Enhanced microbial utilization of recalcitrant cellulose by an ex vivo cellulosome-microbe complex.
ABSTRACT: A cellulosome-microbe complex was assembled ex vivo on the surface of Bacillus subtilis displaying a miniscaffoldin that can bind with three dockerin-containing cellulase components: the endoglucanase Cel5, the processive endoglucanase Cel9, and the cellobiohydrolase Cel48. The hydrolysis performances of the synthetic cellulosome bound to living cells, the synthetic cellulosome, a noncomplexed cellulase mixture with the same catalytic components, and a commercial fungal enzyme mixture were investigated on low-accessibility recalcitrant Avicel and high-accessibility regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC). The cell-bound cellulosome exhibited 4.5- and 2.3-fold-higher hydrolysis ability than cell-free cellulosome on Avicel and RAC, respectively. The cellulosome-microbe synergy was not completely explained by the removal of hydrolysis products from the bulk fermentation broth by free-living cells and appeared to be due to substrate channeling of long-chain hydrolysis products assimilated by the adjacent cells located in the boundary layer. Our results implied that long-chain hydrolysis products in the boundary layer may inhibit cellulosome activity to a greater extent than the short-chain products in bulk phase. The findings that cell-bound cellulosome expedited the microbial cellulose utilization rate by 2.3- to 4.5-fold would help in the development of better consolidated bioprocessing microorganisms (e.g., B. subtilis) that can hydrolyze recalcitrant cellulose rapidly at low secretory cellulase levels.
Project description:Four mini-scaffoldins were constructed from modules derived from the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome-integrating protein CipA. Cip7 and Cip6 contained one and two cohesin modules respectively. Cip14 and Cip16, also containing one and two cohesin modules respectively, were flanked by a cellulose-binding domain. Endoglucanase CelD formed stable complexes with all mini-scaffoldins. Analytical ultracentrifugation of the complexes showed that 1 mol of CelD bound per mol of Cip14, and 2 mol of CelD bound per mol of Cip16. Under the conditions used for assaying cellulase activity, 96% of CelD alone bound to Avicel. Association with Cip14 or Cip16 increased the cellulose binding of CelD to 99%, while association with Cip7 or Cip6 decreased binding to 79 and 75% respectively. The hydrolytic activity of CelD against Avicel was increased 3-fold in complexes with Cip14 and Cip16, but remained substantially the same in complexes with Cip6 and Cip7. Addition of whole CipA also enhanced the efficiency of Avicel hydrolysis by CelD. However, even at an optimal ratio of the components, CelD-CipA complexes were somewhat less active than complexes of CelD with Cip14 or Cip16. These results suggest that the synergism observed between CelD and Cip14 or Cip16 is mostly due to the presence of the cellulose-binding domain, which promotes productive binding of the enzyme.
Project description:Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that rapidly solubilizes cellulose with the aid of a multienzyme cellulosome complex. Creation of knockout mutants for Cel48S (also known as CelS, S(S), and S8), the most abundant cellulosome subunit, was undertaken to gain insight into its role in enzymatic and microbial cellulose solubilization. Cultures of the Cel48S deletion mutant (S mutant) were able to completely solubilize 10 g/L crystalline cellulose. The cellulose hydrolysis rate of the S mutant strain was 60% lower than the parent strain, with the S mutant strain also exhibiting a 40% reduction in cell yield. The cellulosome produced by the S mutant strain was purified by affinity digestion, characterized enzymatically, and found to have a 35% lower specific activity on Avicel. The composition of the purified cellulosome was analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry with APEX quantification and no significant changes in abundance were observed in any of the major (>1% of cellulosomal protein) enzymatic subunits. Although most cellulolytic bacteria have one family 48 cellulase, C. thermocellum has two, Cel48S and Cel48Y. Cellulose solubilization by a Cel48S and Cel48Y double knockout was essentially the same as that of the Cel48S single knockout. Our results indicate that solubilization of crystalline cellulose by C. thermocellum can proceed to completion without expression of a family 48 cellulase.
Project description:Cellulosomes, which are multienzyme complexes from anaerobic bacteria, are considered nature's finest cellulolytic machinery. Thus, constructing a cellulosome in an industrial yeast has long been a goal pursued by scientists. However, it remains highly challenging due to the size and complexity of cellulosomal genes. Here, we overcame the difficulties by synthesizing the Clostridium thermocellum scaffoldin gene (CipA) and the anchoring protein gene (OlpB) using advanced synthetic biology techniques. The engineered Kluyveromyces marxianus, a probiotic yeast, secreted a mixture of dockerin-fused fungal cellulases, including an endoglucanase (TrEgIII), exoglucanase (CBHII), ?-glucosidase (NpaBGS), and cellulase boosters (TaLPMO and MtCDH). The confocal microscopy results confirmed the cell-surface display of OlpB-ScGPI and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis results revealed that almost 81% of yeast cells displayed OlpB-ScGPI. We have also demonstrated the cellulosome complex formation using purified and crude cellulosomal proteins. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis further confirmed the cellulosome complex formation. Our engineered cellulosome can accommodate up to 63 enzymes, whereas the largest engineered cellulosome reported thus far could accommodate only 12 enzymes and was expressed by a plasmid instead of chromosomal integration. Interestingly, CipA 2B9C (with two cellulose binding modules, CBM) released significantly higher quantities of reducing sugars compared with other CipA variants, thus confirming the importance of cohesin numbers and CBM domain on cellulosome complex. The engineered yeast host efficiently degraded cellulosic substrates and released 3.09 g/L and 8.61 g/L of ethanol from avicel and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose, respectively, which is higher than any previously constructed yeast cellulosome.
Project description:Clostridium thermocellum is a paradigm for efficient cellulose degradation and a promising organism for the production of second generation biofuels. It owes its high degradation rate on cellulosic substrates to the presence of supra-molecular cellulase complexes, cellulosomes, which comprise over 70 different single enzymes assembled on protein-backbone molecules of the scaffold protein CipA.Although all 24 single-cellulosomal cellulases were described previously, we present the first comparative catalogue of all these enzymes together with a comprehensive analysis under identical experimental conditions, including enzyme activity, binding characteristics, substrate specificity, and product analysis. In the course of our study, we encountered four types of distinct enzymatic hydrolysis modes denoted by substrate specificity and hydrolysis product formation: (i) exo-mode cellobiohydrolases (CBH), (ii) endo-mode cellulases with no specific hydrolysis pattern, endoglucanases (EG), (iii) processive endoglucanases with cellotetraose as intermediate product (pEG4), and (iv) processive endoglucanases with cellobiose as the main product (pEG2). These modes are shown on amorphous cellulose and on model cello-oligosaccharides (with degree of polymerization DP 3 to 6). Artificial mini-cellulosomes carrying combinations of cellulases showed their highest activity when all four endoglucanase-groups were incorporated into a single complex. Such a modeled nonavalent complex (n = 9 enzymes bound to the recombinant scaffolding protein CipA) reached half of the activity of the native cellulosome. Comparative analysis of the protein architecture and structure revealed characteristics that play a role in product formation and enzyme processivity.The identification of a new endoglucanase type expands the list of known cellulase functions present in the cellulosome. Our study shows that the variety of processivities in the enzyme complex is a key enabler of its high cellulolytic efficiency. The observed synergistic effect may pave the way for a better understanding of the enzymatic interactions and the design of more active lignocellulose-degrading cellulase cocktails in the future.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass is an essential process for the production of fermentable sugars for industrial use. A better understanding of fungal cellulase systems will provide clues for maximizing the hydrolysis of target biomass. Talaromyces cellulolyticus is a promising fungus for cellulase production and efficient biomass hydrolysis. Several cellulolytic enzymes purified from T. cellulolyticus were characterized in earlier studies, but the core enzymes critical for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass remain unknown. RESULTS:Six cellulolytic enzymes critical for the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose were purified from T. cellulolyticus culture supernatant using an enzyme assay based on synergistic hydrolysis of Avicel. The purified enzymes were identified by their substrate specificities and analyses of trypsin-digested peptide fragments and were classified into the following glycosyl hydrolase (GH) families: GH3 (?-glucosidase, Bgl3A), GH5 (endoglucanase, Cel5A), GH6 (cellobiohydrolase II, Cel6A), GH7 (cellobiohydrolase I and endoglucanase, Cel7A and Cel7B, respectively), and GH10 (xylanase, Xyl10A). Hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated corn stover (PCS) with mixtures of the purified enzymes showed that Cel5A, Cel7B, and Xyl10A each had synergistic effects with a mixture of Cel6A and Cel7A. Cel5A seemed to be more effective in the synergistic hydrolysis of the PCS than Cel7B. The ratio of Cel5A, Cel6A, Cel7A, and Xyl10A was statistically optimized for the hydrolysis of PCS glucan in the presence of Bgl3A. The resultant mixture achieved higher PCS glucan hydrolysis at lower enzyme loading than a culture filtrate from T. cellulolyticus or a commercial enzyme preparation, demonstrating that the five enzymes play a role as core enzymes in the hydrolysis of PCS glucan. CONCLUSIONS:Core cellulolytic enzymes in the T. cellulolyticus cellulase system were identified to Cel5A, Cel6A, Cel7A, Xyl10A, and Bgl3A and characterized. The optimized mixture of these five enzymes was highly effective for the hydrolysis of PCS glucan, providing a foundation for future improvement of the T. cellulolyticus cellulase system.
Project description:The extracellular cellulolytic enzymes of the thermophilic anaerobe Clostridium thermocellum occur as a protein complex or aggregate known as the cellulosome. By using a combination of ion-exchange, adsorption and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, it was possible to isolate from extracellular broth a specific endoglucanase of interest without the use of denaturants. The endoglucanase was identified as the cellulosomal subunit Ss by the use of specific antibodies. The enzyme has an Mr of 83,000, an isoelectric point of 3.55, optimum pH of 6.6 and optimum temperature of 70 degrees C. It hydrolyses CM-cellulose and, at a higher rate, the cellodextrins, cellotetraose and cellopentaose, but does not hydrolyse a crystalline cellulose such as Avicel. Cellobiose and cellotriose are also immune to attack. It differs from endoglucanases previously isolated by others and a 76,000-Mr endoglucanase recently isolated in this laboratory.
Project description:Cellulolytic enzymes capable of hydrolyzing plant biomass are secreted by microbial cells specifically in response to the carbon substrate present in the environment. These enzymes consist of a catalytic domain, generally appended to one or more non-catalytic Carbohydrate Binding Module (CBM), which enhances their activity towards recalcitrant biomass. In the present study, the genome of a cellulolytic microbe Paenibacillus polymyxa A18 was annotated for the presence of CBMs and analyzed their expression in response to the plant biomass and model polysaccharides Avicel, CMC and xylan using quantitative PCR. A gene that encodes X2-CBM3 was found to be maximally induced in response to the biomass and crystalline substrate Avicel. Association of X2-CBM3 with xyloglucanase and endoglucanase led to up to 4.6-fold increase in activity towards insoluble substrates. In the substrate binding study, module X2 showed a higher affinity towards biomass and phosphoric acid swollen cellulose, whereas CBM3 showed a higher affinity towards Avicel. Further structural modeling of X2 also indicated its potential role in substrate binding. Our findings highlighted the role of module X2 along with CBM3 in assisting the enzyme catalysis of agricultural residue and paved the way to engineer glycoside hydrolases for superior activity.
Project description:Microcrystalline cellulose (10 mg of Avicel/ml) was hydrolysed to glucose by different concentrations of the purified cellulase components endoglucanase (EG) II and cellobiohydrolases (CBH) I and II, alone and in combination with each other, in the presence of excess beta-glucosidase. At a concentration of 360 micrograms/ml (160 micrograms of EG II/ml, 100 micrograms of CBH I/ml and 100 micrograms of CBH II/ml) the degree of synergism among them was negligible. As the concentration of cellulase decreased, the degree of synergism increased, reaching an optimum at 20 micrograms/ml (5 micrograms of EG II/ml, 10 micrograms of CBH I/ml and 5 micrograms of CBH II/ml). There was no apparent relationship between the ratio of the components and the degree of synergism. The latter is probably due, though it could not be proved, to the level of saturation of the substrate with each component. Inhibition of Avicel hydrolysis was observed when the substrate was incubated with saturating and nonsaturating concentrations of a mixture of EG II and CBH I respectively. A similar result was also observed with a combination of EG I and EG II.
Project description:Cellulases play important roles in the dietary fibre digestion in pigs, and have multiple industrial applications. The porcine intestinal microbiota display a unique feature in rapid cellulose digestion. Herein, we have expressed a cellulase gene, p4818Cel5_2A, which singly encoded a catalytic domain belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5 subfamily 2, and was previously identified from a metagenomic expression library constructed from porcine gut microbiome after feeding grower pigs with a cellulose-supplemented diet. The activity of purified p4818Cel5_2A was maximal at pH 6.0 and 50?°C and displayed resistance to trypsin digestion. This enzyme exhibited activities towards a wide variety of plant polysaccharides, including cellulosic substrates of avicel and solka-Floc®, and the hemicelluloses of ?-(1???4)/(1???3)-glucans, xyloglucan, glucomannan and galactomannan. Viscosity, reducing sugar distribution and hydrolysis product analyses further revealed that this enzyme was a processive endo-?-(1???4)-glucanase capable of hydrolyzing cellulose into cellobiose and cellotriose as the primary end products. These catalytic features of p4818Cel5_2A were further explored in the context of a three-dimensional homology model. Altogether, results of this study report a microbial processive endoglucanase identified from the porcine gut microbiome, and it may be tailored as an efficient biocatalyst candidate for potential industrial applications.
Project description:Specific cellulose hydrolysis rates (g of cellulose/g of cellulase per h) were shown to be substantially higher (2.7- to 4.7-fold) for growing cultures of Clostridium thermocellum as compared with purified cellulase preparations from this organism in controlled experiments involving both batch and continuous cultures. This "enzyme-microbe synergy" requires the presence of metabolically active cellulolytic microbes, is not explained by removal of hydrolysis products from the bulk fermentation broth, and appears due to surface phenomena involving adherent cellulolytic microorganisms. Results support the desirability of biotechnological processes featuring microbial conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol (or other products) in the absence of added saccharolytic enzymes.