Genotypes, exotoxin gene content, and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains recovered from foods and food handlers.
ABSTRACT: Staphylococcal food poisoning, one of the most common food-borne diseases, results from ingestion of one or more staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus in foods. In the present study, 64 S. aureus isolates recovered from foods and food handlers, associated or not associated with food-poisoning outbreaks in Spain, were investigated. They were assigned to 31 strains by spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), exotoxin gene content, and antimicrobial resistance. The strains belonged to 10 clonal complexes (CCs): CC5 (29.0%), CC30 (25.8%), CC45 (16.1%), CC8, CC15 (two strains each), CC1, CC22, CC25, CC59, and CC121 (one strain each). They contained hemolysin genes (90.3%); lukED (77.4%); exfoliatin genes eta, etd (6.5% each), and etb (3.2%); tst (25.8%); and the following enterotoxin or enterotoxin-like genes or clusters: sea (38.7%), seb (12.9%), sec (16.1%), sed-selj with or without ser (22.9%), selk-selq (6.5%), seh, sell, selp (9.7% each), egc1 (32.3%), and egc2 (48.4%). The number of se and sel genes ranged from zero to 12. All isolates carrying tst, and most isolates with genes encoding classical enterotoxins (SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED), expressed the corresponding toxin(s). Two CC5 isolates from hamburgers (spa type t002, sequence type 5 [ST5]; spa type t2173, ST5) were methicillin resistant and harbored staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) IVd. Six (19.4%) were mupirocin resistant, and one (spa type t120, ST15) from a food handler carried mupA (MIC, 1,250 μg/ml). Resistance to ampicillin (blaZ) (61.3%), erythromycin (ermA-ermC or ermC) (25.8%), clindamycin (msrA-msrB or msrB) (16.1%), tetracycline (tetK) (3.2%), and amikacin-gentamicin-kanamycin-tobramycin (aphA with aacA plus aphD or aadD) (6.5%) was also observed. The presence of S. aureus strains with an important repertoire of virulence and resistance determinants in the food chain represents a potential health hazard for consumers and merits further observation.
Project description:Since 1995, a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone has spread in southern Germany. The strain was assigned to the Rhine-Hesse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) type by the staphylococcal reference center and was highly similar to epidemic clones known to belong to clonal complex 5 (CC5; USA100) based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Here we analyzed a defined collection of strains assigned to the Rhine-Hesse/USA100 PFGE type. Using sequence-based typing methods (MLST, spa), the isolates were divided into two distinct clusters, ST5 and its single-locus variant ST225. These two lineages are not distinguishable by PFGE or phage typing. Most of the ST5 isolates were derived from patients and volunteers from the Tübingen area in southwest Germany, whereas the ST225 isolates were mostly from other locations in Germany. The locally restricted ST5 isolates were shown to contain different SSCmec islands and exhibited different antibiotic resistance profiles. In contrast, the ST225 isolates form a highly homogenous group and are emerging all over Germany. The two lineages are clearly distinguishable by their phage content and spa type: ST5 strains from Tübingen are characterized by a Sa7int phage that carries the virulence gene sak, which codes for staphylokinase, and ST225 isolates are characterized by a Sa1int phage. In conclusion, based on sequence typing and phage content, CC5 strains can be subdivided into two distinct lineages with different epidemicities.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Staphylococcus aureus causes a variety of severe infections such as bacteremia and sepsis. At present, 60-80% of S. aureus isolates from Taiwan are methicillin resistant (MRSA). It has been shown that certain MRSA clones circulate worldwide. The goals of this study were to identify MRSA clones in Taiwan and to correlate the molecular types of isolates with their phenotypes.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 157 MRSA isolates from bacteremic patients were collected from nine medical centers. They were typed based on polymorphisms in agr, SCCmec, MLST, spa, and dru. Phenotypes characterized included Panton-Valentine leucocidin (pvl), inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance (MLSBi), vancomycin (VA) and daptomycin (DAP) minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), and superantigenic toxin gene profiles. Difference between two consecutive samples was determined by Mann-Whitney-U test, and difference between two categorical variables was determined by Fisher's exact test.<h4>Results</h4>Four major MRSA clone complexes CC1, CC5, CC8, and CC59 were found, including 4 CC1, 9 CC5, 111 CC8, and 28 CC59 isolates. These clones had the following molecular types: CC1: SCCmecIV and ST573; CC5: SCCmecII and ST5; CC8: SCCmecIII, ST239, and ST241, and CC59: SCCmecIV, SCCmecV(T), ST59, and ST338. The toxin gene profiles of these clones were CC1: sec-seg-(sei)-sell-selm-(seln)-selo; CC5: sec-seg-sei-sell-selm-(seln)-selp-tst1; CC8: sea-selk-selq, and CC59: seb-selk-selq. Most isolates with SCCmecV(T), ST59, spat437, and dru11 types were pvl(+) (13 isolates), while multidrug resistance (?4 antimicrobials) were associated with SCCmecIII, ST239, spa t037, agrI, and dru14 (119 isolates) (p<0.001). One hundred and twenty four isolates with the following molecular types had higher VA MIC: SCCmecII and SCCmecIII; ST5, ST239, and ST241; spa t002, t037, and t421; dru4, dru10, dru12, dru13, and dru14 (p<0.05). No particular molecular types were found to be associated with MLSBi phenotype.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Four major MRSA clone complexes were found in Taiwan. Further studies are needed to delineate the evolution of MRSA isolates.
Project description:We characterized Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variant (SCV) strains isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients in southern Brazil. Smaller colonies of S. aureus were isolated from respiratory samples collected consecutively from 225 CF patients from July 2013 to November 2016. Two phenotypic methods-the auxotrophic classification and a modified method of antimicrobial susceptibility testing-were employed. PCR was conducted to detect the <i>mecA</i>, <i>ermA</i>, <i>ermB</i>, <i>ermC</i>, <i>msrA</i>, and <i>msrB</i> resistance genes. Furthermore, DNA sequencing was performed to determine the mutations in the <i>thyA</i> gene, and multilocus sequence typing was used to identify the genetic relatedness. S. aureus strains were isolated from 186 patients (82%); suggestive colonies of SCVs were obtained in 16 patients (8.6%). The clones CC1 (ST1, ST188, and ST2383), CC5 (ST5 and ST221), and ST398 were identified. Among SCVs, antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that 77.7% of the isolates were resistant to multiple drugs, and all of them were susceptible to vancomycin. <i>mecA</i> (2), <i>ermA</i> (1), <i>ermB</i> (1), <i>ermC</i> (3), and <i>msrB</i> (18) were distributed among the isolates. Phenotypically thymidine-dependent isolates had different mutations in the <i>thyA</i> gene, and frameshift mutations were frequently observed. Of note, revertants showed nonconservative or conservative missense mutations. SCVs are rarely identified in routine laboratory tests. <b>IMPORTANCE</b> Similar findings have not yet been reported in Brazil, emphasizing the importance of monitoring small-colony variants (SCVs). Altogether, our results highlight the need to improve detection methods and review antimicrobial therapy protocols in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is one of the most common food-borne diseases in the world. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing methods were used to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolates from food surveillance during 2013-2015 in southwest China, and Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing was used for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Isolates were also examined for their antibiotic resistance and carriage of virulence genes.<h4>Results</h4>Isolation rate of S. aureus was 2.60% during the three years' surveillance and 29.50% of them were MRSA. All the S. aureus had hla genes (100%), 14.34% of the strains had tst, and 16.73% had PVL. 163 PFGE-SmaI patterns, 41 ST types and 36 spa types were obtained for all the S. aureus. Among them, ST6-t701 (13.15%), ST7-t091 (12.75%), ST59-t437 (9.96%) and ST5-t002 (7.57%) were the prevalent genotypes. Most of MRSA in this study belonged to SCCmec IV and V, accounted for 74.32% and 20.27% respectively. ST6-SCCmec IV-t701 (36.50%) was the most prevalent clone among isolates from food, followed by ST59-SCCmec V-t437 (20.30%), ST5-SCCmec IV-t002 (12.20%) and ST59-SCCmec IV-t437 (12.20%). Some strains had the identical PFGE patterns, ST and spa types with isolates from patients.<h4>Conclusions</h4>S. aureus isolated from food in southwest China displayed heterogeneity. Isolates had the same genotype profiles with isolates from patients, indicating high homology.
Project description:Clonal complex 5 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CC5-MRSA) includes multiple prevalent clones that cause hospital-associated infections in the Western Hemisphere. Here, we present a phylogenomic study of these MRSA to reveal their phylogeny, spatial and temporal population structure, and the evolution of selected traits. We studied 598 genome sequences, including 409 newly generated sequences, from 11 countries in Central, North, and South America, and references from Asia and Europe. An early-branching CC5-Basal clade is well-dispersed geographically, is methicillin-susceptible and MRSA predominantly of ST5-IV such as the USA800 clone, and includes separate subclades for avian and porcine strains. In the early 1970s and early 1960s, respectively, two clades appeared that subsequently underwent major expansions in the Western Hemisphere: a CC5-I clade in South America and a CC5-II clade largely in Central and North America. The CC5-I clade includes the ST5-I Chilean/Cordobes clone, and the ST228-I South German clone as an early offshoot, but is distinct from other ST5-I clones from Europe that nest within CC5-Basal. The CC5-II clade includes divergent strains of the ST5-II USA100 clone, various other clones, and most known vancomycin-resistant strains of S. aureus, but is distinct from ST5-II strain N315 from Japan that nests within CC5-Basal. The recombination rate of CC5 was much lower than has been reported for other S. aureus genetic backgrounds, which indicates that recurrence of vancomycin resistance in CC5 is not likely due to an enhanced promiscuity. An increased number of antibiotic resistances and decreased number of toxins with distance from the CC5 tree root were observed. Of note, the expansions of the CC5-I and CC5-II clades in the Western Hemisphere were preceded by convergent gains of resistance to fluoroquinolone, macrolide, and lincosamide antibiotics, and convergent losses of the staphylococcal enterotoxin p (sep) gene from the immune evasion gene cluster of phage ?Sa3. Unique losses of surface proteins were also noted for these two clades. In summary, our study has determined the relationships of different clades and clones of CC5 and has revealed genomic changes for increased antibiotic resistance and decreased virulence associated with the expansions of these MRSA in the Western Hemisphere.
Project description:The toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), encoded by tst gene, has been proposed to cause staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) in a susceptible host, which highlights the need to evaluate the level of tst gene expression and molecular genetic characteristics of the tst-positive isolates. A total of 916 S. aureus isolates collected from seven hospitals in China were screened for the tst gene. The tst positive isolates were characterized by spa, SCCmec, PFGE, and agr typing. Representative strains were also subjected to MLST typing. qRT-PCR was used to quantify tst and major virulence regulator genes expression. We also sequenced the regions of promoter and open reading frame (ORF) of tst to investigate whether they correlate with the variation in tst expression. We found 208 (22.7%) of surveyed isolates including 198 (29.8%) of MRSA and 10 (4.0%) of MSSA isolates harbored the tst gene. The most common clone among tst positive MRSA isolates belonged to ST5 (CC5)-agr2-t002-SCCmecII. The amount of tst mRNA varied 8.4-folds among clinical S. aureus isolates. Sequencing the tst promoter revealed a base T deletion in tst high expressed isolates. As for major virulence regulators, srrA, sarT, RNAIII, and ccpA in four tst differentially expressed strains were detected to be highly expressed, respectively. Our study revealed high prevalence of ST5 (CC5)-agr2-t002-SCCmecII clone among tst positive MRSA in hospitals from China. The levels of tst expression among clinical S. aureus isolates varied, which may be associated with tst promoter and variations in specific virulence regulators.
Project description:Objective: To undertake the first detailed genomic analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated in Sri Lanka. Methods: A prospective observational study was performed on 94 MRSA isolates collected over a 4 months period from the Anuradhapura Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka. Screening for mecA, mecC, and the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-associated lukS-PV/lukF-PV genes and molecular characterization by spa typing was undertaken. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) and phylogenetic analysis was performed on selected multilocus sequence type (MLST) clonal complex 5 (CC5) isolates from Sri Lanka, England, Australia, and Argentina. Results: All 94 MRSA harbored the mecA gene. Nineteen spa types belonging to nine MLST clonal complexes were identified. Where origin of the sample was recorded, most isolates were from skin and soft tissue infections (70/91; 76.9%), with fewer causing bacteremia (16/91; 17.6%), empyema (3/91; 3.3%) and osteomyelitis (2/91; 2.2%). Sixty two (65.9%) isolates were PVL positive with the majority (56 isolates; 90.3%) belonging to a dominant CC5 lineage. This lineage, PVL-positive ST5-MRSA-IVc, was associated with both community and hospital-onset infections. Based on WGS, representative PVL-positive ST5-MRSA-IVc isolates from Sri Lanka, England and Australia formed a single phylogenetic clade, suggesting wide geographical circulation. Conclusions: We present the most detailed genomic analysis of MRSA isolated in Sri Lanka to date. The analysis identified a PVL-positive ST5-MRSA-IVc that is prevalent among MRSA causing clinical infections in Sri Lanka. Furthermore, this clone was also found among isolates from the United Kingdom and Australia.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> (MRSA) can cause chronic lung infections in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). One option for managing them is the use of linezolid. We hereby report the in-host emergence of linezolid resistance (LR) in MRSA in CF siblings via a population analysis. A collection of 171 MRSA strains from 68 samples were characterized by determining their linezolid Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs), analyzing the locus of staphylococcal protein A (<i>spa</i>) and whole genome sequencing. Courses of linezolid were retraced. Strains belonged to three <i>spa</i> types (t002, t045, t127) and two sequence types (ST1, ST5). Emergence of LR occurred under treatment, one year apart in both siblings, in the CC5-MRSA-I Geraldine clone harboring the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1-encoding gene. Resistance was related to a G2576T substitution present in a variable number of 23S rRNA gene copies. Susceptible and resistant strains were co-isolated within samples. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism-based analysis revealed complex colonizations by highly diversified, clonally related populations. LR remains rare in MRSA and there are very few longitudinal analyses documenting its emergence. Analyzing a large MRSA collection revealed new aspects of LR emergence: it emerges in specific subclonal lineages resulting from adaptive diversification of MRSA in the CF lung and this heterogeneity of intra-sample resistance may contribute to compromising antibiotic management.
Project description:Reports from Arabian Gulf countries have demonstrated emergence of novel methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. To address the lack of data from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), genetic characterisation of MRSA identified between December 2017 and August 2019 was conducted using DNA microarray-based assays. The 625 MRSA isolates studied were grouped into 23 clonal complexes (CCs) and assigned to 103 strains. CC5, CC6, CC22 and CC30 represented 54.2% (n/N?=?339/625) of isolates with other common CCs being CC1, CC8, CC772, CC361, CC80, CC88. Emergence of CC398 MRSA, CC5-MRSA-IV Sri Lanka Clone and ST5/ST225-MRSA-II, Rhine-Hesse EMRSA/New York-Japan Clone in our setting was detected. Variants of pandemic CC8-MRSA-[IVa?+?ACME I] (PVL+) USA300 were detected and majority of CC772 strains were CC772-MRSA-V (PVL+), "Bengal- Bay Clone". Novel MRSA strains identified include CC5-MRSA-V (edinA+), CC5-MRSA-[VT?+?fusC], CC5-MRSA-IVa (tst1+), CC5-MRSA-[V/VT?+?cas?+?fusC?+?ccrA/B-1], CC8-MRSA-V/VT, CC22-MRSA-[IV?+?fusC?+?ccrAA/(C)], CC45-MRSA-[IV?+?fusC?+?tir], CC80-MRSA-IVa, CC121-MRSA-V/VT, CC152-MRSA-[V?+?fusC] (PVL+). Although several strains harboured SCC-borne fusidic acid resistance (fusC) (n?=?181), erythromycin/clindamycin resistance (ermC) (n?=?132) and gentamicin resistance (aacA-aphD) (n?=?179) genes, none harboured vancomycin resistance genes while mupirocin resistance gene mupR (n?=?2) and cfr gene (n?=?1) were rare. An extensive MRSA repertoire including CCs previously unreported in the region and novel strains which probably arose locally suggest an evolving MRSA landscape.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4><i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> is a human colonizer with high potential for virulence, and the spread of the virulent strains from the colonized hosts to non-carriers in the community is on the increase. However, there are few reports on comprehensive analysis of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes with clonal lineage in <i>S. aureus</i> in Africa. This is essential because of diversity of cultures and habits of the people. This study analyzed spa types and enterotoxin genes in <i>S. aureus</i> strains previously isolated from the human nostrils, poultry and clinical samples in Southern Nigeria.<h4>Methods</h4>Forty-seven <i>S. aureus</i> isolates were obtained from humans nostrils (<i>n</i> = 13), clinical strains (<i>n</i> = 21) and poultry (<i>n</i> = 13) from previous studies in Southern Nigeria. The strains were analyzed for <i>mecA</i> gene, selected toxins genes (<i>sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, sej, sek, sel, sem, sen, seo, sep, seq, ser, seu)</i> and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene <i>(</i>lukS-PV/lukF-PV<i>)</i> by PCR. Population structures of the strains were detected by Staphylococcal protein A (<i>spa</i>) typing.<h4>Results</h4>Twenty different spa types were obtained with the highest percentages, 17% observed in <i>spa</i> type t091 from clinical, nasal and poultry samples while t069 was the most prevalent spa type in poultry. Two MRSA were only detected in human strains. The poultry strains had the highest occurrence of SE genes (18%) followed by nasal strains (15%) and clinical strains (10%). Eighty-nine percent of all tested isolates harbored at least one SE gene; <i>seo</i> was the most prevalent (34%) followed by <i>seg</i> (30%) and <i>sea</i> (21%), while <i>sec, see</i> and <i>sej</i> were absent in all strains. Spa type t355 was associated with <i>lukS-PV/lukF-PV</i> gene and complete absence of all studied SE. <i>Sea, seq, seb, sek</i> were associated with spa type t069; <i>sea</i> was associated with t127 while <i>sep</i> was associated with spa type t091. There were coexistences of <i>seo/seg</i> and <i>sei/seg</i>.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The higher carriage of staphylococci enterotoxin genes by the nasal and poultry <i>S. aureus</i> strains suggests a high potential of spread of staphylococcal food poisoning through poultry and healthy carriers in the community. This is the first report of high occurrence of staphylococcal enterotoxins genes in poultry from Nigeria.