Heat shock protein gp96 regulates Toll-like receptor 9 proteolytic processing and conformational stability.
ABSTRACT: Nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiate innate immune responses to foreign RNA and DNA, yet can detect and respond to host DNA. To avoid autoimmune pathologies, nucleic acid sensing TLRs are tightly regulated. TLR9 primarily resides in the endoplasmic reticulum, traffics to endosomes, is proteolytically processed and responds to DNA. The heat shock protein gp96 is one of several accessory proteins that regulate intracellular trafficking of TLR9. In the absence of gp96, TLR9 fails to exit the endoplasmic reticulum, and therefore gp96-deficient macrophages fail to respond to CpG DNA. However, absence of gp96 precludes studies on potential chaperoning functions of gp96 for TLR9. Here we demonstrate that pharmacologic interference with gp96 function inhibits TLR9 signaling. TLR9 remains associated with gp96 during intracellular trafficking, and gp96-specific inhibitors increase TLR9 sensitivity to proteolytic degradation. We propose that gp96 is critical for both TLR9 egress from the ER, and for protein conformational stability in the endosomal compartment. These studies highlight the importance of examining gp96-specific inhibitors for modulating TLR9 activation, and the treatment autoimmune diseases.
Project description:gp96 is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone for cell-surface Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Little is known about its roles in chaperoning other TLRs or in the biology of macrophage in vivo. We generated a macrophage-specific gp96-deficient mouse. Despite normal development and activation by interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1beta, the mutant macrophages failed to respond to ligands of both cell-surface and intracellular TLRs including TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, and TLR9. Furthermore, we found that TLR4 and TLR9 preferentially interacted with a super-glycosylated gp96 species. The categorical loss of TLRs in gp96-deficient macrophages operationally created a conditional and cell-specific TLR null mouse. These mice were resistant to endotoxin shock but were highly susceptible to Listeria monocytogenes. Our results demonstrate that gp96 is the master chaperone for TLRs and that macrophages, but not other myeloid cells, are the dominant source of proinflammatory cytokines during endotoxemia and Listeria infections.
Project description:Cytosolic HSP90 requires multiple cochaperones in folding client proteins. However, the function of gp96 (HSP90b1, grp94), an HSP90 paralogue in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is believed to be independent of cochaperones. Here, we demonstrate that gp96 chaperones multiple Toll-like receptors (TLRs), but not TLR3, in a manner that is dependent on another ER luminal protein, CNPY3. gp96 directly interacts with CNPY3, and the complex dissociates in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Genetic disruption of gp96-CNPY3 interaction completely abolishes their TLR chaperone function. Moreover, we demonstrate that TLR9 forms a multimolecular complex with gp96 and CNPY3, and the binding of TLR9 to either molecule requires the presence of the other. We suggest that CNPY3 interacts with the ATP-sensitive conformation of gp96 to promote substrate loading. Our study has thus established CNPY3 as a TLR-specific cochaperone for gp96.
Project description:Semapimod, a tetravalent guanylhydrazone, suppresses inflammatory cytokine production and has potential in a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. The mechanism of action of Semapimod is not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that in rat IEC-6 intestinal epithelioid cells, Semapimod inhibits activation of p38 MAPK and NF-?B and induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by TLR ligands, but not by IL-1? or stresses. Semapimod inhibits TLR4 signaling (IC50 ?0.3 ?mol) and acts by desensitizing cells to LPS; it fails to block responses to LPS concentrations of ?5 ?g/ml. Inhibition of TLR signaling by Semapimod is almost instantaneous: the drug is effective when applied simultaneously with LPS. Semapimod blocks cell-surface recruitment of the MyD88 adapter, one of the earliest events in TLR signaling. gp96, the endoplasmic reticulum-localized chaperone of the HSP90 family critically involved in the biogenesis of TLRs, was identified as a target of Semapimod using ATP-desthiobiotin pulldown and mass spectroscopy. Semapimod inhibits ATP-binding and ATPase activities of gp96 in vitro (IC50 ?0.2-0.4 ?mol). On prolonged exposure, Semapimod causes accumulation of TLR4 and TLR9 in perinuclear space, consistent with endoplasmic reticulum retention, an anticipated consequence of impaired gp96 chaperone function. Our data indicate that Semapimod desensitizes TLR signaling via its effect on the TLR chaperone gp96. Fast inhibition by Semapimod is consistent with gp96 participating in high-affinity sensing of TLR ligands in addition to its role as a TLR chaperone.
Project description:The envelope glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-G) enables viral entry into hosts as distant as insects and vertebrates. Because of its ability to support infection of most, if not all, human cell types VSV-G is used in viral vectors for gene therapy. However, neither the receptor nor any specific host factor for VSV-G has been identified. Here we demonstrate that infection with VSV and innate immunity via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) require a shared component, the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gp96. Cells without gp96 or with catalytically inactive gp96 do not bind VSV-G. The ubiquitous expression of gp96 is therefore essential for the remarkably broad tropism of VSV-G. Cells deficient in gp96 also lack functional TLRs, which suggests that pathogen-driven pressure for TLR-mediated immunity maintains the broad host range of VSV-G by positively selecting for the ubiquitous expression of gp96.
Project description:Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential for host defense. Although several TLRs reside on the cell surface, nucleic acid recognition of TLRs occurs intracellularly. For example, the receptor for CpG containing bacterial and viral DNA, TLR9, is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. Recent evidence suggests that the localization of TLR9 is critical for appropriate ligand recognition. Here we have defined which structural features of the TLR9 molecule control its intracellular localization. Both the cytoplasmic and ectodomains of TLR9 contain sufficient information, whereas the transmembrane domain plays no role in intracellular localization. We identify a 14-amino acid stretch that directs TLR9 intracellularly and confers intracellular localization to the normally cell surface-expressed TLR4. Truncation or mutation of the cytoplasmic tail of TLR9 reveals a vesicle localization motif that targets early endosomes. We propose a model whereby modification of the cytoplasmic tail of TLR9 results in trafficking to early endosomes where it encounters CpG DNA.
Project description:The structural basis for molecular chaperones to discern misfolded proteins has long been an enigma. As the endoplasmic reticulum paralogue of the cytosolic HSP90, gp96 (GRP94, HSP90b1) is an essential molecular chaperone for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and integrins. However, little is known about its client-binding domain (CBD). Herein, we provide genetic and biochemical evidence to definitively demonstrate that a C-terminal loop structure, formed by residues 652-678, is the critical region of CBD for both TLRs and integrins. Deletion of this region affects neither the intrinsic ATPase activity nor the overall conformation of gp96. However, without it, the chaperoning function of gp96 collapses. We also find a critical Met pair (Met(658)-Met(662)) for the folding of integrins but not TLRs. Moreover, we find that the TLR binding to gp96 is also dependent on the C-terminal dimerization domain but not the N-terminal ATP-binding pocket of gp96. Our study has unveiled surprisingly the exquisite specificity of gp96 in substrate binding and suggests a manipulation of its CBD as an alternative strategy for targeted therapy of a variety of diseases.
Project description:Klebsiella pneumoniae is among the most common Gram-negative bacteria that cause pneumonia. Gp96 is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone that is essential for the trafficking and function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and integrins. To determine the role of gp96 in myeloid cells in host defence during Klebsiella pneumonia, mice homozygous for the conditional Hsp90b1 allele encoding gp96 were crossed with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under control of the LysM promoter to generate LysMcre-Hsp90b1-flox mice. LysMcre-Hsp90b1-flox mice showed absence of gp96 protein in macrophages and partial depletion in monocytes and granulocytes. This was accompanied by almost complete absence of TLR2 and TLR4 on macrophages. Likewise, integrin subunits CD11b and CD18 were not detectable on macrophages, while being only slightly reduced on monocytes and granulocytes. Gp96-deficient macrophages did not release pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to Klebsiella and displayed reduced phagocytic capacity independent of CD18. LysMcre-Hsp90b1-flox mice were highly vulnerable to lower airway infection induced by K. pneumoniae, as reflected by enhanced bacterial growth and a higher mortality rate. The early inflammatory response in Hsp90b1-flox mice was characterized by strongly impaired recruitment of granulocytes into the lungs, accompanied by attenuated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while the inflammatory response during late-stage pneumonia was not dependent on the presence of gp96. Blocking CD18 did not reproduce the impaired host defence of LysMcre-Hsp90b1-flox mice during Klebsiella pneumonia. These data indicate that macrophage gp96 is essential for protective immunity during Gram-negative pneumonia by regulating TLR expression.
Project description:Sensing of nucleic acids by TLRs is crucial in the host defense against viruses and bacteria. Unc-93 homolog B1 (UNC93B1) regulates the trafficking of nucleic acid-sensing TLRs from the endoplasmic reticulum to endolysosomes, where the TLRs encounter their respective ligands and become activated. In this article, we show that a carboxyl-terminal tyrosine-based sorting motif (Yxx?) in UNC93B1 differentially regulates human nucleic acid-sensing TLRs in a receptor- and ligand-specific manner. Destruction of Yxx? abolished TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 activity toward nucleic acids in human B cells and monocytes, whereas TLR8 responses toward small molecules remained intact. Yxx? in UNC93B1 influenced the subcellular localization of human UNC93B1 via both adapter protein complex (AP)1- and AP2-dependent trafficking pathways. However, loss of AP function was not causal for altered TLR responses, suggesting AP-independent functions of Yxx? in UNC93B1.
Project description:Heat shock proteins have been implicated as endogenous activators for dendritic cells (DCs). Chronic expression of heat shock protein gp96 on cell surfaces induces significant DC activations and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like phenotypes in mice. However, its potential as a therapeutic target against SLE remains to be evaluated. In this work, we conducted chemical approach to determine whether SLE-like phenotypes can be compromised by controlling surface translocation of gp96. From screening of chemical library, we identified a compound that binds and suppresses surface presentation of gp96 by facilitating its oligomerization and retrograde transport to endoplasmic reticulum. In vivo administration of this compound reduced maturation of DCs, populations of antigen presenting cells, and activated B and T cells. The chemical treatment also alleviated the SLE-associated symptoms such as glomerulonephritis, proteinuria, and accumulation of anti-nuclear and -DNA antibodies in the SLE model mice resulting from chronic surface exposure of gp96. These results suggest that surface translocation of gp96 can be chemically controlled and gp96 as a potential therapeutic target to treat autoimmune disease like SLE.
Project description:Gp96 is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone for multiple protein substrates. Its lack in intestinal macrophages of Crohn's disease (CD) patients is correlated with loss of tolerance against the host gut flora. Gp96 has been stablished to be an essential chaperone for Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We studied the impact of gp96-knockdown on TLR-function in macrophages. TLR2 and TLR4 expression was only decreased but not abolished when gp96 was knocked-down in cell lines, whereas in a monocyte/macrophage specific knock-out mouse model (LysMCre) TLR4 was abolished, while TLR2 was still present. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-?B activation was still observed in the absence of gp96, and gp96-deficient macrophages were able to up-regulate surface TLR4 upon LPS treatment, suggesting that there is another chaperone involved in the folding of TLR4 upon stress responses. Moreover, LPS-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines were still expressed, although to a lesser extent in the absence of gp96, which reinforces the fact that gp96 is involved in regulating signaling cascades downstream of TLR4 are impaired upon loss of gp96. In addition, we have also found a reduced phosphorylation of ERK and p38 kinases and an impaired response upon CSF1R activation in gp96 deficient macrophages. Our findings indicate that the loss of gp96 not only impairs TLR4 signaling, but is also associated with a diminished phosphorylation of ERK and mitogen-activated stress kinases resulting in an impaired signalling through several receptors, including CSF1R.