Clickable, photoreactive inhibitors to probe the active site microenvironment of fatty acid amide hydrolase().
ABSTRACT: Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an integral membrane enzyme that degrades the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) and several other bioactive lipid amides. The catalytic mechanism of FAAH has been largely elucidated, and structural models of the enzyme suggest that it may recruit its hydrophobic substrates directly from the lipid bilayer of the cell. Testing this hypothesis, however, requires new tools to explore FAAH-substrate interactions in native cell membranes. Here, we have addressed this problem by creating clickable, photoreactive inhibitors that probe the microenvironment surrounding the FAAH active site. We show that these probes can be used directly in cell membranes, where distinct crosslinked adducts are observed for inhibitors that are buried within versus exposed to the external environment of the FAAH active site.
Project description:The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AEA) exerts the majority of its effects at CB1 and CB2 receptors and is degraded by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). FAAH KO mice and animals treated with FAAH inhibitors are impaired in their ability to hydrolyze AEA and other non-cannabinoid lipid signaling molecules, such as oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). AEA and these other substrates activate non-cannabinoid receptor systems, including TRPV1 and PPAR-? receptors. In this mini review, we describe the functional consequences of FAAH inhibition on nicotine reward and dependence as well as the underlying endocannabinoid and non-cannabinoid receptor systems mediating these effects. Interestingly, FAAH inhibition seems to mediate nicotine dependence differently in mice and rats. Indeed, pharmacological and genetic FAAH disruption in mice enhances nicotine reward and withdrawal. However, in rats, pharmacological blockade of FAAH significantly inhibits nicotine reward and has no effect in nicotine withdrawal. Studies suggest that non-cannabinoid mechanisms may play a role in these species differences.
Project description:Anandamide (AEA) and other bioactive N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are primarily inactivated by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Recently, FAAH-2 was discovered in humans, suggesting an additional enzyme can mediate NAE inactivation in higher mammals. Here, we performed a biochemical characterization of FAAH-2 and explored its capacity to hydrolyze NAEs in cells. In homogenate activity assays, FAAH-2 hydrolyzed AEA and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) with activities approximately 6 and approximately 20% those of FAAH, respectively. In contrast, FAAH-2 hydrolyzed AEA and PEA in intact cells with rates approximately 30-40% those of FAAH, highlighting a potentially greater contribution toward NAE catabolism in vivo than previously appreciated. In contrast to endoplasmic reticulum-localized FAAH, immunofluorescence revealed FAAH-2 was localized on lipid droplets. Supporting this distribution pattern, the putative N-terminal hydrophobic region of FAAH-2 was identified as a functional lipid droplet localization sequence. Lipid droplet localization was essential for FAAH-2 activity as chimeras excluded from lipid droplets lacked activity and/or were poorly expressed. Lipid droplets represent novel sites of NAE inactivation. Therefore, we examined substrate delivery to these organelles. AEA was readily trafficked to lipid droplets, confirming that lipid droplets constitute functional sites of NAE inactivation. Collectively, these results establish FAAH-2 as a bone fide NAE-catabolizing enzyme and suggest that NAE inactivation is spatially separated in cells of higher mammals.
Project description:The two major endocannabinoid transmitters, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are degraded by distinct enzymes in the nervous system, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively. FAAH and MAGL inhibitors cause elevations in brain AEA and 2-AG levels, respectively, and reduce pain, anxiety, and depression in rodents without causing the full spectrum of psychotropic behavioral effects observed with direct cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) agonists. These findings have inspired the development of several classes of endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors, most of which have been optimized to show specificity for either FAAH or MAGL or, in certain cases, equipotent activity for both enzymes. Here, we investigate an unusual class of O-hydroxyacetamide carbamate inhibitors and find that individual compounds from this class can serve as selective FAAH or dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors in vivo across a dose range (0.125-12.5 mg kg(-1)) suitable for behavioral studies. Competitive and click chemistry activity-based protein profiling confirmed that the O-hydroxyacetamide carbamate SA-57 is remarkably selective for FAAH and MAGL in vivo, targeting only one other enzyme in brain, the additional 2-AG hydrolase ABHD6. These data designate O-hydroxyacetamide carbamates as a versatile chemotype for creating endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors that display excellent in vivo activity and tunable selectivity for FAAH-anandamide versus MAGL (and ABHD6)-2-AG pathways.
Project description:The novel endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) was rapidly inactivated by intact rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) and mouse neuroblastoma (N18TG2) cells through diffusion/hydrolysis/reacylation processes. The hydrolysis of 2-AG was inhibited by typical esterase inhibitors and by more specific blockers of 'fatty acid amide hydrolase' (FAAH), the enzyme catalysing the hydrolysis of the other 'endocannabinoid', anandamide (AEA). No evidence for a facilitated-diffusion process was found. A 2-AG-hydrolysing activity was detected in homogenates from both cell lines, with the highest levels in membrane fractions. It exhibited an optimal pH at 10, and recognized both 2- and 1(3)- isomers of monoarachidonoylglycerol with similar efficiencies. The apparent Km and Vmax values for -3H-2-AG hydrolysis were 91 microM and 29 microM and 2.4 and 1.8 nmol.min-1.mg of protein-1 respectively in N18TG2 and RBL-2H3 cells. [3H]2-AG hydrolysis was inhibited by Cu2+, Zn2+ and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, and by 2- or 1(3)-monolinoleoyl- and -linolenoyl-glycerols, but not by the oleoyl, palmitoyl and myristoyl congeners. Purified fractions from solubilized membrane proteins catalysed, at pH 9.5, the hydrolysis of 2-AG as well as AEA. Accordingly, AEA as well as FAAH inhibitors, including arachidonoyltrifluoromethyl ketone (ATFMK), blocked [3H]2-AG hydrolysis by N18TG2 and RBL-2H3 membranes, whereas 2-AG inhibited [14C]AEA hydrolysis. FAAH blockade by ATFMK preserved from inactivation the 2-AG synthesized de novo by intact N18TG2 cells stimulated with ionomycin. These data suggest that FAAH may be one of the enzymes deputed to the physiological inactivation of 2-AG, and create intriguing possibilities for the cross-regulation of 2-AG and AEA levels.
Project description:Endocannabinoids such as anandamide (AEA) are important lipid ligands regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Their levels are regulated by hydrolase enzymes, the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL). Here, we investigated whether FAAH or AEA are involved in NF (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant responsive element (ARE) pathway.The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of AEA or FAAH inhibition by the URB597 inhibitor or FAAH/siRNA on the activation of Nrf2-ARE signalling pathway and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction and transcription.Endogenous AEA was detected in the immortalized human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells (0.034?ng per 10(6) cells) but not in MCF-7 or MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Because breast tumour cells express FAAH abundantly, we examined the effects of FAAH on Nrf2/antioxidant pathway. We found that inhibition of FAAH by the URB597 inhibitor induced antioxidant HO-1 in breast cancer cells and MCF-10A cells. RNAi-mediated knockdown of FAAH or treatment with AEA-activated ARE-containing reporter induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression, independent of the cannabinoid receptors, CB1, CB2 or TRPV1. Furthermore, URB597, AEA and siRNA-FAAH treatments induced the nuclear translocation of Nrf2, while siRNA-Nrf2 treatment and Keap1 expression blocked AEA, URB597 and si-FAAH from activation of ARE reporter and HO-1 induction. siRNA-HO-1 treatment decreased the viability of breast cancer cells and MCF-10A cells.These data uncovered a novel mechanism by which inhibition of FAAH or exposure to AEA induced HO-1 transcripts and implicating AEA and FAAH as direct modifiers in signalling mediated activation of Nrf2-HO-1 pathway, independent of cannabinoid receptors.
Project description:The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is an antinociceptive lipid that is inactivated through cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers that deliver AEA and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) to FAAH for hydrolysis. The mammalian brain expresses three FABP subtypes: FABP3, FABP5, and FABP7. Recent work from our group has revealed that pharmacological inhibition of FABPs reduces inflammatory pain in mice. The goal of the current work was to explore the effects of FABP inhibition upon nociception in diverse models of pain. We developed inhibitors with differential affinities for FABPs to elucidate the subtype(s) that contributes to the antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors. Inhibition of FABPs reduced nociception associated with inflammatory, visceral, and neuropathic pain. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors mirrored their affinities for FABP5, while binding to FABP3 and FABP7 was not a predictor of in vivo efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors were mediated by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) and FABP inhibition elevated brain levels of AEA, providing the first direct evidence that FABPs regulate brain endocannabinoid tone. These results highlight FABPs as novel targets for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapeutics.
Project description:The endocannabinoid anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide, AEA) is an uncharged neuromodulatory lipid that, similar to many neurotransmitters, is inactivated through its cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism. AEA is hydrolyzed by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an enzyme localized on the endoplasmic reticulum. In contrast to most neuromodulators, the hydrophilic cytosol poses a diffusional barrier for the efficient delivery of AEA to its site of catabolism. Therefore, AEA likely traverses the cytosol with the assistance of an intracellular carrier that increases its solubility and rate of diffusion. To study this process, AEA uptake and hydrolysis were examined in COS-7 cells expressing FAAH restricted to the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, or the Golgi apparatus. AEA hydrolysis was detectable at the earliest measurable time point (3 seconds), suggesting that COS-7 cells, normally devoid of an endocannabinoid system, possess an efficient cytosolic trafficking mechanism for AEA. Three fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) known to be expressed in brain were examined as possible intracellular AEA carriers. AEA uptake and hydrolysis were significantly potentiated in N18TG2 neuroblastoma cells after overexpression of FABP5 or FABP7, but not FABP3. Similar results were observed in COS-7 cells stably expressing FAAH. Consistent with the roles of FABP as AEA carriers, administration of the competitive FABP ligand oleic acid or the selective non-lipid FABP inhibitor BMS309403 attenuated AEA uptake and hydrolysis by approximately 50% in N18TG2 and COS-7 cells. Taken together, FABPs represent the first proteins known to transport AEA from the plasma membrane to FAAH for inactivation and may therefore be novel pharmacological targets.
Project description:Indirect evidence for the existence of a specific protein-mediated process for the cellular uptake of endocannabinoids has been reported, but recent results suggested that such a process, at least for AEA [ N -arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide)], is facilitated uniquely by its intracellular hydrolysis by FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase) [Glaser, Abumrad, Fatade, Kaczocha, Studholme and Deutsch (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 4269-4274]. In the present study, we show that FAAH alone cannot account for the facilitated diffusion of AEA across the cell membrane. In particular, (i) using a short incubation time (90 s) to avoid AEA hydrolysis by FAAH, AEA accumulation into rat basophilic leukaemia or C6 cells was saturable at low microM concentrations of substrate and non-saturable at higher concentrations; (ii) time-dependent and, at low microM concentrations of substrate, saturable AEA accumulation was observed also using mouse brain synaptosomes; (iii) using synaptosomes prepared from FAAH-deficient mice, saturable AEA accumulation was still observed, although with a lower efficacy; (iv) when 36 AEA and N -oleoylethanolamine analogues, most of which with phenyl rings in the polar head group region, were tested as inhibitors of AEA cellular uptake, strict structural and stereochemical requirements were needed to observe significant inhibition, and in no case the inhibition of FAAH overlapped with the inhibition of AEA uptake; and (v) AEA biosynthesis by cells and sensory neurons was followed by AEA release, and this latter process, which cannot be facilitated by FAAH, was still blocked by an inhibitor of AEA uptake. We suggest that at least one protein different from FAAH is required to facilitate AEA transport across the plasma membrane in a selective and bi-directional way.
Project description:The antitumoral properties of endocannabinoids received a particular attention these last few years. Indeed, these endogenous molecules have been reported to exert cytostatic, apoptotic and antiangiogenic effects in different tumor cell lines and tumor xenografts. Therefore, we investigated the cytotoxicity of three N-acylethanolamines--N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA), N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) and N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA)--which were all able to time- and dose-dependently reduce the viability of murine N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. Moreover, several inhibitors of FAAH and NAAA, whose presence was confirmed by RT-PCR in the cell line, induced cell cytotoxicity and favored the decrease in cell viability caused by N-acylethanolamines. The most cytotoxic treatment was achieved by the co-incubation of AEA with the selective FAAH inhibitor URB597, which drastically reduced cell viability partly by inhibiting AEA hydrolysis and consequently increasing AEA levels. This combination of molecules synergistically decreased cell proliferation without inducing cell apoptosis or necrosis. We found that these effects are independent of cannabinoid, TRPV1, PPAR?, PPAR? or GPR55 receptors activation but seem to occur through a lipid raft-dependent mechanism. These findings further highlight the interest of targeting the endocannabinoid system to treat cancer. More particularly, this emphasizes the great potential benefit of designing novel anti-cancerous therapies based on the association of endocannabinoids and inhibitors of their hydrolysis.
Project description:We show that anandamide (AEA) externally added to model membrane vesicles containing trapped fatty acid amide hydrolyase (FAAH) can be readily hydrolyzed, demonstrating facile, rapid anandamide movement across the lipid bilayer. The rate of hydrolysis is significantly facilitated by cholesterol and coprostanol, but not by cholesterol sulfate. The effects of sterol upon hydrolysis by FAAH bound to the outer surface of the bilayer were much smaller, although they followed the same pattern. We propose the facilitation of hydrolysis is a combination of the effects of sterol on accessibility of membrane-inserted endocannabinoids to surface protein, and on the rate of endocannabinod transport across the membrane bilayer.