Regulatory cohesion of cell cycle and cell differentiation through interlinked phosphorylation and second messenger networks.
ABSTRACT: In Caulobacter crescentus, phosphorylation of key regulators is coordinated with the second messenger cyclic di-GMP to drive cell-cycle progression and differentiation. The diguanylate cyclase PleD directs pole morphogenesis, while the c-di-GMP effector PopA initiates degradation of the replication inhibitor CtrA by the AAA+ protease ClpXP to license S phase entry. Here, we establish a direct link between PleD and PopA reliant on the phosphodiesterase PdeA and the diguanylate cyclase DgcB. PdeA antagonizes DgcB activity until the G1-S transition, when PdeA is degraded by the ClpXP protease. The unopposed DgcB activity, together with PleD activation, upshifts c-di-GMP to drive PopA-dependent CtrA degradation and S phase entry. PdeA degradation requires CpdR, a response regulator that delivers PdeA to the ClpXP protease in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Thus, CpdR serves as a crucial link between phosphorylation pathways and c-di-GMP metabolism to mediate protein degradation events that irreversibly and coordinately drive bacterial cell-cycle progression and development.
Project description:The cell-division cycle of Caulobacter crescentus depends on periodic activation and deactivation of the essential response regulator CtrA. Although CtrA is critical for transcription during some parts of the cell cycle, its activity must be eliminated before chromosome replication because CtrA also blocks the initiation of DNA replication. CtrA activity is down-regulated both by dephosphorylation and by proteolysis, mediated by the ubiquitous ATP-dependent protease ClpXP. Here we demonstrate that proteins needed for rapid CtrA proteolysis in vivo form a phosphorylation-dependent and cyclic diguanylate (cdG)-dependent adaptor complex that accelerates CtrA degradation in vitro by ClpXP. The adaptor complex includes CpdR, a single-domain response regulator; PopA, a cdG-binding protein; and RcdA, a protein whose activity cannot be predicted. When CpdR is unphosphorylated and when PopA is bound to cdG, they work together with RcdA in an all-or-none manner to reduce the Km of CtrA proteolysis 10-fold. We further identified a set of amino acids in the receiver domain of CtrA that modulate its adaptor-mediated degradation in vitro and in vivo. Complex formation between PopA and CtrA depends on these amino acids, which reside on alpha-helix 1 of the CtrA receiver domain, and on cdG binding by PopA. These results reveal that each accessory factor plays an essential biochemical role in the regulated proteolysis of CtrA and demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first example of a multiprotein, cdG-dependent proteolytic adaptor.
Project description:Second messengers control a wide range of important cellular functions in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Here we show that cyclic di-GMP, a global bacterial second messenger, promotes cell cycle progression in Caulobacter crescentus by mediating the specific degradation of the replication initiation inhibitor CtrA. During the G1-to-S-phase transition, both CtrA and its cognate protease ClpXP dynamically localize to the old cell pole, where CtrA is rapidly degraded. Sequestration of CtrA to the cell pole depends on PopA, a newly identified cyclic di-GMP effector protein. PopA itself localizes to the cell pole and directs CtrA to this subcellular site via the direct interaction with a mediator protein, RcdA. We present evidence that c-di-GMP regulates CtrA degradation during the cell cycle by controlling the dynamic sequestration of the PopA recruitment factor to the cell pole. Furthermore, we show that cell cycle timing of CtrA degradation relies on converging pathways responsible for substrate and protease localization to the old cell pole. This is the first report that links cyclic di-GMP to protein dynamics and cell cycle control in bacteria.
Project description:In Caulobacter crescentus, the ClpXP protease degrades several crucial cell-cycle regulators, including the phosphodiesterase PdeA. Degradation of PdeA requires the response regulator CpdR and signals a morphological transition in concert with initiation of DNA replication. Here, we report the structure of a Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain of PdeA and show that it is necessary for CpdR-dependent degradation in vivo and in vitro. CpdR acts as an adaptor, tethering the amino-terminal PAS domain to ClpXP and promoting recognition of the weak carboxyl-terminal degron of PdeA, a combination that ensures processive proteolysis. We identify sites on the PAS domain needed for CpdR recognition and find that one subunit of the PdeA dimer can be delivered to ClpXP by its partner. Finally, we show that improper stabilization of PdeA in vivo alters cellular behavior. These results introduce an adaptor/substrate pair for ClpXP and reveal broad diversity in adaptor-mediated proteolysis.
Project description:Temporally and spatially controlled master regulators drive the Caulobacter cell cycle by regulating the expression of >200 genes. Rapid clearance of the master regulator, CtrA, by the ClpXP protease is a critical event that enables the initiation of chromosome replication at specific times in the cell cycle. We show here that a previously unidentified single domain-response regulator, CpdR, when in the unphosphorylated state, binds to ClpXP and, thereby, causes its localization to the cell pole. We further show that ClpXP localization is required for CtrA proteolysis. When CpdR is phosphorylated, ClpXP is delocalized, and CtrA is not degraded. Both CtrA and CpdR are phosphorylated via the same CckA histidine kinase phospho-signaling pathway, providing a reinforcing mechanism that simultaneously activates CtrA and prevents its degradation by delocalizing the CpdR/ClpXP complex. In swarmer cells, CpdR is in the phosphorylated state, thus preventing ClpXP localization and CtrA degradation. As swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells (G1/S transition), unphosphorylated CpdR accumulates and is localized to the stalked cell pole, where it enables ClpXP localization and CtrA proteolysis, allowing the initiation of DNA replication. Dynamic protease localization mediated by a phospho-signaling pathway is a novel mechanism to integrate spatial and temporal control of bacterial cell cycle progression.
Project description:Dynamic protein localization is an integral component of the regulatory circuit that drives the Caulobacter cell cycle. The ClpXP protease is localized to the Caulobacter cell pole, where it catalyzes the degradation of the CtrA master regulator at specific times in the cell cycle. Clearance of active CtrA at the G1/S transition allows the initiation of DNA replication and cell-cycle progression. The polar localization of ClpXP is dependent on the polar positioning of the CpdR single-domain response regulator. Only the unphosphorylated form of CpdR localizes and activates ClpXP. We demonstrate that another single domain response regulator, DivK, promotes the polar accumulation of unphosphorylated CpdR and that CpdR is subsequently degraded at the cell pole by the localized ClpXP protease. Thus, CpdR function is regulated by a feedback loop that incorporates its differential phosphorylation, the transient polar localization and activity of the ClpXP protease, and the clearance of the CpdR by polar ClpXP that, in turn, releases ClpXP from the pole relieving the degradation of CtrA. CtrA approximately P then accumulates and activates the transcription of cpdR, completing the regulatory loop, establishing an integrated network that controls a robust cell-cycle transition.
Project description:The DivJ-DivK-PleC signaling system of Caulobacter crescentus is a signaling network that regulates polar development and the cell cycle. This system is conserved in related bacteria, including the sister genus Brevundimonas Previous studies had shown unexpected phenotypic differences between the C. crescentus divK mutant and the analogous mutant of Brevundimonas subvibrioides, but further characterization was not performed. Here, phenotypic assays analyzing motility, adhesion, and pilus production (the latter characterized by a newly discovered bacteriophage) revealed that divJ and pleC mutants have phenotypes mostly similar to their C. crescentus homologs, but divK mutants maintain largely opposite phenotypes than expected. Suppressor mutations of the B. subvibrioides divK motility defect were involved in cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling, including the diguanylate cyclase dgcB, and cleD which is hypothesized to affect flagellar function in a c-di-GMP dependent fashion. However, the screen did not identify the diguanylate cyclase pleD Disruption of pleD in B. subvibrioides caused no change in divK or pleC phenotypes, but did reduce adhesion and increase motility of the divJ strain. Analysis of c-di-GMP levels in these strains revealed incongruities between c-di-GMP levels and displayed phenotypes with a notable result that suppressor mutations altered phenotypes but had little impact on c-di-GMP levels in the divK background. Conversely, when c-di-GMP levels were artificially manipulated, alterations of c-di-GMP levels in the divK strain had minimal impact on phenotypes. These results suggest that DivK performs a critical function in the integration of c-di-GMP signaling into the B. subvibrioides cell cycle.IMPORTANCE Cyclic di-GMP and associated signaling proteins are widespread in bacteria, but their role in physiology is often complex and difficult to predict through genomic level analyses. In C. crescentus, c-di-GMP has been integrated into the developmental cell cycle, but there is increasing evidence that environmental factors can impact this system as well. The research presented here suggests that the integration of these signaling networks could be more complex than previously hypothesized, which could have a bearing on the larger field of c-di-GMP signaling. In addition, this work further reveals similarities and differences in a conserved regulatory network between organisms in the same taxonomic family, and the results show that gene conservation does not necessarily imply close functional conservation in genetic pathways.
Project description:Asymmetric cell division generates two daughter cells with distinct characteristics and fates. Positioning different regulatory and signaling proteins at the opposing ends of the predivisional cell produces molecularly distinct daughter cells. Here, we report a strategy deployed by the asymmetrically dividing bacterium <i>Caulobacter crescentus</i> where a regulatory protein is programmed to perform distinct functions at the opposing cell poles. We find that the CtrA proteolysis adaptor protein PopA assumes distinct oligomeric states at the two cell poles through asymmetrically distributed c-di-GMP: dimeric at the stalked pole and monomeric at the swarmer pole. Different polar organizing proteins at each cell pole recruit PopA where it interacts with and mediates the function of two molecular machines: the ClpXP degradation machinery at the stalked pole and the flagellar basal body at the swarmer pole. We discovered a binding partner of PopA at the swarmer cell pole that together with PopA regulates the length of the flagella filament. Our work demonstrates how a second messenger provides spatiotemporal cues to change the physical behavior of an effector protein, thereby facilitating asymmetry.
Project description:Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is the specific nucleotide regulator of beta-1,4-glucan (cellulose) synthase in Acetobacter xylinum. The enzymes controlling turnover of c-di-GMP are diguanylate cyclase (DGC), which catalyzes its formation, and phosphodiesterase A (PDEA), which catalyzes its degradation. Following biochemical purification of DGC and PDEA, genes encoding isoforms of these enzymes have been isolated and found to be located on three distinct yet highly homologous operons for cyclic diguanylate, cdg1, cdg2, and cdg3. Within each cdg operon, a pdeA gene lies upstream of a dgc gene. cdg1 contains two additional flanking genes, cdg1a and cdg1d. cdg1a encodes a putative transcriptional activator, similar to AadR of Rhodopseudomonas palustris and FixK proteins of rhizobia. The deduced DGC and PDEA proteins have an identical motif structure of two lengthy domains in their C-terminal regions. These domains are also present in numerous bacterial proteins of undefined function. The N termini of the DGC and PDEA deduced proteins contain putative oxygen-sensing domains, based on similarity to domains on bacterial NifL and FixL proteins, respectively. Genetic disruption analyses demonstrated a physiological hierarchy among the cdg operons, such that cdg1 contributes 80% of cellular DGC and PDEA activities and cdg2 and cdg3 contribute 15 and 5%, respectively. Disruption of dgc genes markedly reduced in vivo cellulose production, demonstrating that c-di-GMP controls this process.
Project description:Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the etiologic agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), has genes predicted to encode three sensor kinases, one of which is annotated PleC, and three response regulators, one of which is PleD. Prior to this study, the roles of PleC and PleD in the obligatory intracellular parasitism of A. phagocytophilum and their biochemical activities were unknown. The present study illustrates the relevance of these factors by demonstrating that both pleC and pleD were expressed in an HGA patient. During A. phagocytophilum development in human promyelocytic HL-60 cells, PleC and PleD were synchronously upregulated at the exponential growth stage and downregulated prior to extracellular release. A recombinant PleC kinase domain (rPleCHKD) has histidine kinase activity; no activity was observed when the conserved site of phosphorylation was replaced with alanine. A recombinant PleD (rPleD) has autokinase activity using phosphorylated rPleCHKD as the phosphoryl donor but not with two other recombinant histidine kinases. rPleCHKD could not serve as the phosphoryl donor for a mutant rPleD (with a conserved aspartic acid, the site of phosphorylation, replaced by alanine) or two other A. phagocytophilum recombinant response regulators. rPleD had diguanylate cyclase activity to generate cyclic (c) di-GMP from GTP in vitro. UV cross-linking of A. phagocytophilum lysate with c-di-[(32)P]GMP detected an approximately 47-kDa endogenous protein, presumably c-di-GMP downstream receptor. A new hydrophobic c-di-GMP derivative, 2'-O-di(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-c-di-GMP, inhibited A. phagocytophilum infection in HL-60 cells. Our results suggest that the two-component PleC-PleD system is a diguanylate cyclase and that a c-di-GMP-receptor complex regulates A. phagocytophilum intracellular infection.
Project description:Sinorhizobium meliloti is a soil-dwelling symbiotic alphaproteobacterium. Cyclic di-GMP is an important second messenger controlling multiple functions in this microorganism. To understand transcriptional regulation by elevated c-di-GMP in S. meliloti, the transcriptome analysis was performed on the wild type strain S. meliloti Rm2011 carrying either an empty vector pWBT or diguanylate cyclase gene pleD overexpression plasmid pWBT-pleD.