ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is one of the leading cancer types in incidence and mortality, especially in Asia. In order to improve survival, identification of a catalogue of molecular alterations underlying gastric cancer is a critical step for developing and designing genome-directed therapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Center for Cancer Genome Discovery (CCGD) at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) has adapted a high-throughput genotyping platform to determine the mutation status of a large panel of known cancer genes. The mutation detection platform, termed OncoMap v4, interrogates 474 "hotspot" mutations in 41 genes that are relevant for cancer. We performed OncoMap v4 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens from 237 gastric adenocarcinomas. Using OncoMap v4, we found that 34 (14.4%) of 237 gastric cancer patients harbored mutations. Among mutations we screened, PIK3CA mutations were the most frequent (5.1%) followed by p53 (4.6%), APC (2.5%), STK11 (2.1%), CTNNB1 (1.7%), and CDKN2A (0.8%). Six samples harbored concomitant somatic mutations. Mutations of CTNNB1 were significantly more frequent in EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (P = 0.046). Our study led to the detection of potentially druggable mutations in gastric cancer which may guide novel therapies in subsets of gastric cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using high throughput mutation screening platform, we identified that PIK3CA mutations were the most frequently observed target for gastric adenocarcinoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal of all gynecologic malignancies, and high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) is the most common subtype of ovarian cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and types of point somatic mutations in HGSC using a mutation detection protocol called OncoMap that employs mass spectrometric-based genotyping technology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:The Center for Cancer Genome Discovery (CCGD) Program at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) has adapted a high-throughput genotyping platform to determine the mutation status of a large panel of known cancer genes. The mutation detection protocol, termed OncoMap has been expanded to detect more than 1000 mutations in 112 oncogenes in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples. We performed OncoMap on a set of 203 FFPE advanced staged HGSC specimens. We isolated genomic DNA from these samples, and after a battery of quality assurance tests, ran each of these samples on the OncoMap v3 platform. 56% (113/203) tumor samples harbored candidate mutations. Sixty-five samples had single mutations (32%) while the remaining samples had ? 2 mutations (24%). 196 candidate mutation calls were made in 50 genes. The most common somatic oncogene mutations were found in EGFR, KRAS, PDGRF?, KIT, and PIK3CA. Other mutations found in additional genes were found at lower frequencies (<3%). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Sequenom analysis using OncoMap on DNA extracted from FFPE ovarian cancer samples is feasible and leads to the detection of potentially druggable mutations. Screening HGSC for somatic mutations in oncogenes may lead to additional therapies for this patient population.
Project description:An integrative analysis was conducted to identify genomic alterations at a pathway level that could predict overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC) treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.DNA and RNA were extracted from 103 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) invasive high-grade UC samples and were screened for mutations, copy number variation (CNV) and gene expression analysis. Clinical data were available from 85 cases. Mutations were analyzed by mass-spectrometry based on genotyping platform (Oncomap 3) and genomic imbalances were detected by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis. Regions with threshold of log2 ratio ?0.4, or ?0.6 were defined as either having copy number gain or loss and significantly recurrent CNV across the set of samples were determined using a GISTIC analysis. Expression analysis on selected relevant UC genes was conducted using Nanostring. To define the co-occurrence pattern of mutations and CNV, we grouped genomic events into 5 core signal transduction pathways: 1) TP53 pathway, 2) RTK/RAS/RAF pathway, 3) PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, 4) WNT/CTNNB1, 5) RB1 pathway. Cox regression was used to assess pathways abnormalities with survival outcomes.35 samples (41%) harbored mutations on at least one gene: TP53 (16%), PIK3CA (9%), FGFR3 (2%), HRAS/KRAS (5%), and CTNNB1 (1%). 66% of patients had some sort of CNV. PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR pathway alteration (mutations+CNV) had the greatest impact on OS (p=0.055). At a gene level, overexpression of CTNNB1 (p=0.0008) and PIK3CA (p=0.02) were associated with shorter OS. Mutational status on PIK3CA was not associated with survival. Among other individually found genomic alterations, TP53 mutations (p=0.07), mTOR gain (p=0.07) and PTEN overexpression (p=0.08) have a marginally significant negative impact on OS.Our study suggests that targeted therapies focusing on the PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR pathway genomic alterations can generate the greatest impact in the overall patient population of high-grade advanced UC.
Project description:Given the high incidence of metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, especially in Asia, we screened for the presence of somatic mutations using OncoMap platform with the aim of defining subsets of patients who may be potential candidate for targeted therapy.We analyzed 87 tissue specimens obtained from 80 patients who were pathologically confirmed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and received 5-fluoropyrimidine/platinum-based chemotherapy. OncoMap 4.0, a mass-spectrometry based assay, was used to interrogate 471 oncogenic mutations in 41 commonly mutated genes. Tumor specimens were prepared from primary cancer sites in 70 patients and from metastatic sites in 17 patients. In order to test the concordance between primary and metastatic sites from the patient for mutations, we analyzed 7 paired (primary-metastatic) specimens. All specimens were formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues and tumor content was >70%.In total, we have detected 20 hotspot mutations out of 80 patients screened. The most frequent mutation was PIK3CA mutation (four E545K, five H1047R and one H1047L) (N?=?10, 11.5%) followed by MLH1 V384D (N?=?7, 8.0%), TP53 (R306, R175H and R273C) (N?=?3, 3.5%), BRAF V600E (N?=?1, 1.2%), CTNNB1 D32N (N?=?1, 1.2%), and EGFR P733L (N?=?1, 1.2%). Distributions of somatic mutations were not different according to anatomic sites of esophageal cancer (cervical/upper, mid, lower). In addition, there was no difference in frequency of mutations between primary-metastasis paired samples.Our study led to the detection of potentially druggable mutations in esophageal SCC which may guide novel therapies in small subsets of esophageal cancer patients.
Project description:Despite being the most common pelvic gynecologic malignancy in industrialized countries, no targeted therapies are available for patients with metastatic endometrial carcinoma. In order to improve treatment, underlying molecular characteristics of primary and metastatic disease must be explored.We utilized the mass spectrometric-based mutation detection technology OncoMap to define the types and frequency of point somatic mutations in endometrial cancer. 67 primary tumors, 15 metastases corresponding to 7 of the included primary tumors and 11 endometrial cancer cell lines were screened for point mutations in 28 known oncogenes. We found that 27 (40.3%) of 67 primary tumors harbored one or more mutations with no increase in metastatic lesions. FGFR2, KRAS and PIK3CA were consistently the most frequently mutated genes in primary tumors, metastatic lesions and cell lines.Our results emphasize the potential for targeting FGFR2, KRAS and PIK3CA mutations in endometrial cancer for development of novel therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Although the mutation status of KRAS is highly concordant in primary and metastatic lesions, it has not been generalized to other major pathway genes.In this study, 41 genes were evaluated and the mutational profiles were compared in 46 colorectal cancer patients with paired surgical specimens of primary and metastatic lesions: synchronous (n=27) and metachronous (n=19) lesions. A high-throughput mass spectrometry-based genotyping platform validated by orthogonal chemistry, OncoMap v.4.4, was used to evaluate the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical specimens. The patients' demographics, tumor characteristics, and microsatellite instability status were analyzed by a retrospective chart review.In this study,with OncoMap, mutationswere identified in 80.4% of patientswith the following frequency: KRAS (39.1%), TP53 (28.3%), APC (28.3%), PIK3CA (6.5%), BRAF (6.5%), and NRAS (4.3%). Although 19.6% (9/46) of the patients showed no gene mutations, 43.5% (20/46) and 37.0% (17/46) had mutations in one and two or more genes, respectively. The synchronous and metachronous lesions showed similar mutational profiles. Paired samples between primary and metastatic tumors differed in 7.4% (2/27) and 10.5% (2/19) for synchronous and metachronous according to OncoMap.These findings indicate the major pathway genes, including KRAS, TP53, APC, PIK3CA, BRAF, and NRAS, are often concordant between the primary and metastatic lesions regardless of the temporal relationship of metastasis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Endometrioid ovarian carcinomas (EOCs) comprise 5-10% of all ovarian cancers and commonly co-occur with synchronous endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC). We sought to examine the molecular characteristics of pure EOCs in patients without concomitant EEC. METHODS:EOCs and matched normal samples were subjected to massively parallel sequencing targeting 341-468 cancer-related genes (n?=?8) or whole-genome sequencing (n?=?28). Mutational frequencies of EOCs were compared to those of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs; n?=?224) and EECs (n?=?186) from The Cancer Genome Atlas, and synchronous EOCs (n?=?23). RESULTS:EOCs were heterogeneous, frequently harboring KRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, CTNNB1, ARID1A and TP53 mutations. EOCs were distinct from HGSOCs at the mutational level, less frequently harboring TP53 but more frequently displaying KRAS, PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTEN and CTNNB1 mutations. Compared to synchronous EOCs and pure EECs, pure EOCs less frequently harbored PTEN, PIK3R1 and ARID1A mutations. Akin to EECs, EOCs could be stratified into the four molecular subtypes: 3% POLE (ultramutated), 19% MSI (hypermutated), 17% copy-number high (serous-like) and 61% copy-number low (endometrioid). In addition to microsatellite instability, a subset of EOCs harbored potentially targetable mutations, including AKT1 and ERBB2 hotspot mutations. EOCs of MSI (hypermutated) subtype uniformly displayed a good outcome. CONCLUSIONS:EOCs are heterogeneous at the genomic level and harbor targetable genetic alterations. Despite the similarities in the repertoire of somatic mutations between pure EOCs, synchronous EOCs and EECs, the frequencies of mutations affecting known driver genes differ. Further studies are required to define the impact of the molecular subtypes on the outcome and treatment of EOC patients.
Project description:Background: Detailed catalog of lung cancer-associated gene mutations provides valuable information for lung cancer diagnosis and treatment. In China, there has never been a wide-ranging study cataloging lung cancer-associated gene mutations. This study aims to reveal a comprehensive catalog of lung cancer gene mutations in china, focusing on EGFR, ALK, KRAS, HER2, PIK3CA, MET, BRAF, HRAS, and CTNNB1 as major targets. Additionally, we also aim to correlate smoking history, gender, and age distribution and pathological types with various types of gene mutations. Patients and Methods: A retrospective data acquisition was conducted spanning 6 years (2013-2018) among all patients who underwent lung cancer surgeries not bronchial or percutaneous lung biopsy at three major tertiary hospitals. Finally, we identified 1,729 patients who matched our inclusion criteria. Results: 1081 patients (62.49%) harbored EGFR mutation. ALK (n = 42, 2.43%), KRAS (n = 201, 11.62%), CTNNB1 (n = 28, 1.62%), BRAF (n = 31, 1.79%), PIK3CA (n = 51, 2.95%), MET (n = 14, 0.81%), HER2 (n = 47, 2.72%), HRAS (n = 3, 0.17%), and other genes(n = 232, 13.4%). Females expressed 55.38% vs. males 44.62% mutations. Among subjects with known smoking histories, 32.82% smokers, 67.15% non-smokers were observed. Generally, 51.80% patients were above 60 years vs. 48.20% in younger patients. Pathological types found includes LUADs 71.11%, SQCCs 1.68%, ASC 0.75%, LCC 0.58%, SCC 0.35%, ACC 0.17%, and SC 0.06%, unclear 25.19%. Conclusion: We offer a detailed catalog of the distribution of lung cancer mutations. Showing how gender, smoking history, age, and pathological types are significantly related to the prevalence of lung cancer in China.
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC) remains the second tumor caused death threat worldwide, and personalized medicine for GC is far from expectation. Finding novel, recurrently mutated genes through next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful and productive approach. However, previous genomic data for GC are based on surgical resected samples while a large proportion of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients have already missed the chance for operation. The aim of this study is to assess frequent genomic alteration in AGC via biopsy samples. Here we performed targeted genomic sequencing of 78 AGC patients' tumor biopsies along with matched lymphocyte samples based on a 118 cancer related gene panel. In total, we observed 301 somatic nonsynonymous genomic alterations in 92 different genes, as well as 37 copy number gain events among 15 different genes (fold change 2-12), and validated the fold changes of ERBB2 copy number gains with IHC and FISH test showed an accuracy of 81.8%. Previously reported driver genes for gastric cancer (TP53, KMT2D, KMT2B, EGFR, PIK3CA, GNAQ, and ARID1A), and several unreported mutations (TGFBR2, RNF213, NF1, NSD1, and LRP2) showed high non-silent mutation prevalence (7.7%-34.6%). When comparing intestinal-type gastric cancer (IGC) with diffuse-type gastric cancer (DGC), TP53 and GNAQ appear to be more frequently mutated in IGC (P=0.028 and P=0.023, respectively), whereas LRP2, BRCA2 and FGFR3 mutations are not observed in IGC, but have 12.8%, 7.7% and 7.7% mutation rates, respectively, in DGC patients. Patients with one or more mutations in adherens junction pathway (CREBBP, EP300, CDH1, CTNNB1, EGFR, MET, TGFBR2 and ERBB2) or TGF-β signaling pathway (CREBBP, EP300, MYST4, KRAS and TGFBR2) showed significantly better overall survival (P=0.007 and P=0.014, respectively), consistent with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort data. Importantly, 57 (73.1%) patients harbored at least one genomic alteration with potential treatments, making NGS-based drug target screening a viable option for AGC patients. Our study established a comprehensive genomic portrait of AGC, and identified several mutation signatures highly associated with clinical features, survival outcomes, which may be used to design future personalized treatments.
Project description:There is an immediate and critical need for a rapid, broad-based genotyping method that can evaluate multiple mutations simultaneously in clinical cancer specimens and identify patients most likely to benefit from targeted agents now in use or in late-stage clinical development. We have implemented a prospective genotyping approach to characterize the frequency and spectrum of mutations amenable to drug targeting present in urothelial, colorectal, endometrioid, and thyroid carcinomas and in melanoma. Cancer patients were enrolled in a Personalized Cancer Medicine Registry that houses both clinical information and genotyping data, and mutation screening was performed using a multiplexed assay panel with mass spectrometry-based analysis to detect 390 mutations across 30 cancer genes. Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens were evaluated from 820 Registry patients. The genes most frequently mutated across multiple cancer types were BRAF, PIK3CA, KRAS, and NRAS. Less common mutations were also observed in AKT1, CTNNB1, FGFR2, FGFR3, GNAQ, HRAS, and MAP2K1. Notably, 48 of 77 PIK3CA-mutant cases (62%) harbored at least one additional mutation in another gene, most often KRAS. Among melanomas, only 54 of 73 BRAF mutations (74%) were the V600E substitution. These findings demonstrate the diversity and complexity of mutations in druggable targets among the different cancer types and underscore the need for a broad-spectrum, prospective genotyping approach to personalized cancer medicine.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway plays a fundamental role in cell proliferation and survival in human tumorigenesis, including gastric cancer. PIK3CA mutations and amplification are two major causes of overactivation of this pathway in human cancers. However, until this work, there was no sound investigation on the association of PIK3CA mutations and amplification with clinical outcome in gastric cancer, particularly the latter. METHODS: Using direct sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR, we examined PIK3CA mutations and amplification, and their association with clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome of gastric cancer patients. RESULTS: PIK3CA mutations and amplification were found in 8/113 (7.1%) and 88/131 (67%) gastric cancer patients, respectively. PIK3CA amplification was closely associated with increased phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) level. No relationship was found between PIK3CA mutations and clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome in gastric cancer. PIK3CA amplification was significantly positively associated with cancer-related death. Importantly, Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that the patients with PIK3CA amplification had significantly shorter survival times than the patients without PIK3CA amplification. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that PIK3CA mutations were not common, but its amplification was very common in gastric cancer and may be a major mechanism in activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in gastric cancer. Importantly, Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that PIK3CA amplification was significantly positively associated with poor survival of gastric cancer patients. Collectively, the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway may be an effective therapeutic target in gastric cancer.