Transcriptional control of c-jun by retinoic acid.
ABSTRACT: The proto-oncogene c-jun, a major component of transcription factor AP-1, is expressed at very low levels in undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma (EC) end embryonic stem (ES) cells. Retinoic acid (RA) induced differentiation causes a strong increase in the levels of c-jun mRNA. In this paper we report the cloning and characterization of the mouse c-jun promoter. Our results show that RA treatment causes a strong enhancement in c-jun promoter activity, an effect probably mediated by the RA-receptor beta (RAR beta). Sequences located between -329 and -293 are responsible for the observed RA effect, and bind at least five different protein complexes, of which three are decreased upon RA treatment. These protein binding sites do not resemble RA-responsive elements (RARE's) found in the promoters of retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta) and laminin B1. Furthermore, we could not detect a direct interaction of RAR alpha and RAR beta to these sequences, indicating that RA-induced c-jun expression is an indirect effect of RAR action.
Project description:The three retinoic acid receptors RAR-alpha, beta and gamma are thought to mediate the effects of RA in vivo. We have determined here the exon organisation in the 5' region of the human RAR-alpha (hRAR-alpha) gene, and have identified its promoter. This promoter drives the expression of promoterless beta-globin or CAT reporter genes when transfected into HeLa, Cos-1 or mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) P19.6 cells in culture. There are no TATA or CCAAT-box elements in this promoter, which appears to belong to the class of promoters made up of an initiator element preceded by several putative binding sites for the transcription factor Sp1. In addition, the hRAR-alpha promoter region contains a number of sequences that are similar to known enhancer elements. Notably, the hRAR-alpha promoter contains a sequence identical to a binding site for the Krox-20 transcription factors, a zinc finger-containing protein which is thought to play a role in the early development of the mouse central nervous system.
Project description:We have identified and characterized a novel retinoic acid (RA) response element (Hi-RARE) in the second intron of the mouse major histocompatibility H2Kb gene. The Hi-RARE sequence is conserved in all mouse classical and Q class 1 genes, in MHC class 1 genes of the rat, Rhesus macaque, cat and in the vast majority of human classical and non-classical class 1 genes. The Hi-RARE sequence lies within a regulatory element responsible for constitutive expression of a 5' enhancerless H2Kb gene in the Ltk-fibroblasts. Hi-RARE consists of two inverted palindromic RARE consensus sites (5'-PuGGTCA-3') separated by an 8 nt spacer. Mutational analysis revealed that both inverted palindromic hexanucleotide motifs are indispensable functional sites for the 9-cis RA response. The Hi-RARE sequence confers 9-cis RA inducibility to a heterologous promoter. The inducibility is further augmented in embryonal carcinoma cells by the expression of recombinant retinoic acid receptors (PARs) and the retinoid X receptors (RXRs). In vitro, the recombinant RAR/RXR heterodimer creates DNA-protein complex with the Hi-RARE sequence. Treatment of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells with 9C-RA induces the Hi-RARE binding activity of nuclear proteins that proved to be RAR (or RAR-Like)/RXR heterodimer. Thus the Hi-RARE represents a new type of RA response element with a role in the modulation of the expression of MHC class 1 family genes.
Project description:We have utilized retinoic acid receptor ? (gamma) knockout (RAR?(-/-)) embryonic stem (ES) cells as a model system to analyze RAR? mediated transcriptional regulation of stem cell differentiation. Most of the transcripts regulated by all-trans retinoic acid (RA) in ES cells are dependent upon functional RAR? signaling. Notably, many of these RA-RAR? target genes are implicated in retinoid uptake and metabolism. For instance, Lrat (lecithin:retinol acyltransferase), Stra6 (stimulated by retinoic acid 6), Crabp2 (cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2), and Cyp26a1 (cytochrome p450 26a1) transcripts are induced in wild type (WT), but not in RAR?(-/-) cells. Transcripts for the transcription factors Pbx1 (pre-B cell leukemia homeobox-1), Wt1 (Wilm's tumor gene-1), and Meis1 (myeloid ecotropic viral integration site-1) increase upon RA treatment of WT, but not RAR?(-/-) cells. In contrast, Stra8, Dleu7, Leftb, Pitx2, and Cdx1 mRNAs are induced by RA even in the absence of RAR?. Mapping of the epigenetic signature of Meis1 revealed that RA induces a rapid increase in the H3K9/K14ac epigenetic mark at the proximal promoter and at two sites downstream of the transcription start site in WT, but not in RAR?(-/-) cells. Thus, RA-associated increases in H3K9/K14ac epigenetic marks require RAR? and are associated with increased Meis1 transcript levels, whereas H3K4me3 is present at the Meis1 proximal promoter even in the absence of RAR?. In contrast, at the Lrat proximal promoter primarily the H3K4me3 mark, and not the H3K9/K14ac mark, increases in response to RA, independently of the presence of RAR?. Our data show major epigenetic changes associated with addition of the RAR? agonist RA in ES cells.
Project description:Malformations in the eye can be caused by either an excess or deficiency of retinoids. An early target gene of the retinoid metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), is that encoding one of its own receptors, the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta). To better understand the mechanisms underlying this autologous regulation, we characterized the chick RARbeta2 promoter. The region surrounding the transcription start site of the avian RARbeta2 promoter is over 90% conserved with the corresponding region in mammals and confers strong RA-dependent transactivation in primary cultured embryonic retina cells. This response is selective for RAR but not retinoid X receptor-specific agonists, demonstrating a principal role for RAR(s) in retina cells. Retina cells exhibit a far higher sensitivity to RA than do fibroblasts or osteoblasts, a property we found likely due to expression of the orphan nuclear receptor TLX. Ectopic expression of TLX in fibroblasts resulted in increased sensitivity to RA induction, an effect that is conserved between chick and mammals. We have identified a cis element, the silencing element relieved by TLX (SET), within the RARbeta2 promoter region which confers TLX- and RA-dependent transactivation. These results indicate an important role for TLX in autologous regulation of the RARbeta gene in the eye.
Project description:All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is well established as differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in which the PML-RAR? (promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor ?) fusion protein causes blockade of the retinoic acid (RA) pathway; however, in types of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) other than APL, the mechanism of RA pathway inactivation is not fully understood. This study revealed the potential mechanism of high ATRA sensitivity of mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)-AF9-positive AML compared with MLL-AF4/5q31-positive AML. Treatment with ATRA induced significant myeloid differentiation accompanied by upregulation of RAR?, C/EBP?, C/EBP? and PU.1 in MLL-AF9-positive but not in MLL-AF4/5q31-positive cells. Combining ATRA with cytarabine had a synergistic antileukemic effect in MLL-AF9-positive cells in vitro. The level of dimethyl histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2) in the RAR? gene-promoter region, PU.1 upstream regulatory region (URE) and RUNX1+24/+25 intronic enhancer was higher in MLL-AF9-positive cells than in MLL-AF4-positive cells, and inhibiting lysine-specific demethylase 1, which acts as a histone demethylase inhibitor, reactivated ATRA sensitivity in MLL-AF4-positive cells. These findings suggest that the level of H3K4me2 in the RAR? gene-promoter region, PU.1 URE and RUNX1 intronic enhancer is determined by the MLL-fusion partner. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of ATRA sensitivity in AML and novel treatment strategies for ATRA-resistant AML.
Project description:Retinoids, especially all-trans retinoic acid (RA), have been shown to inhibit the differentiation of preadipose cells. In the present study, the expression of retinoic acid receptors (RAR alpha, beta and gamma) and retinoid X receptors (RXR alpha, beta and gamma) was examined by Northern blot analysis in rat adipose tissue and mouse 3T3-L1 adipose cells. The adipose tissue and/or 3T3-L1 cells expressed mRNAs for a number of nuclear retinoid receptors, including RAR alpha, beta and gamma, and RXR alpha, beta and gamma. RAR alpha, RAR gamma, RXR alpha and RXR beta mRNAs were abundant in adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 cells. RXR gamma mRNA was detected in adipose tissue but not in 3T3-L1 cells. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with 1 microM RA led to a 4-5-fold increase in the RAR gamma mRNA level, but only a trace amount of RAR beta mRNA was detected. RAR gamma mRNA expression was rapidly (within 2 h) induced by physiological concentrations of RA in a dose-dependent manner. The response of RAR gamma mRNA expression to RA was reversible; rapid disappearance of RAR gamma mRNA occurred on RA removal. In addition, the induction of RAR gamma expression did not require de novo protein synthesis, but was completely abolished by an inhibitor of RNA synthesis. Using RAR gamma 1 and gamma 2 isoform-specific probes, the patterns of RAR gamma 1 and gamma 2 mRNA expression in 3T3-L1 cells in the presence and absence of RA were examined. RAR gamma 1 mRNA was detected in 3T3-L1 cells but was not affected by RA treatment; however, RAR gamma 2 mRNA was strongly induced by RA.
Project description:At the level of transcription, all signals of the vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) are mediated by the RA receptors (RARs) as well as the retinoid X receptors (RXRs). The control of expression of the various receptor subtypes and their specific isoforms appears to be strictly regulated and can be assumed to play a pivotal role during development and in the adult tissue. It has previously been shown that the RAR beta 2 isoform can regulate its own synthesis through an RA response element (RARE) in its promoter. Recent evidence suggests that the expression of other RAR isoforms, including that of RAR gamma 2, are also regulated by RA. We present evidence that expression of the RAR gamma 2 isoform can be regulated through the RARE in its own promoter region. Similar to the beta 2 RARE, the gamma 2 RARE consists of a 6-bp direct repeat with a 5-nucleotide spacer, but it has different functional features, including receptor specificity, basal-level activity, and affinity for RAR. In agreement with recent observations, this response element is bound most effectively by RAR/RXR heterodimers. Single-base-pair mutations had different effects on the activity of this RARE. The gamma 2 RARE is surrounded by several binding sites for the transcription factor Sp1. Cotransfected Sp1 enhanced strongly the activity of gamma 2 promoter reporter constructs in Drosophila cells. Our data suggest an important role for RAR-containing heterodimers and Sp1 in the regulation of RAR gamma 2 expression.
Project description:Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are pluripotent stem cells extensively used for studies of cell differentiation. Although retinoic acid (RA) is a powerful inducer of neurogenesis in EC cells, it is not clear what specific neuronal subtypes are generated and whether different RAR isotypes may contribute to such neuronal diversification. Here we show that RA treatment during EC embryoid body formation is a highly robust protocol for generation of striatal-like GABAergic neurons which display molecular characteristics of striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), including expression of functional dopamine D2 receptor. By using RAR?, ? and ? selective agonists we show that RAR? is the functionally dominant RAR in mediating RA control of early molecular determinants of MSNs leading to formation of striatopallidal-like neurons. In contrast, activation of RAR? is less efficient in generation of this class of neurons, but is essential for differentiation of functional dopaminergic neurons, which may correspond to a subpopulation of inhibitory dopaminergic neurons expressing glutamic acid decarboxylase in vivo.
Project description:Binding of retinoic acid (RA) to specific RA receptors alpha and beta (RAR alpha and RAR beta) was studied. Receptors were obtained in two ways: (1) full-length receptors were produced by transient expression of the respective human cDNAs in COS 1 cells; and (2) the ligand-binding domains of RAR alpha and RAR beta were produced in Escherichia coli. RA binding to the wild-type and truncated forms of the receptor was identical for both RAR alpha and RAR beta, indicating that the ligand-binding domains have retained the binding characteristics of the intact receptors. Furthermore, RA bound with the same affinity to both RAR alpha and RAR beta. Only retinoid analogues with an acidic end-group were able to actively bind to both receptors. On measuring the binding of various retinoids, we have found that the properties of the ligand-binding sites of RAR alpha and RAR beta were rather similar. Two retinoid analogues were capable of binding preferentially to either RAR alpha or RAR beta, suggesting that it may be possible to synthesize specific ligands for RAR alpha and RAR beta.
Project description:The intracellular pathways and receptors mediating the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on the brown-fat-uncoupling-protein-1 gene (ucp-1) have been analysed. RA activates transcription of ucp-1 and the RA receptor (RAR) is known to be involved in this effect. However, co-transfection of an expression vector for retinoid-X receptor (RXR) increases the action of 9-cis RA but not the effects of all-trans RA on the ucp-1 promoter in brown adipocytes. Either RAR-specific ¿p-[(E)-2-(5,6,7,8,-tetrahydro-5,5,8, 8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)-1-propenyl]benzoic acid¿ or RXR-specific [isopropyl-(E,E)-(R,S)-11-methoxy-3,7, 11-trimethyldodeca-2,4-dienoate, or methoprene] synthetic compounds increase the expression of UCP-1 mRNA and the activity of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression vectors driven by the ucp-1 promoter. The RXR-mediated action of 9-cis RA requires the upstream enhancer region at -2469/-2318 in ucp-1. During brown-adipocyte differentiation RXRalpha and RXRgamma mRNA expression is induced in parallel with UCP-1 mRNA, whereas the mRNA for the three RAR subtypes, alpha, beta and gamma, decreases. Co-transfection of murine expression vectors for the different RAR and RXR subtypes indicates that RARalpha and RARbeta as well as RXRalpha are the major retinoid-receptor subtypes capable of mediating the responsiveness of ucp-1 to retinoids. It is concluded that the effects of retinoids on ucp-1 transcription involve both RAR- and RXR-dependent signalling pathways. The responsiveness of brown adipose tissue to retinoids in vivo relies on a complex combination of the capacity of RAR and RXR subtypes to mediate ucp-1 induction and their distinct expression in the differentiated brown adipocyte.