Retinoic acid upregulates preadipocyte genes to block adipogenesis and suppress diet-induced obesity.
ABSTRACT: Retinoic acid (RA) protects mice from diet-induced obesity. The activity is mediated in part through activation of the nuclear receptors RA receptors (RARs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? and their associated binding proteins cellular RA binding protein type II (CRABP-II) and fatty acid binding protein type 5 in adipocytes and skeletal muscle, leading to enhanced lipid oxidation and energy dissipation. It was also reported that RA inhibits differentiation of cultured preadipocytes. However, whether the hormone suppresses adipogenesis in vivo and how the activity is propagated remained unknown. In this study, we show that RA inhibits adipocyte differentiation by activating the CRABP-II/RAR? path in preadipose cells, thereby upregulating the expression of the adipogenesis inhibitors Pref-1, Sox9, and Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). In turn, KLF2 induces the expression of CRABP-II and RAR?, further potentiating inhibition of adipocyte differentiation by RA. The data also indicate that RA suppresses adipogenesis in vivo and that the activity significantly contributes to the ability of the hormone to counteract diet-induced obesity.
Project description:Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II (CRABP-II) undergoes nuclear translocation upon binding of retinoic acid (RA). In the nucleus, CRABP-II directly binds to the nuclear receptor RAR to form a complex through which RA is "channeled" from the binding protein to the receptor. CRABP-II thus facilitates the ligation of RAR and markedly enhances its transcriptional activity. The primary sequence of CRABP-II contains three putative SUMOylation sites, centered at K45, K87, and K102. We show here that RA induces interactions of CRABP-II with the E2 SUMO ligase Ubc9 and triggers SUMOylation of the protein both in vitro and in cultured cells. Mutagenesis analyses demonstrate that K102 is the sole CRABP-II residue to be SUMOylated in response to RA. Mutation of this residue abolishes the ability of CRABP-II to undergo nuclear translocation in response RA and thus impairs CRABP-II-mediated activation of RAR. Additional observations demonstrate that apo-CRABP-II is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and that RA triggers the dissociation of CRABP-II from this location. Furthermore, we show that RA-induced dissociation of CRABP-II from the ER requires SUMOylation of K102. Hence, SUMOylation of K102 in response to RA binding is critical for dissociation of CRABP-II from ER and, consequently, for mobilization of the protein to nucleus and for its cooperation with RAR.
Project description:Medulloblastoma cells exhibit varied responses to therapy by all-trans retinoic acid (RA). The underlying mechanism for such diverse effects however remains largely unclear. In this study, we attempted to elucidate the molecular basis of RA resistance through the study of RA signaling components in both RA-sensitive (Med-3) and RA-resistant (UW228-2 and UW228-3) medulloblastoma cells. The results revealed that RAR?/?/? and RXR?/?/? were found in the three cell lines. Expression of CRABP-I and CRABP-II was seen in Med-3 cells, up-regulated when treated with RA, but was absent in UW228-2 and UW228-3 cells regardless of RA treatment. Bisulfite sequencing revealed 8 methylated CG sites at the promoter region of CRABP-II in UW228-2 and UW228-3 but not in Med-3 cells. Demethylation by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine recovered CRABP-II expression. Upon restoration of CRABP-II expression, both UW228-2 and UW228-3 cells responded to RA treatment by forming neuronal-like differentiation, synaptophysin expression, ?-III tubulin upregulation, and apoptosis. Furthermore, CRABP-II specific siRNA reduced RA sensitivity in Med-3 cells. Tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical staining showed variable CRABP-II expression patterns among 104 medulloblastoma cases, ranging from negative (42.3%), partly positive (14.4%) to positive (43.3%). CRABP-II expression was positively correlated with synaptophysin (rs = 0.317; p = 0.001) but not with CRABP-I expression (p > 0.05). In conclusion, aberrant methylation in CRABP-II reduces the expression of CRABP-II that in turn confers RA resistance in medulloblastoma cells. Determination of CRABP-II expression or methylation status may enable a personalized RA therapy in patients with medulloblastomas and other types of cancers.
Project description:Transcriptional activation of the nuclear receptor RAR by retinoic acid (RA) often leads to inhibition of cell growth. However, in some tissues, RA promotes cell survival and hyperplasia, activities that are unlikely to be mediated by RAR. Here, we show that, in addition to functioning through RAR, RA activates the "orphan" nuclear receptor PPARbeta/delta, which, in turn, induces the expression of prosurvival genes. Partitioning of RA between the two receptors is regulated by the intracellular lipid binding proteins CRABP-II and FABP5. These proteins specifically deliver RA from the cytosol to nuclear RAR and PPARbeta/delta, respectively, thereby selectively enhancing the transcriptional activity of their cognate receptors. Consequently, RA functions through RAR and is a proapoptotic agent in cells with high CRABP-II/FABP5 ratio, but it signals through PPARbeta/delta and promotes survival in cells that highly express FABP5. Opposing effects of RA on cell growth thus emanate from alternate activation of two different nuclear receptors.
Project description:The transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) displays anticarcinogenic activities but the mechanism that underlies this activity is unknown. We show here that KLF2 is markedly downregulated in human breast cancers and that its expression positively correlates with breast cancer patient survival. We show further that KLF2 suppresses tumor development by controlling the transcriptional activity of the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA). RA regulates gene transcription by activating two types of nuclear receptors: RA receptors (RARs), which inhibit tumor development, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? (PPAR?/?), which promotes tumorigenesis. The partitioning of RA between these receptors is regulated by two carrier proteins: cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2), which delivers RA to RARs, and fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5), which shuttles ligands to PPAR?/?. We show that KLF2 induces the expression of CRABP2 and RAR? and inhibits the expression FABP5 and PPAR?/? thereby shifting RA signaling from the pro-carcinogenic FABP5/PPAR?/? to the growth-suppressing CRABP2/RAR path. The data thus reveal that KLF2 suppresses tumor growth by controlling the transcriptional activities of RA.
Project description:Retinoic acid (RA) displays potent anticarcinogenic activities that are mediated by the nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs). However, use of RA in oncology is limited by RA resistance acquired during carcinogenesis. Moreover, in some cancers, RA facilitates rather than inhibits growth. A clue to this paradoxical behavior was recently suggested by the findings that RA also activates PPARbeta/delta, a receptor involved in mitogenic and anti-apoptotic activities. The observations that partitioning of RA between its two receptors is regulated by two intracellular lipid-binding proteins-CRABP-II, which targets RA to RAR, and FABP5, which delivers it to PPARbeta/delta-further suggest that RA resistance may stem from the deregulation of the binding proteins, resulting in activation of PPARbeta/delta rather than RAR. Here, we show that, in the RA-resistant mouse model of breast cancer MMTV-neu, RA indeed activates the nonclassical RA receptor PPARbeta/delta. This behavior was traced to an aberrantly high intratumor FABP5/CRABP-II ratio. Decreasing this ratio in mammary tissue diverted RA from PPARbeta/delta to RAR and suppressed tumor growth. The data demonstrate the existence of a mechanism that underlies RA resistance in tumors, indicate that CRABP-II functions as a tumor suppressor, and suggest that the inhibition of FABP5 may comprise a therapeutic strategy for overcoming RA resistance in some tumors.
Project description:The objective of this study was to compare the properties of 9-cis and all-trans retinoic acid with respect to the induction of expression of retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-beta) and cellular retinoic acid-binding protein (CRABP) II in human neuroblastoma SH SY 5Y cells. RAR-beta and CRABP II mRNA was induced by both all-trans and 9-cis retinoic acid in SH SY 5Y cells. Induction was rapid, detectable within 2-4 h, and inhibited by actinomycin D. Time-courses of induction for RAR-beta and CRABP II differed: RAR-beta mRNA levels reached a maximum 4-6 h after adding all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, whereas CRABP II mRNA levels increased over at least 18 h. These differences were attributed to the longer half-life of CRABP II mRNA (20 h) compared with RAR-beta mRNA (3.9 h). The dose-response characteristics of all-trans and 9-cis retinoic acid were different: all-trans was effective at nanomolar concentrations, whereas 10-fold higher levels of 9-cis retinoic acid were required to achieve comparable induction of RAR-beta and CRABP II. Conversely, at high concentrations, 9-cis retinoic acid gave a greater induction of RAR-beta and CRABP II than all-trans. The induction of RAR-beta and CRABP II by all-trans retinoic acid was maintained in the subsequent absence of all-trans retinoic acid, whereas induction by 9-cis retinoic acid was dependent on its continued presence in the culture medium. These results suggest that, at high concentrations, 9-cis retinoic acid may produce its transcriptional effects via retinoid X receptor (RXR) homodimers. This has implications for the cellular functions of 9-cis retinoic acid and its use as a biological response modifier.
Project description:Retinoids, especially all-trans retinoic acid (RA), have been shown to inhibit the differentiation of preadipose cells. In the present study, the expression of retinoic acid receptors (RAR alpha, beta and gamma) and retinoid X receptors (RXR alpha, beta and gamma) was examined by Northern blot analysis in rat adipose tissue and mouse 3T3-L1 adipose cells. The adipose tissue and/or 3T3-L1 cells expressed mRNAs for a number of nuclear retinoid receptors, including RAR alpha, beta and gamma, and RXR alpha, beta and gamma. RAR alpha, RAR gamma, RXR alpha and RXR beta mRNAs were abundant in adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 cells. RXR gamma mRNA was detected in adipose tissue but not in 3T3-L1 cells. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with 1 microM RA led to a 4-5-fold increase in the RAR gamma mRNA level, but only a trace amount of RAR beta mRNA was detected. RAR gamma mRNA expression was rapidly (within 2 h) induced by physiological concentrations of RA in a dose-dependent manner. The response of RAR gamma mRNA expression to RA was reversible; rapid disappearance of RAR gamma mRNA occurred on RA removal. In addition, the induction of RAR gamma expression did not require de novo protein synthesis, but was completely abolished by an inhibitor of RNA synthesis. Using RAR gamma 1 and gamma 2 isoform-specific probes, the patterns of RAR gamma 1 and gamma 2 mRNA expression in 3T3-L1 cells in the presence and absence of RA were examined. RAR gamma 1 mRNA was detected in 3T3-L1 cells but was not affected by RA treatment; however, RAR gamma 2 mRNA was strongly induced by RA.
Project description:Retinoids are vitamin A (retinol) derivatives and complex regulators of adipogenesis by activating specific nuclear receptors, including the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR). Circulating retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and its membrane receptor STRA6 coordinate cellular retinol uptake. It is unknown whether retinol levels and the activity of RAR and RXR in adipocyte precursors are linked via RBP4/STRA6. Here, we show that STRA6 is expressed in precursor cells and, dictated by the apo- and holo-RBP4 isoforms, mediates bidirectional retinol transport that controls RAR? activity and subsequent adipocyte differentiation. Mobilization of retinoid stores in mice by inducing RBP4 secretion from the liver activated RAR? signaling in the precursor cell containing the stromal-vascular fraction of adipose tissue. Retinol-loaded holo-RBP4 blocked adipocyte differentiation of cultured precursors by activating RAR?. Remarkably, retinol-free apo-RBP4 triggered retinol efflux that reduced cellular retinoids, RAR? activity, and target gene expression and enhanced adipogenesis synergistically with ectopic STRA6. Thus, STRA6 in adipocyte precursor cells links nuclear RAR? activity to the circulating RBP4 isoforms, whose ratio in obese mice was shifted toward limiting the adipogenic potential of their precursors. This novel cross talk identifies a retinol-dependent metabolic function of RBP4 that may have important implications for the treatment of obesity.
Project description:A new affinity chromatography method was developed by modifying a zonal elution method. The new method targets transient protein-protein interactions, such as those encountered during direct ligand transfer between the ligand transporter and its cognate receptor. A ligand-loaded transport protein is immobilized on the solid support, and a plug containing a putative receptor is flowed through the column. Elution profiles of proteins not interacting with the immobilized transporter can be approximated with a simple Gaussian curve, while the elution profiles of cognate receptors show significant delay and exhibit complex shape. Ligand transfer from the immobilized transporter molecules to the receptors is verified by both UV absorbance measurements and mass spectrometry. The sensitivity of the method is demonstrated using retinoic acid (RA) transfer from various isoforms of cellular RA binding proteins (CRABPs) and RA receptor ? (RAR?). Although these interactions have been hypothesized long ago to proceed via direct mechanism (i.e., via transient docking of the receptor and the transporter), the existing biophysical techniques failed to detect the presence of the transporter-receptor complexes. However, the modified zonal elution method provides unequivocal evidence of direct interaction between RAR? and one of the CRABP isoforms (CRABP II) during the ligand transfer to the receptor.
Project description:Retinoic acid (RA), a bioactive metabolite of vitamin A, is a critical mediator of cell differentiation. RA blocks adipogenesis, but mechanisms remain to be established. ZFP423 is a key transcription factor maintaining white adipose identity. We found that RA inhibits Zfp423 expression and adipogenesis via blocking DNA demethylation in the promoter of Zfp423, a process mediated by growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein alpha (GADD45A). RA induces the partnering between retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and tumor suppressor inhibitor of growth protein 1 (ING1), which prevents the formation of GADD45A and ING1 complex necessary for locus-specific Zfp423 DNA demethylation. In vivo, vitamin A supplementation prevents obesity, downregulates Gadd45a expression, and reduces GADD45A binding and DNA demethylation in the Zfp423 promoter. Inhibition of Zfp423 expression due to RA contributes to the enhanced brown adipogenesis. In summary, RA inhibits white adipogenesis by inducing RAR and ING1 interaction and inhibiting Gadd45a expression, which prevents GADD45A-mediated DNA demethylation.