor-inducible Bim is primarily neutralized by Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L), thus providing a mechanistic framework by which Bcl-2 antagonists potentiate the lethality of agents, such as HDAC inhibitors, which upregulate Bim.
Project description:Largazole is a macrocyclic depsipeptide originally isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Symploca sp., which is indigenous to the warm, blue-green waters of Key Largo, Florida (whence largazole derives its name). Largazole contains an unusual thiazoline-thiazole ring system that rigidifies its macrocyclic skeleton, and it also contains a lipophilic thioester side chain. Hydrolysis of the thioester in vivo yields largazole thiol, which exhibits remarkable antiproliferative effects and is believed to be the most potent inhibitor of the metal-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here, the 2.14 Å-resolution crystal structure of the HDAC8-largazole thiol complex is the first of an HDAC complexed with a macrocyclic inhibitor and reveals that ideal thiolate-zinc coordination geometry is the key chemical feature responsible for its exceptional affinity and biological activity. Notably, the core structure of largazole is conserved in romidepsin, a depsipeptide natural product formulated as the drug Istodax recently approved for cancer chemotherapy. Accordingly, the structure of the HDAC8-largazole thiol complex is the first to illustrate the mode of action of a new class of therapeutically important HDAC inhibitors.
Project description:Largazole is a potent class I selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. The majority of largazole analogues to date have modified the thiazole-thiazoline and the warhead moiety. In order to elucidate class I-specific structure-activity relationships, a series of analogues with modifications in the valine or the linker region were prepared and evaluated for their class I isoform selectivity. The inhibition profile showed that the C2 position of largazole has an optimal steric requirement for efficient HDAC inhibition and that substitution of the trans-alkene in the linker with an aromatic group results in complete loss of activity. This data will aid the design of class I isoform selective HDAC inhibitors.
Project description:The ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects not only B cells but also T cells and natural killer (NK) cells and is associated with various lymphoid malignancies. Recent studies have reported that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors exert anticancer effects against various tumor cells. In the present study, we have evaluated both the in vitro and in vivo effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), an HDAC inhibitor, on EBV-positive and EBV-negative T and NK lymphoma cells. Several EBV-positive and EBV-negative T and NK cell lines were treated with various concentrations of SAHA. SAHA suppressed the proliferation of T and NK cell lines, although no significant difference was observed between EBV-positive and EBV-negative cell lines. SAHA induced apoptosis and/or cell cycle arrest in several T and NK cell lines. In addition, SAHA increased the expression of EBV-lytic genes and decreased the expression of EBV-latent genes. Next, EBV-positive NK cell lymphoma cells were subcutaneously inoculated into severely immunodeficient NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2R?null mice, and then SAHA was administered intraperitoneally. SAHA inhibited tumor progression and metastasis in the murine xenograft model. SAHA displayed a marked suppressive effect against EBV-associated T and NK cell lymphomas through either induction of apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, and may represent an alternative treatment option.
Project description:Several largazole analogues with modified surface recognition cap groups were synthesized and their HDAC inhibitory activities were determined. The C7-epimer 12 caused negligible inhibition of HDAC activity, failed to induce global histone 3 (H3) acetylation in the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line and demonstrated minimal effect on growth. Although previous studies have shown some degree of tolerance of structural changes at C7 position of largazole, these data show the negative effect of conformational change accompanying change of configuration at this position. Similarly, analogue 16a with D-1-naphthylmethyl side chain at C2 too had negligible inhibition of HDAC activity, failed to induce global histone 3 (H3) acetylation in the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line and demonstrated minimal effect on growth. In contrast, the L-allyl analogue 16b and the L-1-naphthylmethyl analogue 16c were potent HDAC inhibitors, showing robust induction of global H3 acetylation and significant effect on cell growth. The data suggest that even bulky substituents are tolerated at this position, provided the stereochemistry at C2 is retained. With bulky substituents, inversion of configuration at C2 results in loss of inhibitory activity. The activity profiles of 16b and 16c on Class I HDAC1 vs Class II HDAC6 are similar to those of largazole and, taken together with x-ray crystallography information of HDAC8-largazole complex, may suggest that the C2 position of largazole is not a suitable target for structural optimization to achieve isoform selectivity. The results of these studies may guide the synthesis of more potent and selective HDAC inhibitors.