A developmental and genetic classification for malformations of cortical development: update 2012.
ABSTRACT: Malformations of cerebral cortical development include a wide range of developmental disorders that are common causes of neurodevelopmental delay and epilepsy. In addition, study of these disorders contributes greatly to the understanding of normal brain development and its perturbations. The rapid recent evolution of molecular biology, genetics and imaging has resulted in an explosive increase in our knowledge of cerebral cortex development and in the number and types of malformations of cortical development that have been reported. These advances continue to modify our perception of these malformations. This review addresses recent changes in our perception of these disorders and proposes a modified classification based upon updates in our knowledge of cerebral cortical development.
Project description:Malformations of cortical development are common causes of developmental delay and epilepsy. Some patients have early, severe neurological impairment, but others have epilepsy or unexpected deficits that are detectable only by screening. The rapid evolution of molecular biology, genetics, and imaging has resulted in a substantial increase in knowledge about the development of the cerebral cortex and the number and types of malformations reported. Genetic studies have identified several genes that might disrupt each of the main stages of cell proliferation and specification, neuronal migration, and late cortical organisation. Many of these malformations are caused by de-novo dominant or X-linked mutations occurring in sporadic cases. Genetic testing needs accurate assessment of imaging features, and familial distribution, if any, and can be straightforward in some disorders but requires a complex diagnostic algorithm in others. Because of substantial genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity for most of these genes, a comprehensive analysis of clinical, imaging, and genetic data is needed to properly define these disorders. Exome sequencing and high-field MRI are rapidly modifying the classification of these disorders.
Project description:Malformations of cortical development are a group of rare disorders commonly manifesting with developmental delay, cerebral palsy or seizures. The neurological outcome is extremely variable depending on the type, extent and severity of the malformation and the involved genetic pathways of brain development. Neuroimaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis of these malformations, but several issues regarding malformations of cortical development definitions and classification remain unclear. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide standardized malformations of cortical development terminology and classification for neuroradiological pattern interpretation. A committee of international experts in paediatric neuroradiology prepared systematic literature reviews and formulated neuroimaging recommendations in collaboration with geneticists, paediatric neurologists and pathologists during consensus meetings in the context of the European Network Neuro-MIG initiative on Brain Malformations (https://www.neuro-mig.org/). Malformations of cortical development neuroimaging features and practical recommendations are provided to aid both expert and non-expert radiologists and neurologists who may encounter patients with malformations of cortical development in their practice, with the aim of improving malformations of cortical development diagnosis and imaging interpretation worldwide.
Project description:Malformations of cortical development are rare congenital anomalies of the cerebral cortex, wherein patients present with intractable epilepsy and various degrees of developmental delay. Cases show a spectrum of anomalous cortical formations with diverse anatomic and morphological abnormalities, a variety of genetic causes, and different clinical presentations. Brain magnetic resonance imaging has been of great help in determining the exact morphologies of cortical malformations. The hypothetical mechanisms of malformation include interruptions during the formation of cerebral cortex in the form of viral infection, genetic causes, and vascular events. Recent remarkable developments in genetic analysis methods have improved our understanding of these pathological mechanisms. The present review will discuss normal cortical development, the current proposed malformation classifications, and the diagnostic approach for malformations of cortical development.
Project description:Variants in cullin 4B (CUL4B) are a known cause of syndromic X-linked intellectual disability. Here, we describe an additional 25 patients from 11 families with variants in CUL4B. We identified nine different novel variants in these families and confirmed the pathogenicity of all nontruncating variants. Neuroimaging data, available for 15 patients, showed the presence of cerebral malformations in ten patients. The cerebral anomalies comprised malformations of cortical development (MCD), ventriculomegaly, and diminished white matter volume. The phenotypic heterogeneity of the cerebral malformations might result from the involvement of CUL-4B in various cellular pathways essential for normal brain development. Accordingly, we show that CUL-4B interacts with WDR62, a protein in which variants were previously identified in patients with microcephaly and a wide range of MCD. This interaction might contribute to the development of cerebral malformations in patients with variants in CUL4B.
Project description:The development of the human cerebral cortex is an orchestrated process involving the generation of neural progenitors in the periventricular germinal zones, cell proliferation characterized by symmetric and asymmetric mitoses, followed by migration of post-mitotic neurons to their final destinations in six highly ordered, functionally specialized layers. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms guiding these intricate processes is in its infancy, substantially driven by the discovery of rare mutations that cause malformations of cortical development. Mapping of disease loci in putative Mendelian forms of malformations of cortical development has been hindered by marked locus heterogeneity, small kindred sizes and diagnostic classifications that may not reflect molecular pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate the use of whole-exome sequencing to overcome these obstacles by identifying recessive mutations in WD repeat domain 62 (WDR62) as the cause of a wide spectrum of severe cerebral cortical malformations including microcephaly, pachygyria with cortical thickening as well as hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Some patients with mutations in WDR62 had evidence of additional abnormalities including lissencephaly, schizencephaly, polymicrogyria and, in one instance, cerebellar hypoplasia, all traits traditionally regarded as distinct entities. In mice and humans, WDR62 transcripts and protein are enriched in neural progenitors within the ventricular and subventricular zones. Expression of WDR62 in the neocortex is transient, spanning the period of embryonic neurogenesis. Unlike other known microcephaly genes, WDR62 does not apparently associate with centrosomes and is predominantly nuclear in localization. These findings unify previously disparate aspects of cerebral cortical development and highlight the use of whole-exome sequencing to identify disease loci in settings in which traditional methods have proved challenging.
Project description:Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) compose a diverse range of disorders that are common causes of neurodevelopmental delay and epilepsy. With improved imaging and genetic methodologies, the underlying molecular and pathobiological characteristics of several MCDs have been recently elucidated. In this review, we discuss genetic and molecular alterations that disrupt normal cortical development, with emphasis on recent discoveries, and provide detailed radiological features of the most common and important MCDs. Ann Neurol 2016;80:797-810.
Project description:The clinical diagnosis of malformations of cortical development (MCDs) is often challenging due to the complexity of the brain malformation by neuroimaging, the rarity of individual malformation syndromes, and the rapidly evolving genetic landscape of these disorders facilitated with the use of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods. While the clinical and molecular diagnosis of severe cortical malformations, such as classic lissencephaly, is often straightforward, the diagnosis of more subtle and complex types of cortical malformations, such as pachygyria and polymicrogyria (PMG), can be more challenging due to limited knowledge regarding their genetic etiologies. Here, we report two individuals with the same de novo KIF5C mutation who present with subtle MCDs, early onset epilepsy and significant neurodevelopmental and behavioral issues including absent language. Our data, combined with the limited literature on KIF5C mutations, to date, support that KIF5C mutations are associated with a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by infantile onset epilepsy, and subtle but recognizable types of brain malformations. We also show that the spectrum of KIF5C mutations is narrow, as five out of the six identified individuals have mutations affecting amino acid Glu237. Therefore, the identification of the clinical and neuroimaging features of this disorder may strongly facilitate rapid and efficient molecular diagnosis.
Project description:Structural abnormalities of the brain are increasingly recognized in patients with neurodevelopmental delay and intractable focal epilepsies. The access to clinically well-characterized neurosurgical material has provided a unique opportunity to better define the neuropathological, neurochemical, and molecular features of epilepsy-associated focal developmental lesions. These studies help to further understand the epileptogenic mechanisms of these lesions. Neuropathological evaluation of surgical specimens from patients with epilepsy-associated developmental lesions reveals two major pathologies: focal cortical dysplasia and low-grade developmental tumors (glioneuronal tumors). In the last few years there have been major advances in the recognition of a wide spectrum of developmental lesions associated with a intractable epilepsy, including cortical tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and hemimegalencephaly. As an increasing number of entities are identified, the development of a unified and comprehensive classification represents a great challenge and requires continuous updates. The present article reviews current knowledge of molecular pathogenesis and the pathophysiological mechanisms of epileptogenesis in this group of developmental disorders. Both emerging neuropathological and basic science evidence will be analyzed, highlighting the involvement of different, but often converging, pathogenetic and epileptogenic mechanisms, which may create the basis for new therapeutic strategies in these disorders.
Project description:Exome sequencing analysis of over 2,000 children with complex malformations of cortical development identified five independent (four homozygous and one compound heterozygous) deleterious mutations in KATNB1, encoding the regulatory subunit of the microtubule-severing enzyme Katanin. Mitotic spindle formation is defective in patient-derived fibroblasts, a consequence of disrupted interactions of mutant KATNB1 with KATNA1, the catalytic subunit of Katanin, and other microtubule-associated proteins. Loss of KATNB1 orthologs in zebrafish (katnb1) and flies (kat80) results in microcephaly, recapitulating the human phenotype. In the developing Drosophila optic lobe, kat80 loss specifically affects the asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts, which display supernumerary centrosomes and spindle abnormalities during mitosis, leading to cell cycle progression delays and reduced cell numbers. Furthermore, kat80 depletion results in dendritic arborization defects in sensory and motor neurons, affecting neural architecture. Taken together, we provide insight into the mechanisms by which KATNB1 mutations cause human cerebral cortical malformations, demonstrating its fundamental role during brain development.
Project description:Cortical folding malformations are associated with several severe neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism. However, the mechanism behind cerebral cortical folding development is not yet clear. In this paper, we propose a mechanical method based on thermal expansion to simulate the development of human cerebral cortical folding. The influences of stiffness ratio, growth rate ratio, and initial cortical plate thickness on cortical folding are discussed. The results of our thermal expansion model are consistent with previous studies, indicating that abnormal values of the aforementioned three factors could directly lead to cortical folding malformation in a generally fixed pattern.