Studies toward the synthesis of spirolide C: exploration into the formation of the 23-membered all-carbon macrocyclic framework.
ABSTRACT: The synthesis of two complex subunits en route to spirolide C is described. A key alkyllithium addition to an aldehyde joins the fragments, which are advanced in order to investigate a ring-closing metathesis to form the 23-membered all-carbon macrocyclic framework.
Project description:Novel macrocyclic amidinourea derivatives 11, 18, and 25 were synthesized and evaluated as antifungal agents against wild-type and fluconazole resistant Candida species. Macrocyclic compounds 11 and 18 were synthesized through a convergent approach using as a key step a ring-closing metathesis macrocyclization reaction, whereas compounds 25 were obtained by our previously reported synthetic pathway. All the macrocyclic amidinoureas showed antifungal activity toward different Candida species higher or comparable to fluconazole and resulted highly active against fluconazole resistant Candida strains showing in many cases minimum inhibitory concentration values lower than voriconazole.
Project description:The resorcylic macrolides are important natural products with a wide range of remarkable biological activities. So far, most of the reported resorcylic macrolide syntheses use either macrolactonization or ring closing metathesis to build the corresponding macrocycle. In continuation of our efforts in developing novel carbonylation reactions to facilitate natural product total synthesis, we report herein a total synthesis of trans-resorcylide (1) featuring a palladium-catalyzed macrocyclic Stille carbonylation to build its 12-membered macrocycle.
Project description:Macrocyclic compounds are central to the development of new drugs, but preparing them can be challenging because of the energy barrier that must be surmounted in order to bring together and fuse the two ends of an acyclic precursor such as an alkene (also known as an olefin). To this end, the catalytic process known as ring-closing metathesis (RCM) has allowed access to countless biologically active macrocyclic organic molecules, even for large-scale production. Stereoselectivity is often critical in such cases: the potency of a macrocyclic compound can depend on the stereochemistry of its alkene; alternatively, one isomer of the compound can be subjected to stereoselective modification (such as dihydroxylation). Kinetically controlled Z-selective RCM reactions have been reported, but the only available metathesis approach for accessing macrocyclic E-olefins entails selective removal of the Z-component of a stereoisomeric mixture by ethenolysis, sacrificing substantial quantities of material if E/Z ratios are near unity. Use of ethylene can also cause adventitious olefin isomerization-a particularly serious problem when the E-alkene is energetically less favoured. Here, we show that dienes containing an E-alkenyl-B(pinacolato) group, widely used in catalytic cross-coupling, possess the requisite electronic and steric attributes to allow them to be converted stereoselectively to E-macrocyclic alkenes. The reaction is promoted by a molybdenum monoaryloxide pyrrolide complex and affords products at a yield of up to 73 per cent and an E/Z ratio greater than 98/2. We highlight the utility of the approach by preparing recifeiolide (a 12-membered-ring antibiotic) and pacritinib (an 18-membered-ring enzyme inhibitor), the Z-isomer of which is less potent than the E-isomer. Notably, the 18-membered-ring moiety of pacritinib-a potent anti-cancer agent that is in advanced clinical trials for treating lymphoma and myelofibrosis-was prepared by RCM carried out at a substrate concentration 20 times greater than when a ruthenium carbene was used.
Project description:Macrocyclic Hedgehog (Hh) pathway inhibitors have been discovered with improved potency and maximal inhibition relative to the previously reported macrocycle robotnikinin. Analogues were prepared using a modular and efficient build-couple-pair (BCP) approach, with a ring-closing metathesis step to form the macrocyclic ring. Varying the position of the macrocycle nitrogen and oxygen atoms provided inhibitors with improved activity in cellular assays; the most potent analogue was 29 (BRD-6851), with an IC(50) of 0.4 ?M against C3H10T1/2 cells undergoing Hh-induced activation, as measured by Gli1 transcription and alkaline phosphatase induction. Studies with Patched knockout (Ptch(-/-)) cells and competition studies with the Smoothened (Smo) agonists SAG and purmorphamine demonstrate that in contrast to robotnikinin, select analogues are Smo antagonists.
Project description:Herein, we describe the enantioselective construction of the 12-membered macrocyclic pyrrole core 4 of marineosin A in 5.1% overall yield from (S)-propylene oxide. The route features a key Stetter reaction to install a 1,4-diketone, which is then subjected to Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis and ring closing metathesis (RCM) to afford macrocycle 4. A divergence point in the synthetic scheme also enabled access to a highly functionalized spiroaminal model system 8 via an acid-mediated hydroxyketoamide cyclization strategy.
Project description:The first examples of catalyst-controlled stereoselective macrocyclic ring-closing metathesis reactions that generate Z-enoates as well as (E,Z)- or (Z,E)-dienoates are disclosed. Reactions promoted by 3.0-10 mol % of a Mo-based monoaryloxide pyrrolide complex proceed to completion within 2-6 h at room temperature. The desired macrocycles are formed in 79:21 to >98:2 Z/E selectivity; stereoisomerically pure products can be obtained in 43-75% yield after chromatography. Utility is demonstrated by application to a concise formal synthesis of the natural product (+)-aspicilin.
Project description:Macrocyclic compounds occupy an important chemical space between small molecules and biologics and are prevalent in many natural products and pharmaceuticals. The growing interest in macrocycles has been fueled, in part, by the design of novel synthetic methods to these compounds. One appealing strategy is ring-closing metathesis (RCM) that seeks to construct macrocycles from acyclic diene precursors using defined transition-metal alkylidene catalysts. Despite its broad utility, RCM generally gives rise to a mixture of E- and Z-olefin isomers that can hinder efforts for the large-scale production and isolation of such complex molecules. To address this issue, we aimed to develop methods that can selectively enrich macrocycles in E- or Z-olefin isomers using an RCM/ethenolysis strategy. The utility of this methodology was demonstrated in the stereoselective formation of macrocyclic peptides, a class of compounds that have gained prominence as therapeutics in drug discovery. Herein, we report an assessment of various factors that promote catalyst-directed RCM and ethenolysis on a variety of peptide substrates by varying the olefin type, peptide sequence, and placement of the olefin in macrocycle formation. These methods allow for control over olefin geometry in peptides, facilitating their isolation and characterization. The studies outlined in this report seek to expand the scope of stereoselective olefin metathesis in general RCM.
Project description:Novel macrocyclic paclitaxel congeners were designed to mimic the bioactive conformation of paclitaxel. Computational analysis of the "REDOR-Taxol" structure revealed that this structure could be rigidified by connecting the C14 position of the baccatin moiety and the ortho position of C3'N-benzoyl group (C3'BzN), which are ca. 7.5 A apart, with a short linker (4-6 atoms). 7-TES-14beta-allyloxybaccatin III and (3R,4S)-1-(2-alkenylbenzoyl)-beta-lactams were selected as key components, and the Ojima-Holton coupling afforded the corresponding paclitaxel-dienes. The Ru-catalyzed ring-closing metathesis (RCM) of paclitaxel-dienes gave the designed 15- and 16-membered macrocyclic taxoids. However, the RCM reaction to form the designed 14-membered macrocyclic taxoid did not proceed as planned. Instead, the attempted RCM reaction led to the occurrence of an unprecedented novel Ru-catalyzed diene-coupling process, giving the corresponding 15-membered macrocyclic taxoid (SB-T-2054). The biological activities of the novel macrocyclic taxoids were evaluated by tumor cell growth inhibition (i.e., cytotoxicity) and tubulin-polymerization assays. Those assays revealed high sensitivity of cytotoxicity to subtle conformational changes. Among the novel macrocyclic taxoids evaluated, SB-T-2054 is the most active compound, which possesses virtually the same potency as that of paclitaxel. The result may also indicate that SB-T-2054 structure is an excellent mimic of the bioactive conformation of paclitaxel. Computational analysis for the observed structure-activity relationships is also performed and discussed.
Project description:Alkyne metathesis is increasingly explored as a reliable method to close macrocyclic rings, but there are no prior examples of an alkyne-metathesis-based homodimerization approach to natural products. In this approach to the cytotoxic C2-symmetric marine-derived bis(lactone) disorazole?C1, a highly convergent, modular strategy is employed featuring cyclization through an ambitious one-pot alkyne cross-metathesis/ring-closing metathesis self-assembly process.
Project description:Alkyne metathesis is increasingly explored as a reliable method to close macrocyclic rings, but there are no prior examples of an alkyne-metathesis-based homodimerization approach to natural products. In this approach to the cytotoxic C2 -symmetric marine-derived bis(lactone) disorazole?C1, a highly convergent, modular strategy is employed featuring cyclization through an ambitious one-pot alkyne cross-metathesis/ring-closing metathesis self-assembly process.