ABSTRACT: UNLABELLED: The proteasome is the primary contributor in intracellular proteolysis. Oxidized or unstructured proteins can be degraded via a ubiquitin- and ATP-independent process by the free 20S proteasome (20SPT). The mechanism by which these proteins enter the catalytic chamber is not understood thus far, although the 20SPT gating conformation is considered to be an important barrier to allowing proteins free entrance. We have previously shown that S-glutathiolation of the 20SPT is a post-translational modification affecting the proteasomal activities. AIMS: The goal of this work was to investigate the mechanism that regulates 20SPT activity, which includes the identification of the Cys residues prone to S-glutathiolation. RESULTS: Modulation of 20SPT activity by proteasome gating is at least partially due to the S-glutathiolation of specific Cys residues. The gate was open when the 20SPT was S-glutathiolated, whereas following treatment with high concentrations of dithiothreitol, the gate was closed. S-glutathiolated 20SPT was more effective at degrading both oxidized and partially unfolded proteins than its reduced form. Only 2 out of 28 Cys were observed to be S-glutathiolated in the proteasomal ?5 subunit of yeast cells grown to the stationary phase in glucose-containing medium. INNOVATION: We demonstrate a redox post-translational regulatory mechanism controlling 20SPT activity. CONCLUSION: S-glutathiolation is a post-translational modification that triggers gate opening and thereby activates the proteolytic activities of free 20SPT. This process appears to be an important regulatory mechanism to intensify the removal of oxidized or unstructured proteins in stressful situations by a process independent of ubiquitination and ATP consumption. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 1183-1194.
Project description:P21ras, the translation product of the most commonly mutated oncogene, is a small guanine nucleotide exchange protein. Oxidant-induced post-translational modifications of p21ras including S-nitrosation and S-glutathiolation have been demonstrated to modulate its activity. Structural characterization of this protein is critical to further understanding of the biological functions of p21ras. In this study, high-resolution and high mass accuracy Fourier transform mass spectrometry was utilized to map, in detail, the post-translational modifications of p21ras (H-ras) exposed to oxidants by combining bottom-up and top-down techniques. For peroxynitrite-treated p21ras, five oxidized methionines, five nitrated tyrosines, and at least two oxidized cysteines (including C118) were identified by "bottom-up" analysis, and the major oxidative modification of C118, Cys118-SO3H, was confirmed by several tandem mass spectrometry experiments. Additionally, "top-down" analysis was conducted on p21ras S-glutathiolated by oxidized glutathione and identified C118 as the major site of glutathiolation among the four surface cysteines. The present study provides a paradigm for an effective and efficient method not only for mapping post-translational modifications of proteins but also for predicting the relative selectivity and specificity of oxidative post-translational modifications, especially using top-down analysis.
Project description:Thimet oligopeptidase (EP24.15) is a cysteine-rich metallopeptidase containing fifteen Cys residues and no intra-protein disulfide bonds. Previous work on this enzyme revealed that the oxidative oligomerization of EP24.15 is triggered by S-glutathiolation at physiological GSSG levels (10-50 µM) via a mechanism based on thiol-disulfide exchange. In the present work, our aim was to identify EP24.15 Cys residues that are prone to S-glutathiolation and to determine which structural features in the cysteinyl bulk are responsible for the formation of mixed disulfides through the reaction with GSSG and, in this particular case, the Cys residues within EP24.15 that favor either S-glutathiolation or inter-protein thiol-disulfide exchange. These studies were conducted by in silico structural analyses and simulations as well as site-specific mutation. S-glutathiolation was determined by mass spectrometric analyses and western blotting with anti-glutathione antibody. The results indicated that the stabilization of a thiolate sulfhydryl and the solvent accessibility of the cysteines are necessary for S-thiolation. The Solvent Access Surface analysis of the Cys residues prone to glutathione modification showed that the S-glutathiolated Cys residues are located inside pockets where the sulfur atom comes into contact with the solvent and that the positively charged amino acids are directed toward these Cys residues. The simulation of a covalent glutathione docking onto the same Cys residues allowed for perfect glutathione posing. A mutation of the Arg residue 263 that forms a saline bridge to the Cys residue 175 significantly decreased the overall S-glutathiolation and oligomerization of EP24.15. The present results show for the first time the structural requirements for protein S-glutathiolation by GSSG and are consistent with our previous hypothesis that EP24.15 oligomerization is dependent on the electron transfer from specific protonated Cys residues of one molecule to previously S-glutathionylated Cys residues of another one.
Project description:For optimal proteolytic function, the central core of the proteasome (core particle (CP) or 20S) has to associate with activators. We investigated the impact of the yeast activator Blm10 on proteasomal peptide and protein degradation. We found enhanced degradation of peptide substrates in the presence of Blm10 and demonstrated that Blm10 has the capacity to accelerate proteasomal turnover of the unstructured protein tau-441 in vitro. Mechanistically, proteasome activation requires the opening of a closed gate, which allows passage of unfolded proteins into the catalytic chamber. Our data indicate that gate opening by Blm10 is achieved via engagement of its C-terminal segment with the CP. Crucial for this activity is a conserved C-terminal YYX motif, with the penultimate tyrosine playing a preeminent role. Thus, Blm10 utilizes a gate opening strategy analogous to the proteasomal ATPases HbYX-dependent mechanism. Because gating incompetent Blm10 C-terminal point mutants confers a loss of function phenotype, we propose that the cellular function of Blm10 is based on CP association and activation to promote the degradation of proteasome substrates.
Project description:Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is an NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase that is sensitive to oxidative signals. Our purpose was to determine whether SIRT1 activity is sensitive to the low molecular weight nitrosothiol, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), which can transduce oxidative signals into physiological responses. SIRT1 formed mixed disulfides with GSNO-Sepharose, and mass spectrometry identified several cysteines that are modified by GSNO, including Cys-67 which was S-glutathiolated. GSNO had no effect on basal SIRT1 deacetylase activity, but inhibited stimulation of activity by resveratrol (RSV) with an IC(50) of 69 microM. These observations indicate that S-glutathiolation of SIRT1 by low concentrations of reactive glutathione can modulate its enzymatic activity.
Project description:Ras GTPases cycle between active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound forms to regulate a multitude of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. The activation state of Ras is regulated by protein modulatory agents that accelerate the slow intrinsic rates of GDP dissociation and GTP hydrolysis. Similar to the action of guanine-nucleotide exchange factors, the rate of GDP dissociation can be greatly enhanced by the reaction of Ras with small-molecule redox agents, such as nitrogen dioxide, which can promote Ras activation. Nitrogen dioxide is an autoxidation product of nitric oxide and can react with an accessible cysteine of Ras to cause oxidation of the bound guanine nucleotide to facilitate Ras guanine nucleotide dissociation. Glutathione has also been reported to modify Ras and alter its activity. To elucidate the mechanism by which glutathione alters Ras guanine nucleotide binding properties, we performed NMR, top-down and bottom-up mass spectrometry, and biochemical analyses of glutathiolated Ras. We determined that treatment of H-Ras, lacking the nonconserved hypervariable region, with oxidized glutathione results in glutathiolation specifically at cysteine 118. However, glutathiolation does not alter Ras structure or biochemical properties. Rather, changes in guanine nucleotide binding properties and Ras activity occur upon exposure of Ras to free radicals, presumably through the generation of a cysteine 118 thiyl radical. Interestingly, Ras glutathiolation protects Ras from further free radical-mediated activation events. Therefore, glutathiolation does not affect Ras activity unless Ras is modified by glutathione through a radical-mediated mechanism.
Project description:Lysine 48-linked polyubiquitin chains usually target proteins for 26 S proteasomal degradation; however, this modification is not a warrant for destruction. Here, we found that efficient degradation of a physiological substrate UbcH10 requires not only an exogenous polyubiquitin chain modification but also its unstructured N-terminal region. Interestingly, the unstructured N-terminal region of UbcH10 directly binds the 19 S regulatory complex of the 26 S proteasome, and it mediates the initiation of substrate translocation. To promote ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the folded domains of UbcH10, its N-terminal region can be displaced by exogenous proteasomal binding elements. Moreover, the unstructured N-terminal region can initiate substrate translocation even when UbcH10 is artificially cyclized without a free terminus. Polyubiquitinated circular UbcH10 is completely degraded by the 26 S proteasome. Accordingly, we propose that degradation of some polyubiquitinated proteins requires two binding interactions: a polyubiquitin chain and an intrinsic proteasomal binding element in the substrates (likely an unstructured region); moreover, the intrinsic proteasomal binding element initiates substrate translocation regardless of its location in the substrates.
Project description:The reactive cysteines in H-ras are subject to oxidative modifications that potentially alter the cellular function of this protein. In this study, purified H-ras was modified by thiol oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), S-nitrosoglutathione, diamide, glutathione disulphide (GSSG) and cystamine, producing as many as four charge-isomeric forms of the protein. These results suggest that all four reactive cysteines of H-ras are potential sites of regulatory modification reactions. S-nitrosylated and S-glutathiolated forms of H-ras were identified by protocols that depend on separation of alkylated proteins on electrofocusing gels. S-nitrosoglutathione could S-nitrosylate H-ras on four cysteine residues, while reduced glutathione (GSH) and H(2)O(2) mediate S-glutathiolation on at least one cysteine of H-ras. Either GSSG or diamide S-glutathiolated at least two cysteine residues of purified H-ras. Iodoacetic acid reacts with three cysteine residues. In intact NIH-3T3 cells, wild-type H-ras was S-glutathiolated by diamide. Similarly, cells expressing a C118S mutant or a C181S/C184S double mutant of H-ras were S-glutathiolated by diamide. These results suggest that H-ras can be S-glutathiolated on multiple thiols in vivo and that at least one of these thiols is normally lipid-modified. In cells treated with S-nitrosocysteine, evidence for both S-nitrosylated and S-glutathiolated H-ras was obtained and S-nitrosylation was the predominant modification. These results show that oxidative modification of H-ras can be extensive in vivo, that both S-nitrosylated and S-glutathiolated forms may be important, and that oxidation may occur on reactive cysteines that are normally targeted for lipid-modification reactions.
Project description:Changes in the cellular environment modulate protein energy landscapes to drive important biology, with consequences for signaling, allostery and other vital processes. The effects of ubiquitination are particularly important because of their potential influence on degradation by the 26S proteasome. Moreover, proteasomal engagement requires unstructured initiation regions that many known proteasome substrates lack. To assess the energetic effects of ubiquitination and how these manifest at the proteasome, we developed a generalizable strategy to produce isopeptide-linked ubiquitin within structured regions of a protein. The effects on the energy landscape vary from negligible to dramatic, depending on the protein and site of ubiquitination. Ubiquitination at sensitive sites destabilizes the native structure and increases the rate of proteasomal degradation. In well-folded proteins, ubiquitination can even induce the requisite unstructured regions needed for proteasomal engagement. Our results indicate a biophysical role of site-specific ubiquitination as a potential regulatory mechanism for energy-dependent substrate degradation.
Project description:Cdc48/p97 is an essential and highly conserved AAA+ ATPase that uses its protein-unfoldase activity to extract ubiquitinated polypeptides from macromolecular complexes and membranes. This motor has also been implicated in protein-degradation pathways, yet its exact role in acting upstream of the 26S proteasome remains elusive. Ubiquitinated proteins destined for degradation by the proteasome require an unstructured initiation region to engage with the proteasomal translocation machinery, and Cdc48 was proposed to generate these unfolded segments, yet direct evidence has been missing. Here, we used an in vitro reconstituted system to demonstrate the collaboration of Cdc48 and the 26S proteasome from S. cerevisiae in degrading ubiquitinated, well-folded proteins that lack unstructured segments. Our data indicate that a critical role for Cdc48 in the ubiquitin-proteasome system is to create flexible initiation regions in compact substrates that otherwise would be refractory to engagement and degradation by the proteasome.
Project description:The Blm10/PA200 family of proteasome activators modulates the peptidase activity of the core particle (20S CP). They participate in opening the 20S CP gate, thus facilitating the degradation of unstructured proteins such as tau and Dnm1 in a ubiquitin- and ATP-independent manner. Furthermore, PA200 also participates in the degradation of acetylated histones. In our study, we use a combination of yeast and human cell systems to investigate the role of Blm10/PA200 in the degradation of N-terminal Huntingtin fragments (N-Htt). We demonstrate that the human PA200 binds to N-Htt. The loss of Blm10 in yeast or PA200 in human cells results in increased mutant N-Htt aggregate formation and elevated cellular toxicity. Furthermore, Blm10 in vitro accelerates the proteasomal degradation of soluble N-Htt. Collectively, our data suggest N-Htt as a new substrate for Blm10/PA200-proteasomes and point to new approaches in Huntington's disease (HD) research.