Significance of xenobiotic metabolism for bioaccumulation kinetics of organic chemicals in Gammarus pulex.
ABSTRACT: Bioaccumulation and biotransformation are key toxicokinetic processes that modify toxicity of chemicals and sensitivity of organisms. Bioaccumulation kinetics vary greatly among organisms and chemicals; thus, we investigated the influence of biotransformation kinetics on bioaccumulation in a model aquatic invertebrate using fifteen (14)C-labeled organic xenobiotics from diverse chemical classes and physicochemical properties (1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, imidacloprid, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol, ethylacrylate, malathion, chlorpyrifos, aldicarb, carbofuran, carbaryl, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol, 4-nitrobenzyl-chloride, 2,4-dichloroaniline, and sea-nine (4,5-dichloro-2-octyl-3-isothiazolone)). We detected and identified metabolites using HPLC with UV and radio-detection as well as high resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap). Kinetics of uptake, biotransformation, and elimination of parent compounds and metabolites were modeled with a first-order one-compartment model. Bioaccumulation factors were calculated for parent compounds and metabolite enrichment factors for metabolites. Out of 19 detected metabolites, we identified seven by standards or accurate mass measurements and two via pathway analysis and analogies to other compounds. 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene, imidacloprid, and 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol were not biotransformed. Dietary uptake contributed little to overall uptake. Differentiation between parent and metabolites increased accuracy of bioaccumulation parameters compared to total (14)C measurements. Biotransformation dominated toxicokinetics and strongly affected internal concentrations of parent compounds and metabolites. Many metabolites reached higher internal concentrations than their parents, characterized by large metabolite enrichment factors.
Project description:Neonicotinoid pesticides have been widely applied for the production of fruits and vegetables, and occasionally detected in conventionally grown produce. Thus oral exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides may exist in the general population; however, neonicotinoid metabolites in human body fluids have not been investigated comprehensively. The purpose of this study is the qualitative profiling and quantitative analysis of neonicotinoid metabolites in the human spot urine by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Human urine samples were collected from three patients suspected of subacute exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides. A qualitative profiling of urinary metabolites was performed using liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS) with a database of nominal molecular weights of 57 known metabolites of three neonicotinoid pesticides (acetamiprid, Imidacloprid, and clothianidin), as well as the parent compounds. Then a quantitative analysis of selected urinary metabolites was performed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with a standard pesticide and metabolite, which were detected by the qualitative profiling. The result of qualitative profiling showed that seven metabolites, i.e. an acetamiprid metabolite, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid; three Imidacloprid metabolites, 5-hydroxy-Imidacloprid, 4,5-dihydroxy-imidacloprid, 4,5-dehydro-Imidacloprid; a common metabolite of acetamiprid and Imidacloprid, N-(6-chloronicotinoyl)-glycine; and two clothianidin metabolites, N-desmethyl-clothianidin, N-(2-(methylsulfanyl)thiazole-5-carboxyl)-glycine, as well as acetamiprid, were detected in the urine of three cases. The result of the quantitative analysis showed N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was determined in the urine of one case, which had been collected on the first visit, at a concentration of 3.2 ng/mL. This is the first report on the qualitative and quantitative detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid in the human urine. The results suggest that the one case with detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was exposed to acetamiprid through the consumption of contaminated foods. Urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid, as well as 5-hydroxy-Imidacloprid and N-desmethyl-clothianidin, may be a good biomarker for neonicotinoid exposure in humans and warrants further investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neonicotinoids are used for insect control in agriculture, landscaping, and on household pets. Neonicotinoids have become popular replacements for organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, and use is on the rise. OBJECTIVES:To assess human exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides in a representative sample of the U.S. general population 3 years and older from the 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). METHODS:We used online solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after enzymatic hydrolysis of conjugates to quantify in 3038 samples the urinary concentrations of six neonicotinoid biomarkers: four parent compounds (acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiacloprid) and two metabolites (N-desmethyl-acetamiprid, 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid). We calculated distribution percentiles, and used regression models to evaluate associations of various demographic parameters and fasting time with urinary concentrations above the 95th percentile (a value selected to represent higher than average concentrations) of neonicotinoid biomarkers. RESULTS:Weighted detection frequencies were 35% (N-desmethyl-acetamiprid), 19.7% (5-hydroxy imidacloprid), 7.7% (clothianidin), 4.3% (imidacloprid), and <0.5% (acetamiprid, thiacloprid). The weighted frequency of having detectable concentrations of at least one of the six biomarkers examined was 49.1%. The 95th percentile concentrations for N-desmethyl-acetamiprid, 5-hydroxy imidacloprid, and clothianidin were 1.29, 1.37, and 0.396??g/L, respectively. For people who fasted <8?h, regardless of race/ethnicity and sex, 3-5 year old children were more likely to have N-desmethyl-acetamiprid concentrations above the 95th percentile than adolescents (adjusted odds ratio (OR)?=?3.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], (0.98-9.98)) and adults (adjusted OR?=?4.29; 95% CI, (2.04-9.0)); and children 6-11 years of age were more likely than adults to have N-desmethyl-acetamiprid concentrations above the 95th percentile (adjusted OR?=?2.65; 95% CI, (1.2-5.84)). Asians were more likely than non-Asians to have concentrations above the 95th percentile of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid (adjusted OR?=?1.94; 95% CI, (1.08-3.49)) and 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid (adjusted OR?=?2.25; 95% CI, (1.44-3.51)). Samples collected during the summer were more likely to have metabolite concentrations above the 95th percentile than those collected in the winter (adjusted OR 1.55 for N-desmethyl-acetamiprid, and 2.43 for 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid). CONCLUSIONS:The detection of neonicotinoid metabolites more frequently and at much higher concentrations than the corresponding parent compounds suggests that the metabolites may be suitable biomarkers to assess background exposures. About half of the U.S. general population 3 years of age and older was recently exposed to neonicotinoids. Compared to other age ranges and ethnicities, young children and Asians may experience higher exposures. At present, reasons for such differences remain unknown.
Project description:Studies using embryos of the zebrafish Danio rerio (DarT) instead of adult fish for characterising the (eco-) toxic potential of chemicals have been proposed as animal replacing methods. Effect analysis at the molecular level might enhance sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the embryonal studies. The present paper aimed to test the potential of toxicoproteomics with zebrafish eleutheroembryos for sensitive and specific toxicity assessment. 2-DE-based toxicoproteomics was performed applying low-dose (EC(10)) exposure for 48?h with three-model substances Rotenone, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC) and Diclofenac. By multivariate "pattern-only" PCA and univariate statistical analyses, alterations in the embryonal proteome were detectable in nonetheless visibly intact organisms and treatment with the three substances was distinguishable at the molecular level. Toxicoproteomics enabled the enhancement of sensitivity and specificity of the embryonal toxicity assay and bear the potency to identify protein markers serving as general stress markers and early diagnosis of toxic stress.
Project description:Most pharmaceutical substances interact with several or even many molecular targets in the organism, determining the complex profiles of their biological activity. Moreover, due to biotransformation in the human body, they form one or several metabolites with different biological activity profiles. Therefore, the development and rational use of novel drugs requires the analysis of their biological activity profiles, taking into account metabolism in the human body. In silico methods are currently widely used for estimating new drug-like compounds' interactions with pharmacological targets and predicting their metabolic transformations. In this study, we consider the estimation of the biological activity profiles of organic compounds, taking into account the action of both the parent molecule and its metabolites in the human body. We used an external dataset that consists of 864 parent compounds with known metabolites. It is shown that the complex assessment of active pharmaceutical ingredients' interactions with the human organism increases the quality of computer-aided estimates. The toxic and adverse effects showed the most significant difference: reaching 0.16 for recall and 0.14 for precision.
Project description:Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-forming anaerobe and a major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Disruption of the commensal microbiota, such as through treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, is a critical precursor for colonisation by C. difficile and subsequent disease. Furthermore, failure of the gut microbiota to recover colonisation resistance can result in recurrence of infection. An unusual characteristic of C. difficile among gut bacteria is its ability to produce the bacteriostatic compound para-cresol (p-cresol) through fermentation of tyrosine. Here, we demonstrate that the ability of C. difficile to produce p-cresol in vitro provides a competitive advantage over gut bacteria including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Metabolic profiling of competitive co-cultures revealed that acetate, alanine, butyrate, isobutyrate, p-cresol and p-hydroxyphenylacetate were the main metabolites responsible for differentiating the parent strain C. difficile (630?erm) from a defined mutant deficient in p-cresol production. Moreover, we show that the p-cresol mutant displays a fitness defect in a mouse relapse model of C. difficile infection (CDI). Analysis of the microbiome from this mouse model of CDI demonstrates that colonisation by the p-cresol mutant results in a distinctly altered intestinal microbiota, and metabolic profile, with a greater representation of Gammaproteobacteria, including the Pseudomonales and Enterobacteriales. We demonstrate that Gammaproteobacteria are susceptible to exogenous p-cresol in vitro and that there is a clear divide between bacterial Phyla and their susceptibility to p-cresol. In general, Gram-negative species were relatively sensitive to p-cresol, whereas Gram-positive species were more tolerant. This study demonstrates that production of p-cresol by C. difficile has an effect on the viability of intestinal bacteria as well as the major metabolites produced in vitro. These observations are upheld in a mouse model of CDI, in which p-cresol production affects the biodiversity of gut microbiota and faecal metabolite profiles, suggesting that p-cresol production contributes to C. difficile survival and pathogenesis.
Project description:Mass mortalities of honey bees occurred in France in the 1990s coincident with the introduction of two agricultural insecticides, imidacloprid and fipronil. Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid, was widely blamed, but the differential potency of imidacloprid and fipronil has been unclear because of uncertainty over their capacity to bioaccumulate during sustained exposure to trace dietary residues and, thereby, cause time-reinforced toxicity (TRT). We experimentally quantified the toxicity of fipronil and imidacloprid to honey bees and incorporated the observed mortality rates into a demographic simulation of a honey bee colony in an environmentally realistic scenario. Additionally, we evaluated two bioassays from new international guidance for agrochemical regulation, which aim to detect TRT. Finally, we used analytical chemistry (GC-MS) to test for bioaccumulation of fipronil. We found in demographic simulations that only fipronil produced mass mortality in honey bees. In the bioassays, only fipronil caused TRT. GC-MS analysis revealed that virtually all of the fipronil ingested by a honey bee in a single meal was present 6 d later, which suggests that bioaccumulation is the basis of TRT in sustained dietary exposures. We therefore postulate that fipronil, not imidacloprid, caused the mass mortalities of honey bees in France during the 1990s because it is lethal to honey bees in even trace doses due to its capacity to bioaccumulate and generate TRT. Our results provide evidence that recently proposed laboratory bioassays can discriminate harmful bioaccumulative substances and, thereby, address evident shortcomings in a regulatory system that had formerly approved fipronil for agricultural use.
Project description:Biotransformation of organic pollutants may result in the formation of oxidation products more toxic than the parent contaminants. However, to trace and identify those products, and the metabolic pathways involved in their formation, is still challenging within complex environmental samples. We applied stable isotope-assisted metabolomics (SIAM) to PAH-contaminated soil collected from a wood treatment facility. Soil samples were separately spiked with uniformly 13C-labeled fluoranthene, pyrene, or benzo[a]anthracene at a level below that of the native contaminant, and incubated for 1 or 2 weeks under aerobic biostimulated conditions. Combining high-resolution mass spectrometry and automated SIAM workflows, chemical structures of metabolites and metabolic pathways in the soil were proposed. Ring-cleavage products, including previously unreported intermediates such as C11H10O6 and C15H12O5, were detected originating from fluoranthene and benzo[a]anthracene, respectively. Sulfate conjugates of dihydroxy compounds were found as major metabolites of pyrene and benzo[a]anthracene, suggesting the potential role of fungi in their biotransformation in soils. A series of unknown N-containing metabolites were identified from pyrene, but their structural elucidation requires further investigation. Our results suggest that SIAM can be successfully applied to understand the fate of organic pollutants in environmental samples, opening lines of evidence for novel mechanisms of microbial transformation within such complex matrices.
Project description:Neonicotinoid insecticide metabolism involves considerable substrate specificity and regioselectivity of the relevant CYP450, aldehyde oxidase, and phase II enzymes. Human CYP450 recombinant enzymes carry out the following conversions: CYP3A4, 2C19, and 2B6 for thiamethoxam (TMX) to clothianidin (CLO); 3A4, 2C19, and 2A6 for CLO to desmethyl-CLO; 2C19 for TMX to desmethyl-TMX. Human liver aldehyde oxidase reduces the nitro substituent of CLO to nitroso much more rapidly than it does that of TMX. Imidacloprid (IMI), CLO, and several of their metabolites do not give detectable N-glucuronides but 5-hydroxy-IMI, 4,5-diol-IMI, and 4-hydroxythiacloprid are converted to O-glucuronides in vitro with mouse liver microsomes and UDP-glucuronic acid or in vivo in mice. Mouse liver cytosol with S-adenosylmethionine converts desmethyl-CLO to CLO but not desmethyl-TMX to TMX. Two organophosphorus CYP450 inhibitors partially block IMI, thiacloprid, and CLO metabolism in vivo in mice, elevating brain and liver levels of the parent compounds while reducing amounts of the hydroxylated metabolites.
Project description:1. After intraperitoneal administration, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (Gammexane) and gamma-2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorocyclohex-1-ene were converted by rats into 2,3,5- and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, which were excreted as free phenols and as sulphuric acid and glucuronic acid conjugates. 2. Derivatives of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and 2,4,5-trichlorophenyl glucosiduronic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenylmercapturic acid were isolated from the urine as metabolites of gamma-2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorocyclohex-1-ene. 3. The phenolic metabolites of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane and gamma-2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorocyclohex-1-ene isolated from urine were similar to those of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, which indicates that the two latter compounds are intermediates in gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane metabolism in rats.