The micro-RNA 199b-5p regulatory circuit involves Hes1, CD15, and epigenetic modifications in medulloblastoma.
ABSTRACT: Micro-RNA (miR) 199b-5p targets Hes1 in medulloblastoma, one of the downstream effectors of both the canonical Notch and noncanonical Sonic Hedgehog pathways. In medulloblastoma patients, expression of miR-199b-5p is significantly decreased in metastatic cases, thus suggesting a downregulation mechanism. We studied this mechanism, which is mediated mostly by Hes1 and epigenetic promoter modifications. The miR-199b-5p promoter region was characterized, which identified a Hes1 binding site, thus demonstrating a negative feedback loop of regulation. MiR-199b-5p was shown to be downregulated in several medulloblastoma cell lines and in tumors by epigenetic methylation of a cytosine-phosphate-guanine island upstream of the miR-199b-5p promoter. Furthermore, the cluster of differention (CD) carbohydrate antigen CD15, a marker of medulloblastoma tumor-propagating cells, is an additional direct target of miR-199b-5p. Most importantly, regulation of miR-199b-5p expression in these CD15+/CD133+ tumor-propagating cells was influenced by only Hes1 expression and not by any epigenetic mechanism of regulation. Moreover, reverse-phase protein array analysis showed both the Akt and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase pathways as being mainly negatively regulated by miR-199b-5p expression in several medulloblastoma cell lines and in primary cell cultures. We present here the finely tuned regulation of miR-199b-5p in medulloblastoma, underlining its crucial role by its additional targeting of CD15.
Project description:Through negative regulation of gene expression, microRNAs (miRNAs) can function in cancers as oncosuppressors, and they can show altered expression in various tumor types. Here we have investigated medulloblastoma tumors (MBs), which arise from an early impairment of developmental processes in the cerebellum, where Notch signaling is involved in many cell-fate-determining stages. MBs occur bimodally, with the peak incidence seen between 3-4 years and 8-9 years of age, although it can also occur in adults. Notch regulates a subset of the MB cells that have stem-cell-like properties and can promote tumor growth. On the basis of this evidence, we hypothesized that miRNAs targeting the Notch pathway can regulated these phenomena, and can be used in anti-cancer therapies.In a screening of MB cell lines, the miRNA miR-199b-5p was seen to be a regulator of the Notch pathway through its targeting of the transcription factor HES1. Down-regulation of HES1 expression by miR-199b-5p negatively regulates the proliferation rate and anchorage-independent growth of MB cells. MiR-199b-5p over-expression blocks expression of several cancer stem-cell genes, impairs the engrafting potential of MB cells in the cerebellum of athymic/nude mice, and of particular interest, decreases the MB stem-cell-like (CD133+) subpopulation of cells. In our analysis of 61 patients with MB, the expression of miR-199b-5p in the non-metastatic cases was significantly higher than in the metastatic cases (P = 0.001). Correlation with survival for these patients with high levels of miR-199b expression showed a positive trend to better overall survival than for the low-expressing patients. These data showing the down-regulation of miR-199b-5p in metastatic MBs suggest a potential silencing mechanism through epigenetic or genetic alterations. Upon induction of de-methylation using 5-aza-deoxycytidine, lower miR-199b-5p expression was seen in a panel of MB cell lines, supported an epigenetic mechanism of regulation. Furthermore, two cell lines (Med8a and UW228) showed significant up-regulation of miR-199b-5p upon treatment. Infection with MB cells in an induced xenograft model in the mouse cerebellum and the use of an adenovirus carrying miR-199b-5p indicate a clinical benefit through this negative influence of miR-199b-5p on tumor growth and on the subset of MB stem-cell-like cells, providing further proof of concept.Despite advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of MB, one-third of these patients remain incurable and current treatments can significantly damage long-term survivors. Here we show that miR-199b-5p expression correlates with metastasis spread, identifying a new molecular marker for a poor-risk class in patients with MB. We further show that in a xenograft model, MB tumor burden can be reduced, indicating the use of miR199b-5p as an adjuvant therapy after surgery, in combination with radiation and chemotherapy, for the improvement of anti-cancer MB therapies and patient quality of life. To date, this is the first report that expression of a miRNA can deplete the tumor stem cells, indicating an interesting therapeutic approach for the targeting of these cells in brain tumors.
Project description:Epithelial ovarian cancer is a highly lethal and aggressive gynecological malignancy. The high mortality rate is due in part to the fact that many advanced cancer patients become refractory to current chemotherapeutic agents, leading to tumor recurrence and death. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to chemoresistance remain obscure. Here, we report that the loss of miR-199b-5p due to progressive epigenetic silencing leads to the activation of the JAG1-mediated Notch1 signaling cascade, thereby leading to the development of acquired chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. Using miRCURY LNA™ microRNA array and Q-PCR analyses of two pairs of cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant ovarian cancer cell lines, we identified miR-199b-5p as significantly down-regulated in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells and confirmed that miR-199b-5p is clinically associated with advanced and poor survival ovarian cancers. Interestingly, the loss of miR-199b-5p could be restored by 5-Aza-dC-mediated demethylation, and methylated specific PCR (MS-PCR), bisulfite-sequencing and pyrosequencing revealed that the promoter region of miR-199b-5p was hypermethylated. Computational and mechanistic analyses identified JAG1 as a primary target of miR-199b-5p. Notably, the reduced expression of miR-199b-5p was found to be inversely correlated with the increased expression of JAG1 using an ovarian cancer tissue array. Enforced expression of miR-199b-5p sensitized ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, re-expression of miR-199b-5p and siRNA-mediated JAG1 knockdown or treatment with Notch specific inhibitor ?-secretase (GSI) attenuated JAG1-Notch1 signaling activity, thereby enhancing cisplatin-mediated cell cytotoxicity. Taken together, our study suggests that the epigenetic silencing of miR-199b-5p during tumor progression is significantly associated with acquired chemoresistance in ovarian cancer through the activation of JAG1-Notch1 signaling.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy among females with dismal quality of life in patients. It has been proven that epigenetic factors, especially microRNAs, are involved in breast carcinogenesis and progression. This study aimed to assess the expression and clinical performances of a five-microRNA signature (miR-127-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-155-5p, miR-199b-5p, and miR-342-5p) in breast cancer and adjacent normal tissues to identify a potential biomarker for BC and investigate the relationship between their expression and clinicopathological features of BC patients as well. METHODS:In this case-control investigation, we recruited 50 pairs of tumor and matched non-tumor surgical specimens from patients diagnosed with BC. Expression levels of miR-127-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-155-5p, miR-199b-5p, and miR-342-5p were measured in BC and adjacent normal tissues by RT-qPCR. RESULTS:We found that miR-127-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-199b-5p, and miR-342-5p were significantly down-regulated, while miR-155-5p was significantly up-regulated in BC tumor tissues compared with the corresponding adjacent normal tissues. The decreased expression of miR-127-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-342-5p, and up-regulation of miR-155-5p showed a significant correlation with disease stage. We also found a significant down-regulation of miR-127-3p, miR-199b-5p, and miR-342-5p compared in HER-2-negative patients. Our results indicated that miR-155-5p had a higher expression level in HER-2-positive patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated that all these five microRNAs can serve as potential biomarkers to distinguish between tumor and non-tumor breast tissue samples. CONCLUSIONS:The present findings suggested that dysregulation of this five-miRNA signature might be considered as a promising and functional biomarker for BC diagnosis.
Project description:Atrasentan is a promising therapy for treating diabetic nephropathy (DN). Here we evaluated whether atrasentan down-regulated the miR-199b-5p expression, thereby increasing klotho and preventing renal tubular injury in DN. One-hundred patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 40 healthy subjects were included. A DN mice model was established by an injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Human renal proximal tubular epithelial HK-2 cells were exposed to high glucose (20?mmol/L). Treated the mice and HK-2 cells with atrasentan, and we then investigated whether and how miR-199b-5p and Klotho were involved in preventing renal tubular injury in DN. In patients, the serum miR-199b-5p level increased and the klotho concentration decreased in accordance with elevated albuminuria. Atrasentan down-regulated miR-199b-5p and up-regulated klotho of the DN mice and HK-2 cells exposed to high glucose. High glucose promoted the binding of histone H3 to the miR-199b-5p promoter, and atrasentan canceled this effect. MiR-199b-5p targeted the 3'?UTR of klotho. Overexpression of miR-199b-5p canceled the effects of atrasentan on klotho expression and apoptosis of renal tubular cells in both in vivo and in vitro. The increased serum klotho, mediated by miR-199b-5p, is a possible mechanism by which atrasentan prevents renal tubular injury in DN.
Project description:Angiogenesis is a crucial event during cancer progression that regulates tumor growth and metastasis. Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1), predominantly expressed in endothelial cells, plays a key role in the organization of neo-angiogenic vessels. Therapeutic targeting of ALK1 has been proposed as a promising strategy for cancer treatment, and microRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly being explored as modulators of angiogenesis. However, the regulation of ALK1 by miRNAs is unclear. In this study, we identified that ALK1 is directly targeted by miR-199b-5p, which was able to inhibit angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, it was found that miR-199b-5p was repressed in breast cancer cells and its expression was decreased during the VEGF-induced angiogenesis process of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Overexpression of miR-199b-5p inhibited the formation of capillary-like tubular structures and migration of HUVECs. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-199b-5p inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of ALK1 in HUVECs by directly binding to its 3'UTR. Additionally, overexpression of miR-199b-5p attenuated the induction of ALK1/Smad/Id1 pathway by BMP9 in HUVECs. Finally, overexpression of miR-199b-5p reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis in in vivo. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the anti-angiogenic role of miR-199b-5p, which directly targets ALK1, suggesting that miR-199b-5p might be a potential anti-angiogenic target for cancer therapy.
Project description:Homeostatic maintenance of corneal endothelial cells is essential for maintenance of corneal deturgescence and transparency. In Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), an accelerated loss and dysfunction of endothelial cells leads to progressively severe visual impairment. An abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) is a distinctive hallmark of the disease, however the molecular pathogenic mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not fully understood. Here, we investigate genome-wide and sequence-specific DNA methylation changes of miRNA genes in corneal endothelial samples from FECD patients. We discover that miRNA gene promoters are frequent targets of aberrant DNA methylation in FECD. More specifically, miR-199B is extensively hypermethylated and its mature transcript miR-199b-5p was previously found to be almost completely silenced in FECD. Furthermore, we find that miR-199b-5p directly and negatively regulates Snai1 and ZEB1, two zinc finger transcription factors that lead to increased ECM deposition in FECD. Taken together, these findings suggest a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism of matrix protein production by corneal endothelial cells in which miR-199B hypermethylation leads to miR-199b-5p downregulation and thereby the increased expression of its target genes, including Snai1 and ZEB1. Our results support miR-199b-5p as a potential therapeutic target to prevent or slow down the progression of FECD disease.
Project description:The mechanism(s) behind folate rescue of neural tube closure are not well understood. In this study we show that maternal intake of folate prior to conception reverses the proliferation potential of neural crest stem cells in homozygous Splotch embryos (Sp(-/-)) via epigenetic mechanisms. It is also shown that the pattern of differentiation seen in these cells is similar to wild-type (WT). Cells from open caudal neural tubes of Sp(-/-) embryos exhibit increased H3K27 methylation and decreased expression of KDM6B possibly due to up-regulation of KDM6B targeting micro-RNAs such as miR-138, miR-148a, miR-185, and miR-339-5p. In our model, folate reversed these epigenetic marks in folate-rescued Sp(-/-) embryos. Using tissue from caudal neural tubes of murine embryos we also examined H3K27me2 and KDM6B association with Hes1 and Neurog2 promoters at embryonic day E10.5, the proliferative stage, and E12.5, when neural differentiation begins. In Sp(-/-) embryos compared with WT, levels of H3K27me2 associated with the Hes1 promoter were increased at E10.5, and levels associated with the Neurog2 promoter were increased at E12.5. KDM6B association with Hes1 and Neurog2 promoters was inversely related to H3K27me2 levels. These epigenetic changes were reversed in folate-rescued Sp(-/-) embryos. Thus, one of the mechanisms by which folate may rescue the Sp(-/-) phenotype is by increasing the expression of KDM6B, which in turn decreases H3K27 methylation marks on Hes1 and Neurog2 promoters thereby affecting gene transcription.
Project description:Myocardial infarction (MI), the globally leading cause of heart failure, morbidity and mortality, involves post-MI ventricular remodeling, a complex process including acute injury healing, scar formation and global changes in the surviving myocardium. The molecular mechanisms involved in adverse post-infarct left ventricular remodeling still remain poorly defined. Recently, microRNAs have been implicated in the development and progression of various cardiac diseases as crucial regulators of gene expression. We previously demonstrated that in a murine model of pressure overload, a model of heart failure secondary to aortic stenosis or chronic high blood pressure, elevated myocardial expression of miR-199b-5p is sufficient to activate calcineurin/NFAT signaling, leading to exaggerated cardiac pathological remodeling and dysfunction. Given the differences in left ventricular remodeling secondary to post-infarct healing and pressure overload, we evaluated miR-199b function in post-MI remodeling. We confirmed that the expression of miR-199b is elevated in the post-infarcted heart. Transgenic animals with cardiomyocyte-restricted overexpression of miR-199b-5p displayed exaggerated pathological remodeling after MI, reflected by severe systolic and diastolic dysfunction and fibrosis deposition. Conversely, therapeutic silencing of miR-199b-5p in MI-induced cardiac remodeling by using an antagomir to specifically inhibit endogenous miR-199b-5p in vivo, resulted in efficient suppression of cardiac miR-199b-5p expression and attenuated cardiac dysfunction and dilation following MI. Mechanistically, miR-199b-5p influenced the expression of three predicted target genes in post-infarcted hearts, dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1a), the notch1 receptor and its ligand jagged1. In conclusion, here we provide evidence supporting that stress-induced miR-199b-5p participates in post-infarct remodeling by simultaneous regulation of distinct target genes.
Project description:Small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression that modulate many physiological processes; however, their role in regulating intracellular transport remains largely unknown. Intriguingly, we found that the dynamin (DNM) genes, a GTPase family of proteins responsible for endocytosis in eukaryotic cells, encode the conserved miR-199a and miR-199b family of miRNAs within their intronic sequences. Here, we demonstrate that miR-199a and miR-199b regulate endocytic transport by controlling the expression of important mediators of endocytosis such as clathrin heavy chain (CLTC), Rab5A, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1). Importantly, miR-199a-5p and miR-199b-5p overexpression markedly inhibits CLTC, Rab5A, LDLR and Cav-1 expression, thus preventing receptor-mediated endocytosis in human cell lines (Huh7 and HeLa). Of note, miR-199a-5p inhibition increases target gene expression and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Taken together, our work identifies a new mechanism by which microRNAs regulate intracellular trafficking. In particular, we demonstrate that the DNM, miR-199a-5p and miR-199b-5p genes act as a bifunctional locus that regulates endocytosis, thus adding an unexpected layer of complexity in the regulation of intracellular trafficking.
Project description:This study screened microRNAs (miRNAs) that are abnormally expressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) tissues to identify PTC and nodular goiter and the degree of PTC malignancy. A total of 51 thyroid tumor tissue specimens paired with adjacent normal thyroid tissues were obtained from the Department of Surgical Oncology of Hangzhou First People's Hospital from June-December 2011. miRNA expression profiles were examined by microarrays and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Expression levels of the miRNAs were analyzed to assess if they were associated with selected clinicopathological features. Eleven miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between nodular goiter and PTC and between highly invasive and low invasive PTC. miR-199b-5p and miR-30a-3p were significantly differentially expressed among the three groups. miR-30a-3p, miR-122-5p, miR-136-5p, miR-146b-5p and miR-199b-5p were selected for further study by qRT-PCR and miR-146b-5p, miR-199b-5p and miR-30a-3p were different between the PTC and nodular goiter groups. miR-199b-5p was over-expressed in PTC patients with extrathyroidal invasion and cervical lymph node metastasis. In conclusion miR-146b-5p, miR-30a-3p, and miR-199b-5p may serve as biomarkers for the diagnosis of PTC and miR-199b-5p is associated with PTC invasiveness.