Molecular identification of a Trichinella isolate from a naturally infected pig in Tibet, China.
ABSTRACT: The first human case with trichinellosis was reported in 1964 in Tibet, China. However, up to the present, the etiological agent of trichinellosis has been unclear. The aim of this study was to identify a Tibet Trichinella isolate at a species level by PCR-based methods. Multiplex PCR revealed amplicon of the expected size (173 bp) for Trichinella spiralis in assays containing larval DNA from Tibet Trichinella isolate from a naturally infected pig. The Tibet Trichinella isolate was also identified by PCR amplification of the 5S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer region (5S ISR) and mitochondrial large-subunit ribosomal RNA (mt-lsrDNA) gene sequences. The results showed that 2 DNA fragments (749 bp and 445 bp) of the Tibet Trichinella isolate were identical to that of the reference isolates of T. spiralis. The Tibet Trichinella isolate might be classifiable to T. spiralis. This is the first report on T. spiralis in southwestern China.
Project description:In China, the nematode Trichinella spiralis is the main aetiological agent of human trichinellosis. We performed multi-locus microsatellite typing of T. spiralis isolates to improve the current knowledge of the evolution and population diversity. First, seven polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to infer the genetic diversity of T. spiralis collected in 10 endemic regions. Then, a Bayesian model-based STRUCTURE analysis, a clustering based on the neighbor-joining method, and a principal coordinate analysis (PCA) were performed to identify the genetic structure. Finally, the phylogenetic position of Chinese isolates was explored based on six mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers (cox1, cytb, 5S ISR, ESV, ITS1, and 18S rDNA) using the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. In addition, the divergence time was estimated with multiple genes using an uncorrelated log-normal relaxed molecular-clock model. A total of 16 alleles were detected in 2,310 individuals (1,650 muscle larvae and 660 adult worms) using seven loci. The STRUCTURE analysis indicated that the T. spiralis isolates could be organized and derived from the admixture of two ancestral clusters, which was also substantiated through the clustering analysis based on the allelic data. PCA separated most samples from Tiandong, Guangxi (GX-td), and Linzhi, Tibet (Tibet-lz), from the remaining isolates. However, both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference supported the close relationship between Xiangfan, Hubei (HB-xf), and GX-td. The molecular dating analysis suggested that the Chinese isolates started to diverge during the Late Pleistocene (0.69 Mya). Generally, T. spiralis was observed to harbor low genetic variation, and further investigation with deeper sampling is needed to elucidate the population structure.
Project description:Trichinellosis is a helminthic infection where different species of Trichinella nematodes are the causative agents. Several molecular assays have been designed to aid diagnostics of trichinellosis. These assays are mostly complex and expensive. The genomes of Trichinella species contain certain parasite-specific genes, which can be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. We selected ?-carbonic anhydrase (?-CA) gene as a target, because it is present in many parasites genomes but absent in vertebrates. We developed a novel ?-CA gene-based method for detection of Trichinella larvae in biological samples. We first identified a ?-CA protein sequence from Trichinella spiralis by bioinformatic tools using ?-CAs from Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Thereafter, 16 sets of designed primers were tested to detect ?-CA genomic sequences from three species of Trichinella, including T. spiralis, Trichinella pseudospiralis and Trichinella nativa. Among all 16 sets of designed primers, the primer set No. 2 efficiently amplified ?-CA genomic sequences from T. spiralis, T. pseudospiralis and T. nativa without any false-positive amplicons from other parasite samples including Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara cati and Parascaris equorum. This robust and straightforward method could be useful for meat inspection in slaughterhouses, quality control by food authorities and medical laboratories.
Project description:Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are species of nematodes which are responsible for the majority of Trichinella infections in the world and the most prevalent in Poland. The most abundant species - T. spiralis, is considered to be more genetically homogeneous in Europe than T. britovi. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic variability in T. spiralis and T. britovi populations based on nuclear 5S rDNA intergenic spacer region (5S rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COX1) gene sequences. For the study, 55 isolates of T. spiralis and 50 isolates of T. britovi isolated from wild boars, pigs, brown rat and a red fox were analyzed. Based on the analysis of both genes, the genetic variability within populations of T. spiralis and T. britovi differed. In T. spiralis, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in the 612 bp 5S rDNA gene fragment, and one SNP was detected in the 700 bp COX1 gene fragment. In T. britovi, 17 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were detected in the 5S rDNA gene fragment (among them 16 SNPs), while COX1 sequence analysis revealed the occurrence of 20 SNVs between the sequences tested (among them 19 SNPs). For the majority of T. spiralis isolates the investigated larvae presented uniform haplotypes. In contrast, most of the isolates of T. britovi consisted of larvae of different haplotypes. Geographical analysis showed that each region exhibited different haplotype composition and richness. Warmi?sko-Mazurskie and Zachodniopomorskie regions were the richest in haplotypes (15 and 16 haplotypes, respectively). We used heatmaps showing a characteristic pattern for each region graphically. This may allow to differentiate regions based on the occurrence of particular haplotypes. Furthermore, a PCA analysis on the SNP level yielded biplots that show that certain haplotypes/genotypes are associated with (clusters of) regions.
Project description:A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was developed to identify different Trichinella genotypes. The RLB assay accomplishes detection and specific identification of the different Trichinella genotypes and relies on hybridization of the amplified 5S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer regions to specific, membrane-bound oligonucleotide probes. After one single amplification, we were able to detect and genetically identify six sibling species, i.e., T. spiralis, T. britovi, T. nativa, T. murrelli, T. nelsoni, and T. pseudospiralis, and two additional Trichinella genotypes, T6 and T8. Twenty-four Trichinella strains of different genotypes were unequivocally identified evaluated using one simple PCR-based assay based on single larvae. This assay allows the specific identification of Trichinella species without the need to passage larvae in laboratory animals.
Project description:Trichinellosis is a serious zoonositc parasitosis worldwide. Because its clinical manifestations aren't specific, the diagnosis of trichinellosis is not easy to be made. Trichinella spiralis muscle larva (ML) excretory-secretory (ES) antigens are the most widely applied diagnostic antigens for human trichinellosis, but the major drawback of the ES antigens for assaying anti-Trichinella antibodies is the false negative in the early Trichinella infection period. The aim of this study was to characterize the T. spiralis putative serine protease (TsSP) and to investigate its potential use for diagnosis of trichinellosis.The full-length TsSP sequence was cloned and expressed, and recombinant TsSP (rTsSP) was purified by Ni-NTA-Sefinose Column. On Western blotting analysis the rTsSP was recognized by T. spiralis-infected mouse serum, and the natural TsSP was identified in T. spiralis ML crude and ES antigens by using anti-rTsSP serum. Expression of TsSP was detected at various T. spiralis developmental stages (newborn larvae, muscle larvae, intestinal infective larvae and adult worms). Immunolocalization identified the TsSP principally in cuticles and stichosomes of the nematode. The sensitivity of rTsSP-ELISA and ES-ELISA was 98.11% (52/53) and 88.68% (47/53) respectively (P > 0.05) when the sera from trichinellosis patients were examined. However, while twenty-one serum samples of trichinellosis patients' sera at 19 days post-infection (dpi) were tested, the sensitivity (95.24%) of rTsSP-ELISA was distinctly higher than 71.43% of ES-ELISA (P < 0.05). The specificity (99.53%) of rTsSP-ELISA was remarkably higher than 91.98% of ES-ELISA (P < 0.01). Only one out of 20 serum samples of cysticercosis patients cross-reacted with the rTsSP. Specific anti-Trichinella IgG in infected mice was first detected by rTsSP-ELISA as soon as 7 dpi and antibody positive rate reached 100% on 10 dpi, whereas the ES-ELISA did not permit detection of 100% of infected mice before 16 dpi.The rTsSP is a potential early diagnostic antigen for human trichinellosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Trichinella spiralis muscle larval (ML) excretion/secretion (ES) antigen is the most widely used diagnostic antigen of trichinellosis, but preparation of ES antigen requires collecting worms from infected animals, and detection of specific IgG against ML ES antigen may result in a false negative at the early stage of infection. The aim of the study was to characterize T. spiralis elastase-1 (TsEla) and to evaluate its potential as diagnostic antigen for trichinellosis. METHODS:The complete cDNA sequences of the TsEla gene were cloned and expressed, and recombinant (rTsEla) was purified. TsEla transcription and expression in different T. spiralis life-cycle stages was investigated by qPCR and western blotting, and its location in the nematodes was evaluated using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The antigenicity of rTsEla was investigated by western blotting analysis and ELISA. Anti-Trichinella IgG, IgM and IgE of experimentally infected mice and specific IgG antibodies of trichinellosis patients were assayed by rTsEla-ELISA and ES-ELISA. RESULTS:The results of the qPCR and western blotting showed that TsEla was expressed in various T. spiralis life stages. Natural TsEla was detected in the soluble proteins and ES proteins of different life stages. IFA revealed that TsEla was identified in the whole nematodes of various stages, especially in the cuticle, stichosome and genital primordium of the parasite. Serum anti-Trichinella IgM, IgG and IgE in infected mice was first detected by rTsEla-ELISA at 6, 10 and 12 days post-infection (dpi), and reached 100% at 8, 14 and 14 dpi, respectively. When rTsEla-ELISA and ES-ELISA were used to detect anti-Trichinella IgG in sera of trichinellosis patients, the sensitivity was 97.37% (37/38) and 89.74% (34/38) (P?>?0.05), and the specificity was 99.10% (220/222) and 98.20% (218/222), respectively (P?>?0.05). The rTsEla cross-reacted with only one serum sample out of 20 samples from paragonimiasis patients and 7 samples from clonorchiasis patients. CONCLUSIONS:rTsEla is valuable to early diagnosis of trichinellosis and could be an alternative diagnostic antigen to the ML ES antigens.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Trichinellosis is a meat-borne zoonotic disease caused by parasites of the genus Trichinella. To date, 12 taxa have been described. The identification of Trichinella species is crucial in order to identify the possible source of infection, the geographical origin of the parasite and to assess risk of infection for domestic pigs and humans. Specific identification of the etiological agent is not always feasible using direct methods since the source of infection can be untraceable. The aim of this study was to develop a diagnostic tool to infer the causative Trichinella species using western blot patterns of sera derived from infected animal and human hosts.<h4>Methods</h4>Sera from mice experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella britovi, Trichinella pseudospiralis and Trichinella papuae were tested by western blot using homologous and heterologous crude worm extracts (CWE) and a highly sensitive detection system based on chemiluminescence. In addition, sera from pigs experimentally infected with T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis and from patients with confirmed T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis infections, were also included.<h4>Results</h4>Sera from mice infected with one Trichinella species reacted with CWE proteins from all four investigated species. Likewise, sera derived from pigs and humans infected with one Trichinella species reacted with CWE proteins from all the three investigated species. Using T. spiralis CWE, sera from T. pseudospiralis-infected hosts yielded a characteristic pattern of reactivity using Wb, which differed to that produced by T. spiralis/T. britovi- or T. papuae-infected host sera.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The present study suggests that western blot using T. spiralis CWE may be a useful tool to distinguish Trichinella infections caused by T. pseudospiralis from those caused by T. spiralis or T. britovi. This method may support epidemiological investigations, particularly when the source of infection is not traceable.
Project description:Trichinellosis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis throughout the world. At present, the mechanisms of Trichinella spiralis infection remain unclear. Acquiring detailed information on the host-Trichinella interaction would be beneficial for the development of new strategies for trichinellosis control. Circulating miRNAs are stably detectable in the blood of humans and animals infected with parasites. Circulating miRNAs might regulate the expression of target genes in pathological responses during infection and might be novel potential biomarkers of parasitic diseases. In the present study, a total of ten differentially expressed circulating mouse miRNAs with |log2(fold change)| ??1.0 and FDR?<?0.01 were found during T. spiralis infection, of which five were upregulated and five were downregulated. GO and KEGG analyses showed that the target genes of the ten miRNAs were enriched in many signalling pathways, especially focal adhesion, MAPK pathway, and so on. The results of qRT-PCR showed that among the five upregulated miRNAs, mmu-miR-467a-3p and mmu-miR-467d-3p expression in mouse serum reached a peak at 30 days post-infection (dpi). The expression of mmu-miR-376b-3p and mmu-miR-664-3p increased significantly at 18 dpi and then decreased at 30 dpi. The expression of mmu-miR-292a-5p gradually decreased from 12 to 30 dpi. Among the 5 downregulated miRNAs, mmu-miR-199a-5p expression was significantly downregulated at 30 dpi, while the expression levels of the other four miRNAs (mmu-miR-455-5p, mmu-miR-125b-5p, mmu-miR-125a-5p, and mmu-miR-615-3p) were significantly lower compared with the control, showing a steady downregulation at different phases of infection. These findings will help to further understand the host-Trichinella interaction and provide promising serum biomarkers for trichinellosis.
Project description:The intestinal phase is the early invasion stage of Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis), in which muscle larvae invade intestine epithelial cells and then develop into adult worms to breed newborn larvae. Thus, intestinal infective larvae are first exposed to the immune system of the host, and antigens from the worms may be the earliest marker in the diagnosis of trichinellosis and may contribute to vaccine development to prevent Trichinella infections in pigs.A cDNA library of intestinal infective larvae of T. spiralis at 6 hours post infection (p.i.) was constructed and immunoscreened using serum collected from pigs that were infected with T. spiralis at 26 days p.i. T. spiralis cystatin-like protein (Ts-CLP) gene encoding a 45.9 kDa protein was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The rabbit antisera were generated and used to determine the location of Ts-CLP in the parasite. Transcription levels of Ts-CLP in different developmental stages of T. spiralis were observed by RT-PCR. The potential application of recombinant Ts-CLP in diagnosis against T. spiralis infection was tested by ELISA. The immune protection of recombinant Ts-CLP protein against T. spiralis infection was evaluated in mice.Thirty-three positive clones were selected from cDNA library, among which 20 clones encoded the same novel cystatin-like protein (Ts-CLP). Immunolocalisation and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that native Ts-CLP was localised primarily to ?-stichocytes and that the Ts-clp gene was transcribed and expressed in all developmental stages of T. spiralis. The recombinant protein rTs-CLP was recognised by pig antiserum as early as 15 days p.i., and could induce protective immunity in mice, with a 61.21% reduction in the number of muscle larvae.These data preliminarily suggested that Ts-CLP may play an important role in the early infection of T. spiralis and that recombinant Ts-CLP protein is a candidate antigen for diagnosis and vaccine development in Trichinella infections.
Project description:Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease due to the ingestion of raw or undercooked meat from animals infected with the larvae of nematodes belonging to the genus Trichinella. In January-February 2015, an outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in Genoa, Northern Italy. The epidemiological link was traced back to a dinner served at an agritourism farm on 31 December 2014, where a majority of the 52 guests had consumed the 'beef' steak tartare. The source of infection was not traced; however, it was noted that the amount of beef purchased officially for providing at the dinner did not correspond with that served, suggesting that meat of a different origin had been added to the beef to prepare the steak tartare. Clinical and laboratory data of 30 individuals out of the 52 (57.7%), of which four were hospitalized, were consistent with that of the case definition of trichinellosis. Western blot patterns of the sera from patients with confirmed trichinellosis were similar to the diagnostic pattern identified for the reference sera of Trichinella pseudospiralis but different from those of the control sera tested for patients infected with Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi. Identification of T. pseudospiralis as the aetiological agent responsible for the outbreak of trichinellosis using an indirect tool represents an advancement in the epidemiological investigation of this zoonotic disease.