The p150(Glued) CAP-Gly domain regulates initiation of retrograde transport at synaptic termini.
ABSTRACT: p150(Glued) is the major subunit of dynactin, a complex that functions with dynein in minus-end-directed microtubule transport. Mutations within the p150(Glued) CAP-Gly microtubule-binding domain cause neurodegenerative diseases through an unclear mechanism. A p150(Glued) motor neuron degenerative disease-associated mutation introduced into the Drosophila Glued locus generates a partial loss-of-function allele (Gl(G38S)) with impaired neurotransmitter release and adult-onset locomotor dysfunction. Disruption of the p150(Glued) CAP-Gly domain in neurons causes a specific disruption of vesicle trafficking at terminal boutons (TBs), the distal-most ends of synapses. Gl(G38S) larvae accumulate endosomes along with dynein and kinesin motor proteins within swollen TBs, and genetic analyses show that kinesin and p150(Glued) function cooperatively at TBs to coordinate transport. Therefore, the p150(Glued) CAP-Gly domain regulates dynein-mediated retrograde transport at synaptic termini, and this function of dynactin is disrupted by a mutation that causes motor neuron disease.
Project description:Dynactin is an essential cofactor for most cellular functions of the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein, but the mechanism by which dynactin activates dynein remains unclear. Here we use single molecule approaches to investigate dynein regulation by the dynactin subunit p150(Glued). We investigate the formation and motility of a dynein-p150(Glued) co-complex using dual-colour total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. p150(Glued) recruits and tethers dynein to the microtubule in a concentration-dependent manner. Single molecule imaging of motility in cell extracts demonstrates that the CAP-Gly domain of p150(Glued) decreases the detachment rate of the dynein-dynactin complex from the microtubule and also acts as a brake to slow the dynein motor. Consistent with this important role, two neurodegenerative disease-causing mutations in the CAP-Gly domain abrogate these functions in our assays. Together, these observations support a model in which dynactin enhances the initial recruitment of dynein onto microtubules and promotes the sustained engagement of dynein with its cytoskeletal track.
Project description:Regulation of microtubule dynamics in neurons is critical, as defects in the microtubule-based transport of axonal organelles lead to neurodegenerative disease. The microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein and its partner complex dynactin drive retrograde transport from the distal axon. We have recently shown that the p150(Glued) subunit of dynactin promotes the initiation of dynein-driven cargo motility from the microtubule plus-end. Because plus end-localized microtubule-associated proteins like p150(Glued) may also modulate the dynamics of microtubules, we hypothesized that p150(Glued) might promote cargo initiation by stabilizing the microtubule track. Here, we demonstrate in vitro using assembly assays and TIRF microscopy, and in primary neurons using live-cell imaging, that p150(Glued) is a potent anti-catastrophe factor for microtubules. p150(Glued) alters microtubule dynamics by binding both to microtubules and to tubulin dimers; both the N-terminal CAP-Gly and basic domains of p150(Glued) are required in tandem for this activity. p150(Glued) is alternatively spliced in vivo, with the full-length isoform including these two domains expressed primarily in neurons. Accordingly, we find that RNAi of p150(Glued) in nonpolarized cells does not alter microtubule dynamics, while depletion of p150(Glued) in neurons leads to a dramatic increase in microtubule catastrophe. Strikingly, a mutation in p150(Glued) causal for the lethal neurodegenerative disorder Perry syndrome abrogates this anti-catastrophe activity. Thus, we find that dynactin has multiple functions in neurons, both activating dynein-mediated retrograde axonal transport and enhancing microtubule stability through a novel anti-catastrophe mechanism regulated by tissue-specific isoform expression; disruption of either or both of these functions may contribute to neurodegenerative disease.
Project description:Neurodegenerative disease in humans and mice can be caused by mutations affecting the microtubule motor dynein or its biochemical regulator, dynactin, a multiprotein complex required for dynein function (1-4). A single amino acid change, G59S, in the conserved cytoskeletal-associated protein glycine-rich (CAP-Gly) domain of the p150(glued) subunit of dynactin can cause motor neuron degeneration in humans and mice, which resembles ALS (2, 5-8). The molecular mechanism by which G59S impairs the function of dynein is not understood. Also, the relevance of the CAP-Gly domain for dynein motility has not been demonstrated in vivo. Here, we generate a mutant that is analogous to G59S in budding yeast, and show that this mutation produces a highly specific phenotype related to dynein function. The effect of the point mutation is identical to that of complete loss of the CAP-Gly domain. Our results demonstrate that the CAP-Gly domain has a critical role in the initiation and persistence of dynein-dependent movement of the mitotic spindle and nucleus, but it is otherwise dispensable for dynein-based movement. The need for this function appears to be context-dependent, and we speculate that CAP-Gly activity may only be necessary when dynein needs to overcome high force thresholds to produce movement.
Project description:The microtubule-based motor dynein generates pulling forces for centrosome centration and mitotic spindle positioning in animal cells. How the essential dynein activator dynactin regulates these functions of the motor is incompletely understood. Here, we dissect the role of dynactin's microtubule binding activity, located in the p150 CAP-Gly domain and an adjacent basic patch, in the C. elegans zygote. Analysis of p150 mutants engineered by genome editing suggests that microtubule tip tracking of dynein-dynactin is dispensable for targeting the motor to the cell cortex and for generating robust cortical pulling forces. Instead, mutations in p150's CAP-Gly domain inhibit cytoplasmic pulling forces responsible for centration of centrosomes and attached pronuclei. The centration defects are mimicked by mutations of ?-tubulin's C-terminal tyrosine, and both p150 CAP-Gly and tubulin tyrosine mutants decrease the frequency of early endosome transport from the cell periphery towards centrosomes during centration. Our results suggest that p150 GAP-Gly domain binding to tyrosinated microtubules promotes initiation of dynein-mediated organelle transport in the dividing one-cell embryo, and that this function of p150 is critical for generating cytoplasmic pulling forces for centrosome centration.
Project description:Cytoplasmic dynein is the major minus end-directed microtubule motor in animal cells, and associates with many of its cargoes in conjunction with the dynactin complex. Interaction between cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin is mediated by the binding of cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chains (CD-IC) to the dynactin subunit, p150(Glued). We have found that both CD-IC and p150(Glued) are cleaved by caspases during apoptosis in cultured mammalian cells and in Xenopus egg extracts. Xenopus CD-IC is rapidly cleaved at a conserved aspartic acid residue adjacent to its NH(2)-terminal p150(Glued) binding domain, resulting in loss of the otherwise intact cytoplasmic dynein complex from membranes. Cleavage of CD-IC and p150(Glued) in apoptotic Xenopus egg extracts causes the cessation of cytoplasmic dynein--driven endoplasmic reticulum movement. Motility of apoptotic membranes is restored by recruitment of intact cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin from control cytosol, or from apoptotic cytosol supplemented with purified cytoplasmic dynein--dynactin, demonstrating the dynamic nature of the association of cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin with their membrane cargo.
Project description:Dynactin is the longest known cytoplasmic dynein regulator, with roles in dynein recruitment to subcellular cargo and in stimulating processive dynein movement. The latter function was thought to involve the N-terminal microtubule-binding region of the major dynactin polypeptide p150(Glued), although recent results disputed this. To understand how dynactin regulates dynein we generated recombinant fragments of the N-terminal half of p150(Glued). We find that the dynein-binding coiled-coil ?-helical domain CC1B is sufficient to stimulate dynein processivity, which it accomplishes by increasing average dynein step size and forward-step frequency, while decreasing lateral stepping and microtubule detachment. In contrast, the immediate upstream coiled-coil domain, CC1A, activates a surprising diffusive dynein state. CC1A interacts physically with CC1B and interferes with its effect on dynein processivity. We also identify a role for the N-terminal portion of p150(Glued) in coordinating these activities. Our results reveal an unexpected form of long-range allosteric control of dynein motor function by internal p150(Glued) sequences, and evidence for p150(Glued) autoregulation.
Project description:p150(glued) belongs to a group of proteins accumulating at microtubule plus ends (+TIPs). It plays a key role in initiating retrograde transport by recruiting and tethering endosomes and dynein to microtubules. p150(glued) contains an N-terminal microtubule-binding cytoskeleton-associated protein glycine-rich (CAP-Gly) domain that accelerates tubulin polymerization. Although this copolymerization is well-studied using light microscopic techniques, structural consequences of this interaction are elusive. Here, using electron-microscopic and spectroscopic approaches, we provide a detailed structural view of p150(glued) CAP-Gly binding to microtubules and tubulin. Cryo-EM 3D reconstructions of p150(glued)-CAP-Gly complexed with microtubules revealed the recognition of the microtubule surface, including tubulin C-terminal tails by CAP-Gly. These binding surfaces differ from other retrograde initiation proteins like EB1 or dynein, which could facilitate the simultaneous attachment of all accessory components. Furthermore, the CAP-Gly domain, with its basic extensions, facilitates lateral and longitudinal interactions of tubulin molecules by covering the tubulin acidic tails. This shielding effect of CAP-Gly and its basic extensions may provide a molecular basis of the roles of p150(glued) in microtubule dynamics.
Project description:The microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein performs multiple cellular functions; however, the regulation and targeting of the motor to different cargoes is not well understood. A biochemical interaction between the dynein intermediate chain subunit and the p150-Glued component of the dynein regulatory complex, dynactin, has supported the hypothesis that the intermediate chain is a key modulator of dynein attachment to cellular cargoes. In this report, we identify multiple intermediate chain polypeptides that cosediment with the 19S dynein complex and two differentially expressed transcripts derived from the single cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain (Cdic) gene that differ in the 3' untranslated region sequence. These results support previous observations of multiple Cdic gene products that may contribute to the specialization of dynein function. Most significantly, we provide genetic evidence that the interaction between the dynein intermediate chain and p150-Glued is functionally relevant. We use a genomic Cdic transgene to show that extra copies of the dynein intermediate chain gene act to suppress the rough eye phenotype of the mutant Glued(1), a mutation in the p150-Glued subunit of dynactin. Furthermore, we show that the interaction between the dynein intermediate chain and p150-Glued is dependent on the dosage of the Cdic gene. This result suggests that the dynein intermediate chain may be a limiting component in the assembly of the dynein complex and that the regulation of the interaction between the dynein intermediate chain and dynactin is critical for dynein function.
Project description:The dynactin complex is required for activation of the dynein motor complex, which plays a critical role in various cell functions including mitosis. During metaphase, the dynein-dynactin complex removes spindle checkpoint proteins from kinetochores to facilitate the transition to anaphase. Three components (p150(Glued), dynamitin, and p24) compose a key portion of the dynactin complex, termed the projecting arm. To investigate the roles of the dynactin complex in mitosis, we used RNA interference to down-regulate p24 and p150(Glued) in human cells. In response to p24 down-regulation, we observed cells with delayed metaphase in which chromosomes frequently align abnormally to resemble a "figure eight," resulting in cell death. We attribute the figure eight chromosome alignment to impaired metaphasic centrosomes that lack spindle tension. Like p24, RNA interference of p150(Glued) also induces prometaphase and metaphase delays; however, most of these cells eventually enter anaphase and complete mitosis. Our findings suggest that although both p24 and p150(Glued) components of the dynactin complex contribute to mitotic progression, p24 also appears to play a role in metaphase centrosome integrity, helping to ensure the transition to anaphase.
Project description:Cytoplasmic dynein is a 1.2-MDa multisubunit motor protein complex that, together with its activator dynactin, is responsible for the majority of minus end microtubule-based motility. Dynactin targets dynein to specific cellular locations, links dynein to cargo, and increases dynein processivity. These two macromolecular complexes are connected by a direct interaction between dynactin's largest subunit, p150(Glued), and dynein intermediate chain (IC) subunit. Here, we demonstrate using NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry that the binding footprint of p150(Glued) on IC involves two noncontiguous recognition regions, and both are required for full binding affinity. In apo-IC, the helical structure of region 1, the nascent helix of region 2, and the disorder in the rest of the chain are determined from coupling constants, amide-amide sequential NOEs, secondary chemical shifts, and various dynamics measurements. When bound to p150(Glued), different patterns of spectral exchange broadening suggest that region 1 forms a coiled-coil and region 2 a packed stable helix, with the intervening residues remaining disordered. In the 150-kDa complex of p150(Glued), IC, and two light chains, the noninterface segments remain disordered. The multiregion IC binding interface, the partial disorder of region 2 and its potential for post-translational modification, and the modulation of the length of the longer linker by alternative splicing may provide a basis for elegant and multifaceted regulation of binding between IC and p150(Glued). The long disordered linker between the p150(Glued) binding segments and the dynein light chain consensus sequences could also provide an attractive recognition platform for diverse cargoes.