Integrated standardization concept for Angelica botanicals using quantitative NMR.
ABSTRACT: Despite numerous in vitro/vivo and phytochemical studies, the active constituents of Angelica sinensis (AS) have not been conclusively identified for the standardization to bioactive markers. Phytochemical analyses of AS extracts and fractions that demonstrate activity in a panel of in vitro bioassays, have repeatedly pointed to ligustilide as being (associated with) the active principle(s). Due to the chemical instability of ligustilide and related issues in GC/LC analyses, new methods capable of quantifying ligustilide in mixtures that do not rely on an identical reference standard are in high demand. This study demonstrates how NMR can satisfy the requirement for simultaneous, multi-target quantification and qualitative identification. First, the AS activity was concentrated into a single fraction by RP-solid-phase extraction, as confirmed by an alkaline phosphatase, (anti-)estrogenicity and cytotoxicity assay. Next, a quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR) method was established and validated using standard compounds and comparing processing methods. Subsequent 1D/2D NMR and qHNMR analysis led to the identification and quantification of ligustilide and other minor components in the active fraction, and to the development of quality criteria for authentic AS preparations. The absolute and relative quantities of ligustilide, six minor alkyl phthalides, and groups of phenylpropanoids, polyynes, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids were measured by a combination of qHNMR and 2D COSY. The qNMR approach enables multi-target quality control of the bioactive fraction, and enables the integrated biological and chemical standardization of AS botanicals. This methodology can potentially be transferred to other botanicals with active principles that act synergistically, or that contain closely related and/or constituents, which have not been conclusively identified as the active principles.
Project description:Numerous reports assigning (Z)-ligustilide (1) the role of a major bioactive principle in Apiaceae botanicals are called into question by the recurrent demonstrations of 1 being an unstable, rapidly degrading compound, ultimately leading to dynamic residual complexity. While Angelica sinensis is recognized for its therapeutic value in (peri-)menopausal symptom management, its purported active principle, 1, represents a typical example of the instability-bioactivity chasm of botanicals. To help bridge the gap, this study used both the essential oil and purified 1 obtained from A. sinensis to investigate the factors that influence the chemical transformation of 1, the products formed, and the rationale for monitoring 1 in natural product preparations. Countercurrent separation was used to purify 1 from a supercritical fluid extract of A. sinensis, achieving 93.4% purity in a single step. Subsequent purification by preparative HPLC afforded 1 with a 98.0% purity. Providing a mass balance setting, we monitored chemical changes occurring to highly purified 1 under various conditions and at different time points, in sealed NMR tubes by quantitative 1H NMR (qHNMR). The nondestructive nature of NMR enabled a comprehensive assessment of degradation products. Moreover, in being a mole-based determination, the total intensity (integral) of all NMR signals intrinsically represents the theoretical mass balance within the sample solution. The results demonstrated that 1 is most stable while within the original plant material. Exposure to light had a profound impact on the chemical transformation of 1, leading to the formation of ligustilide dimers and trimers, as verified by both NMR and LC-HRMS studies. Moreover, the results shown for 1, augmented by other recent outcomes, have serious implications for the meaningful biological evaluation of NPs that exhibit instability/reactivity, while having a plethora of "promising" bioactivities reported in the literature and being frequently associated with unsubstantiated health claims.
Project description:Chemical standardization, along with morphological and DNA analysis ensures the authenticity and advances the integrity evaluation of botanical preparations. Achievement of a more comprehensive, metabolomic standardization requires simultaneous quantitation of multiple marker compounds. Employing quantitative <sup>1</sup>H NMR (qHNMR), this study determined the total isoflavone content (TIfCo; 34.5-36.5% w/w) via multimarker standardization and assessed the stability of a 10-year-old isoflavone-enriched red clover extract (RCE). Eleven markers (nine isoflavones, two flavonols) were targeted simultaneously, and outcomes were compared with LC-based standardization. Two advanced quantitative measures in qHNMR were applied to derive quantities from complex and/or overlapping resonances: a quantum mechanical (QM) method (QM-qHNMR) that employs <sup>1</sup>H iterative full spin analysis, and a non-QM method that uses linear peak fitting algorithms (PF-qHNMR). A 10 min UHPLC-UV method provided auxiliary orthogonal quantitation. This is the first systematic evaluation of QM and non-QM deconvolution as qHNMR quantitation measures. It demonstrates that QM-qHNMR can account successfully for the complexity of <sup>1</sup>H NMR spectra of individual analytes and how QM-qHNMR can be built for mixtures such as botanical extracts. The contents of the main bioactive markers were in good agreement with earlier HPLC-UV results, demonstrating the chemical stability of the RCE. QM-qHNMR advances chemical standardization by its inherent QM accuracy and the use of universal calibrants, avoiding the impractical need for identical reference materials.
Project description:The development of analytical methods for parallel characterization of multiple phytoconstituents is essential to advance the quality control of herbal products. While chemical standardization is commonly carried out by targeted analysis using gas or liquid chromatography-based methods, more universal approaches based on quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR) measurements are being used increasingly in the multi-targeted assessment of these complex mixtures. The present study describes the development of a 1D qHNMR-based method for simultaneous identification and quantification of green tea constituents. This approach utilizes computer-assisted (1)H iterative Full Spin Analysis (HiFSA) and enables rapid profiling of seven catechins in commercial green tea extracts. The qHNMR results were cross-validated against quantitative profiles obtained with an orthogonal LC-MS/MS method. The relative strengths and weaknesses of both approaches are discussed, with special emphasis on the role of identical reference standards in qualitative and quantitative analyses.
Project description:Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is increasingly employed in the quantitative analysis and quality control (QC) of natural products (NP) including botanical dietary supplements (BDS). The establishment of QC protocols based on quantitative (1) H NMR (qHNMR) requires method validation.Develop and validate a generic qHNMR method. Optimize acquisition and processing parameters, with specific attention to the requirements for the analysis of complex NP samples, including botanicals and purity assessment of NP isolates.In order to establish the validated qHNMR method, samples containing two highly pure reference materials were used. The influence of acquisition and processing parameters on the method validation was examined, and general aspects of method validation of qHNMR methods discussed. Subsequently, the method established was applied to the analysis of two NP samples: a purified reference compound and a crude mixture.The accuracy and precision of qHNMR using internal or external calibration were compared, using a validated method suitable for complex samples. The impact of post-acquisition processing on method validation was examined using three software packages: TopSpin, Mnova and NUTS. The dynamic range of the qHNMR method developed was 5000:1 with a limit of detection (LOD) of better than 10?µm. The limit of quantification (LOQ) depends on the desired level of accuracy and experiment time spent.This study revealed that acquisition parameters, processing parameters and processing software all contribute to qHNMR method validation. A validated method with a high dynamic range and general workflow for qHNMR analysis of NP is proposed.
Project description:Botanical dietary supplements (BDS) are used around the world for many purported therapeutic properties. The selection of an authentic product and it's phytochemical characterization is critical to generate robust safety data. Because botanicals are complex mixtures with variable quality, identification of a representative product for testing has been challenging. Echinacea is used for its purported immune stimulant properties and was listed as the 2nd top-selling BDS in 2018. However, there are limited safety data for Echinacea. Hence, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) has selected Echinacea for safety testing using rodent models. Here, we describe selection and comprehensive characterization of an Echinacea purpurea root extract to be used in the NTP testing program. Using non-targeted chemical analyses combined with chemometric analysis, a potential unfinished product (i.e., an extract that serves as source material for finished products) of Echinacea purpurea was selected. The product was then authenticated using chemical and DNA techniques and characterized, including the phytochemical composition. Among numerous constituents identified, caftaric acid, chicoric acid, chlorogenic acid and dodeca-2(E),4(E),8(Z),10(E/Z)-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide made up a small fraction of the extract. Based on these analyses, an approach is proposed for test article selection for Echinacea research which can be adapted to other botanicals.
Project description:The genus Actaea (including Cimicifuga) has been the source of ?200 cycloartane triterpenes. While they are major bioactive constituents of complementary and alternative medicines, their structural similarity is a major dereplication problem. Moreover, their trivial names seldom indicate the actual structure. This project develops two new tools for Actaea triterpenes that enable rapid dereplication of more than 170 known triterpenes and facilitates elucidation of new compounds. A predictive computational model based on classification binary trees (CBTs) allows in silico determination of the aglycone type. This tool utilizes the Me (1)H NMR chemical shifts and has potential to be applicable to other natural products. Actaea triterpene dereplication is supported by a new systematic naming scheme. A combination of CBTs, (1)H NMR deconvolution, characteristic (1)H NMR signals, and quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR) led to the unambiguous identification of minor constituents in residually complex triterpene samples. Utilizing a 1.7 mm cryo-microprobe at 700 MHz, qHNMR enabled characterization of residual complexity at the 10-20 ?g level in a 1-5 mg sample. The identification of five co-occurring minor constituents, belonging to four different triterpene skeleton types, in a repeatedly purified natural product emphasizes the critical need for the evaluation of residual complexity of reference materials, especially when used for biological assessment.
Project description:The phytochemical constituents of apple waste were established as potential antifungal agents against four crops pathogens, specifically, Botrytis sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Petriella setifera, and Neosartorya fischeri. Crude, purified extracts and fractions of apple pomace were tested in vitro to evaluate their antifungal and antioxidant properties. The phytochemical constituents of the tested materials were mainly represented by phloridzin and quercetin derivatives, as well as previously undescribed in apples, monoterpene-pinnatifidanoside D. Its structure was confirmed by 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analyses. The fraction containing quercetin pentosides possessed the highest antioxidant activity, while the strongest antifungal activity was exerted by a fraction containing phloridzin. Sugar moieties differentiated the antifungal activity of quercetin glycosides. Quercetin hexosides possessed stronger antifungal activity than quercetin pentosides.
Project description:Licorice botanicals are produced from the roots of Glycyrrhiza species (Fabaceae), encompassing metabolites of both plant and rhizobial origin. The composition in both primary and secondary metabolites (1°/2°Ms) reflects the physiologic state of the plant at harvest. Interestingly, the relative abundance of 1°Ms vs 2°Ms in licorice extracts remains undetermined. A centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) method was developed to purify liquiritin derivatives that represent major bioactive 2°Ms and to concentrate the polar 1°Ms from the crude extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. One objective was to determine the purity of the generated reference materials by orthogonal UHPLC-UV/LC-MS and qHNMR analyses. The other objectives were to evaluate the presence of 1°Ms in purified 2°Ms and define their mass balance in a crude botanical extract. Whereas most impurities could be assigned to well-known 1°Ms, p-hydroxybenzylmalonic acid, a new natural tyrosine analogue, was also identified. Additionally, in the most polar fraction, sucrose and proline represented 93% (w/w) of all qHNMR-quantified 1°Ms. Compared to the 2°Ms, accounting for 11.9% by UHPLC-UV, 1°Ms quantified by qHNMR defined an additional 74.8% of G. uralensis extract. The combined orthogonal methods enable the mass balance characterization of licorice extracts and highlight the relevance of 1°Ms, and accompanying metabolites, for botanical quality control.
Project description:Quantitative 1H NMR (qHNMR) provides a value-added dimension to the standard spectroscopic data set involved in structure analysis, especially when analyzing bioactive molecules and elucidating new natural products. The qHNMR method can be integrated into any routine qualitative workflow without much additional effort by simply establishing quantitative conditions for the standard solution 1H NMR experiments. Moreover, examination of different chemical lots of taxol (paclitaxel) and a Taxus brevifolia extract as working examples led to a blueprint for a generic approach to performing a routinely practiced 13C-decoupled qHNMR experiment and for recognizing its potential and main limitations. The proposed protocol is based on a newly assembled 13C GARP broadband decoupled proton acquisition sequence that reduces spectroscopic complexity by removal of carbon satellites. The method is capable of providing qualitative and quantitative NMR data simultaneously and covers various analytes from pure compounds to complex mixtures such as metabolomes. Due to a routinely achievable dynamic range of 300:1 (0.3%) or better, qHNMR qualifies for applications ranging from reference standards to biologically active compounds to metabolome analysis. Providing a "cookbook" approach to qHNMR, acquisition conditions are described that can be adapted for contemporary NMR spectrometers of all major manufacturers.
Project description:Botanical dietary supplements and herbal remedies are widely used for health promotion and disease prevention. Due to the high chemical complexity of these natural products, it is essential to develop new analytical strategies to guarantee their quality and consistency. In particular, the precise characterization of multiple botanical markers remains a challenge. This study demonstrates how a combination of computer-aided spectral analysis and 1D quantitative ¹H NMR spectroscopy (qHNMR) generates the analytical foundation for innovative means of simultaneously identifying and quantifying botanical markers in complex mixtures. First, comprehensive ¹H NMR profiles (fingerprints) of selected botanical markers were generated via ¹H iterative full spin analysis (HiFSA) with PERCH. Next, the ¹H fingerprints were used to assign specific ¹H resonances in the NMR spectra of reference materials, enriched fractions, and crude extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves. These ¹H fingerprints were then used to verify the assignments by 2D NMR. Subsequently, a complete purity and composition assessment by means of 1D qHNMR was conducted. As its major strengths, this tandem approach enables the simultaneous quantification of multiple constituents without the need for identical reference materials, the semiquantitative determination of particular subclasses of components, and the detection of impurities and adulterants.