Proteomic analysis reveals cellular pathways regulating carbohydrate metabolism that are modulated in primary human skeletal muscle culture due to treatment with bioactives from Artemisia dracunculus L.
ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance is a major pathophysiologic abnormality that characterizes metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. A well characterized ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., termed PMI 5011, has been shown to improve insulin action in vitro and in vivo, but the cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Using differential proteomics, we have studied mechanisms by which PMI 5011 enhances insulin action in primary human skeletal muscle culture obtained by biopsy from obese, insulin-resistant individuals. Using iTRAQ™ labeling and LC-MS/MS, we have identified over 200 differentially regulated proteins due to treatment with PMI 5011 and insulin stimulation. Bioinformatics analyses determined that several metabolic pathways related to glycolysis, glucose transport and cell signaling were highly represented and differentially regulated in the presence of PMI 5011 indicating that this extract affects several pathways modulating carbohydrate metabolism, including translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. These findings provide a molecular mechanism by which a botanical extract improves insulin stimulated glucose uptake, transport and metabolism at the cellular level resulting in enhanced whole body insulin sensitivity.
Project description:An alcoholic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L (PMI 5011) has been shown to decrease glucose and improve insulin levels in animal models, suggesting an ability to enhance insulin sensitivity. We sought to assess the cellular mechanism by which this botanical affects carbohydrate metabolism in primary human skeletal muscle culture. We measured basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen accumulation, phosphoinositide 3 (PI-3) kinase activity, and Akt phosphorylation in primary skeletal muscle culture from subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus incubated with or without various concentrations of PMI 5011. We also analyzed the abundance of insulin receptor signaling proteins, for example, IRS-1, IRS-2, and PI-3 kinase. Glucose uptake was significantly increased in the presence of increasing concentrations of PMI 5011. In addition, glycogen accumulation, observed to be decreased with increasing free fatty acid levels, was partially restored with PMI 5011. PMI 5011 treatment did not appear to significantly affect protein abundance for IRS-1, IRS-2, PI-3 kinase, Akt, insulin receptor, or Glut-4. However, PMI 5011 significantly decreased levels of a specific protein tyrosine phosphatase, that is, PTP1B. Time course studies confirmed that protein abundance of PTP1B decreases in the presence of PMI 5011. The cellular mechanism of action to explain the effects by which an alcoholic extract of A dracunculus L improves carbohydrate metabolism on a clinical level may be secondary to enhancing insulin receptor signaling and modulating levels of a specific protein tyrosine phosphatase, that is, PTP1B.
Project description:A botanical extract from Artemisia dracunculus L., termed PMI 5011, has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity by increasing cellular insulin signaling in in vitro and in vivo studies. These studies suggest that PMI 5011 effects changes in phosphorylation levels of proteins involved in insulin signaling. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of this promising botanical extract on the human skeletal muscle phosphoproteome, by evaluating changes in site-specific protein phosphorylation levels in primary skeletal muscle cultures from obese, insulin-resistant individuals stimulated with and without insulin.Insulin resistance is a condition in which a normal or elevated insulin level results in an abnormal biologic response, e.g., glucose uptake. Using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ™) followed by phosphopeptide enrichment and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, 125 unique phosphopeptides and 159 unique phosphorylation sites from 80 unique proteins were identified and quantified.Insulin stimulation of primary cultured muscle cells from insulin-resistant individuals resulted in minimal increase in phosphorylation, demonstrating impaired insulin action in this condition. Treatment with PMI 5011 resulted in significant up-regulation of 35 phosphopeptides that were mapped to proteins participating in the regulation of transcription, translation, actin cytoskeleton signaling, caveolae translocation, and translocation of glucose transporter 4. These data further showed that PMI 5011 increased phosphorylation levels of specific amino acids in proteins in the insulin-resistant state that are normally phosphorylated by insulin (thus, increasing cellular insulin signaling) and PMI 5011 also increased the abundance of phosphorylation sites of proteins regulating anti-apoptotic effects.This phosphoproteomics analysis demonstrated conclusively that PMI 5011 effects changes in phosphorylation levels of proteins and identified novel pathways by which PMI 5011 exerts its insulin-sensitizing effects in skeletal muscle.
Project description:An increase in ectopic lipids in peripheral tissues has been implicated in attenuating insulin action. The botanical extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (PMI 5011) improves insulin action, yet the precise mechanism is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether the mechanism by which the bioactive compounds in PMI 5011 improve insulin signaling is through regulation of ceramide metabolism.L6 Myotubes were separately preincubated with 250 ?M palmitic acid with or without PMI 5011 or four bioactive compounds isolated from PMI 5011 and postulated to be responsible for the effect. The effects on insulin signaling, ceramide, and glucosylceramide profiles were determined.Treatment of L6 myotubes with palmitic acid resulted in increased levels of total ceramides and glucosylceramides, and cell surface expression of gangliosides. Palmitic acid also inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt and reduced glycogen accumulation. Bioactives from PMI 5011 had no effect on ceramide formation but one active compound (DMC-2) and its synthetic analog significantly reduced glucosylceramide accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity via restoration of Akt phosphorylation.The observations suggest that insulin sensitization by PMI 5011 is partly mediated through moderation of glycosphingolipid accumulation.
Project description:An ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (PMI 5011) has been observed to decrease glucose and insulin levels in animal models, but the cellular mechanisms by which insulin action is enhanced in vivo are not precisely known. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PMI 5011 to modulate gene expression and cellular signaling through the insulin receptor in skeletal muscle of KK-A(y) mice. Eighteen male KK-A(y) mice were randomized to a diet (w/w) mixed with PMI 5011 (1%) or diet alone for 8 weeks. Food intake, adiposity, glucose and insulin were assessed over the study, and at study completion, vastus lateralis muscle was obtained to assess insulin signaling parameters and gene expression. Animals randomized to PMI 5011 were shown to have enhanced insulin sensitivity and increased insulin receptor signaling, i.e., IRS-associated PI-3 kinase activity, Akt-1 activity and Akt phosphorylation, in skeletal muscle when compared to control animals (P<.01, P<.01 and P<.001, respectively). Gene expression for insulin signaling proteins, i.e., IRS-1, PI-3 kinase and Glut-4, was not increased, although a relative increase in protein abundance was noted with PMI 5011 treatment. Gene expression for specific ubiquitin proteins and specific 20S proteasome activity, in addition to skeletal muscle phosphatase activity, i.e., PTP1B activity, was significantly decreased in mice randomized to PMI 5011 relative to control. Thus, the data demonstrate that PMI 5011 increases insulin sensitivity and enhances insulin receptor signaling in an animal model of insulin resistance. PMI 5011 may modulate skeletal muscle protein degradation and phosphatase activity as a possible mode of action.
Project description:Bioactives of Artemisia dracunculus L. (termed PMI 5011) have been shown to improve insulin action by increasing insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. However, it was not known if PMI 5011's effects are retained during an inflammatory condition. We examined the attenuation of insulin action and whether PMI 5011 enhances insulin signalling in the inflammatory environment with elevated cytokines.Muscle cell cultures derived from lean, overweight and diabetic-obese subjects were used. Expression of pro-inflammatory genes and inflammatory response of human myotubes were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Insulin signalling and activation of inflammatory pathways in human myotubes were evaluated by multiplex protein assays.We found increased gene expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and TNF? (tumour necrosis factor alpha), and basal activity of the NFkB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) pathway in myotubes derived from diabetic-obese subjects as compared with myotubes derived from normal-lean subjects. In line with this, basal Akt phosphorylation (Ser473) was significantly higher, while insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) was lower in myotubes from normal-overweight and diabetic-obese subjects compared with normal-lean subjects. PMI 5011 treatment reduced basal phosphorylation of Akt and enhanced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in the presence of cytokines in human myotubes. PMI 5011 treatment led to an inhibition of cytokine-induced activation of inflammatory signalling pathways such as Erk1/2 and IkB? (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha)-NFkB and moreover, NFkB target gene expression, possibly by preventing further propagation of the inflammatory response within muscle tissue.PMI 5011 improved insulin sensitivity in diabetic-obese myotubes to the level of normal-lean myotubes despite the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Project description:The agouti-related protein (Agrp) is a powerful orexigenic peptide, but little is known about its transcriptional regulation. The objective of this study was to determine molecular mechanisms for the activation of hypothalamic Agrp and identify compounds that stimulate appetite.We used promoter analyses methods, hypothalamic cell culture and transfection, immunohistochemistry, luciferase-expressing transgenic mice, in vivo bioluminescence, anitisense RNA, mouse feeding studies, indirect calorimetry, real-time PCR, and Western blots.We found that the Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is a potent activator of Agrp by binding to a specific CACCC-box in its minimal promoter. We also found that an extract of tarragon, termed PMI-5011, activated hypothalamic Klf4 and Agrp. In vivo, PMI-5011 increased Agrp promoter activity in luciferase-expressing transgenic mice, increased hypothalamic Klf4 and Agrp expression, increased hypothalamic Orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone, increased food intake, reduced circulating insulin and leptin levels, attenuated energy expenditure, and enhanced body weight but only when using a high-fat diet.These data show that Klf4 augmented hypothalamic Agrp by binding to a specific CACCC-box onto its minimal promoter. In addition, the tarragon extract PMI-5011 activated Klf4 and orexigenic neuropeptides and reduced peripheral insulin and leptin levels leading to positive energy balance.
Project description:Utilization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for enhancing growth and development as well as production of essential oil in aromatic plants has been increasingly drawing research interest. In order to assess the AMF effects on different aromatic species, an open-field experiment was carried out using Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon), Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop). AMF stimulated the growth of tarragon and lavender plants, whereas hyssop showed a slight developmental slowing; nonetheless, a significant increase in essential oil content in the three species was seen. AMF application increased the biomass of A. dracunculus and H. officinalis by 20-35%. No differences in antioxidant activity and phenolics content were recorded at harvest between the control and AMF-inoculated plants, but the latter showed a significant increase in antioxidant status upon storage at high temperature and humidity compared to the untreated control. The enhancement of abiotic stress resistance during storage in plants inoculated with AMF was the highest in A. dracunculus, and the lowest in H. officinalis, while the untreated control plants showed a significant decrease in phenolics, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll content, as well as antioxidant activity, upon the abiotic stress. AMF inoculation differentially affected the mineral composition, increasing the accumulation of Se, I and Zn in A. dracunculus, and decreasing the levels of heavy metals and Co, Fe, Li, Mn in H. officinalis. Based on the outcome of the present research, AMF inoculation resulted in a significant enhancement of the overall performances of A. dracunculus, L. angustifolia and H. officinalis, and also in the improvement of plant antioxidant status upon storage in stress conditions.
Project description:A fragment of a Dracunculus-like worm was extracted from the hind limb of a 2-year-old dog from Toledo, Spain. Cytochrome oxidase I and rRNA sequences confirmed an autochthonous mammalian Dracunculus worm infection in Europe. Sequence analyses suggest close relation to a parasite obtained from a North American opossum.
Project description:Copepods infected with Dracunculus medinensis larvae collected from infected dogs in Chad were fed to 2 species of fish and tadpoles. Although they readily ingested copepods, neither species of fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) nor fathead minnow (Pimephalis promelas), were found to harbor Dracunculus larvae when examined 2-3 weeks later. Tadpoles ingested copepods much more slowly; however, upon examination at the same time interval, tadpoles of green frogs (Lithobates [Rana] clamitans) were found to harbor small numbers of Dracunculus larvae. Two ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were fed fish or tadpoles that had been exposed to infected copepods. Only the ferret fed tadpoles harbored developing Dracunculus larvae at necropsy 70-80 days postexposure. These observations confirm that D. medinensis, like other species in the genus Dracunculus, can readily survive and remain infective in potential paratenic hosts, especially tadpoles.