Health-related quality of life before and after management in adults referred to otolaryngology: a prospective national study.
ABSTRACT: An assessment of the effect of otolaryngological management on the health-related quality of life of patients.Application of the Health Utilities Index mark 3 (HUI-3) before and after treatment; application of the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) after treatment.Six otolaryngological departments around Scotland.A 9005 adult patients referred to outpatient clinics.Complete HUI-3 data was collected from 4422 patients; complete GBI data from 4235; complete HUI-3 and GBI data from 3884.The overall change in health related quality of life from before to after management was just +0.02. In the majority of subgroups of data (classified by type of management) there was essentially no change in HUI-3 score. The major exceptions were those patients provided with a hearing aid (mean change 0.08) and those whose problem was managed surgically (mean change 0.04). The mean GBI score was 5.3 which is low. Those managed surgically reported a higher GBI score of 13.0.We found that patients treated surgically or given a hearing aid reported a significant improvement in their health related quality of life after treatment in otolaryngology departments. In general, patients treated in other ways reported no significant improvement. We argue that future research should look carefully at patient groups where there is unexpectedly little benefit from current treatment methods and consider more effective methods of management.
Project description:Importance:The decision whether to surgically repair a hip fracture in nursing home (NH) residents with advanced dementia can be challenging. Objective:To compare outcomes, including survival, among NH residents with advanced dementia and hip fracture according to whether they underwent surgical hip fracture repair. Design, Setting, and Participants:We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 3083 NH residents with advanced dementia and hip fracture, but not enrolled in hospice care, using nationwide Medicare claims data linked with Minimum Data Set (MDS) assessments from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2013. Methods:Residents with advanced dementia were identified using the MDS. Medicare claims were used to identify hip fracture and to determine whether the fracture was managed surgically. Survival between surgical and nonsurgical residents was compared using multivariable Cox proportional hazards with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). All analyses took place between November 2015 and January 2018. Among 6-month survivors, documented pain, antipsychotic drug use, physical restraint use, pressure ulcers, and ambulatory status were compared between surgical and nonsurgical groups. Results:Among 3083 residents with advanced dementia and hip fracture (mean age, 84.2 years; 79.2% female [n?=?2441], 28.5% ambulatory [n?=?879]), 2615 (84.8%) underwent surgical repair. By 6-month follow-up, 31.5% (n?=?824) and 53.8% (n?=?252) of surgically and nonsurgically managed residents died, respectively. After IPTW modeling, surgically managed residents were less likely to die than residents without surgery (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.88; 95% CI, 0.79-0.98). Among 2007 residents who survived 6 months, residents with surgical vs nonsurgical management had less docmented pain (29.0% [n?=?465] vs 30.9% [n?=?59]) and fewer pressure ulcers (11.2% [n?=?200] vs 19.0% [n?=?41]). In IPTW models, surgically managed residents reported less pain (aHR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.61-0.99) and pressure ulcers (aHR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.47-0.86). There was no difference between antipsychotic drug use and physical restraint use between the groups. Few survivors remained ambulatory (10.7% [n?=?55] of surgically managed vs 4.8% [n?=?1] without surgery). Conclusions and Relevance:Surgical repair of a hip fracture was associated with lower mortality among NH residents with advanced dementia and should be considered together with the residents' goals of care in management decisions. Pain and other adverse outcomes were common regardless of surgical management, suggesting the need for broad improvements in the quality of care provided to NH residents with advanced dementia and hip fracture.
Project description:STUDY DESIGN:Systematic review. OBJECTIVES:Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) has been reported to affect 1 in 10?000 pregnant women. There is limited evidence available regarding the optimal management of LDH in pregnant patients. We aimed to review the current evidence for the management of symptomatic LDH in pregnancy through critical appraisal and analysis of the available literature. METHODS:Searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, PubMed, Science Direct, and The Cochrane Library from inception using predetermined search terms. All peer-reviewed studies of pregnant women with symptomatic LDH were included. The quality of eligible articles was assessed and extracted data and characteristics were pooled for analysis. References cited by studies were screened to identify other relevant publications. RESULTS:Thirty studies involving 52 patients were identified. Compared to surgically managed patients, conservatively managed patients had a higher full recovery rate (61.54% vs 56.41%) and reported a lower rate of persistent symptoms (30.77% vs 38.54%). Compared to patients who were treated surgically for cauda equina syndrome, patients treated surgically for sciatica had a higher full recovery rate (80.95% vs 27.78%) and reported a lower rate of persistent symptoms (14.29% vs 66.67%). CONCLUSION:There is limited evidence to guide the management of pregnant patients with LDH. Despite a suggestion toward improved outcomes with conservative management, the presence of selection bias and the overall poor quality of current research precludes reliable conclusions from being drawn. Decision making for this patient group should be undertaken within a multidisciplinary setting.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Unlike malignant liver tumours, the indications for hepatic resection for benign disease are not well defined. This is particularly true for focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). Here we summarize a single-centre experience of the diagnosis and management of FNH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a prospectively collected database, a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who were managed at our centre for FNH between January 1997 and December 2006 was performed. RESULTS: The cohort was divided into two groups of patients: those who were managed surgically (n=15) and those managed conservatively (n=37). There was no correlation between tumour size and number of lesions with oral contraceptive use (p=0.07 and 0.90, respectively) and pregnancy (p=0.45 and 0.60, respectively). However, tumour size (p=0.006) and number of lesions (p=0.02) were associated with the occurrence of pain in these patients. Pain was the commonest symptom of patients (13/15) who were managed surgically. All patients underwent radiological imaging before diagnosis. The sensitivities of ultrasound, CT scanning and MRI scanning in characterizing these lesions were 30%, 70% and 87%, respectively. There were no postoperative deaths and three postoperative complications that were successfully managed non-operatively. With a median follow-up of 24 months in the surgically treated group, one patient has developed recurrent symptoms of pain. CONCLUSION. In this series, there was no mortality directly due to the surgical procedure and a modest morbidity, justifying surgical resections in selected patients.
Project description:Background There are concerns about maintaining appropriate clinical staffing levels in Emergency Departments. Pharmacists may be one possible solution. Objective To determine if Emergency Department attendees could be clinically managed by pharmacists with or without advanced clinical practice training. Setting Prospective 49 site cross-sectional observational study of patients attending Emergency Departments in England. Method Pharmacist data collectors identified patient attendance at their Emergency Department, recorded anonymized details of 400 cases and categorized each into one of four possible options: cases which could be managed by a community pharmacist; could be managed by a hospital pharmacist independent prescriber; could be managed by a hospital pharmacist independent prescriber with additional clinical training; or medical team only (unsuitable for pharmacists to manage). Impact indices sensitive to both workload and proportion of pharmacist manageable cases were calculated for each clinical group. Main outcome measure Proportion of cases which could be managed by a pharmacist. Results 18,613 cases were observed from 49 sites. 726 (3.9%) of cases were judged suitable for clinical management by community pharmacists, 719 (3.9%) by pharmacist prescribers, 5202 (27.9%) by pharmacist prescribers with further training, and 11,966 (64.3%) for medical team only. Impact Indices of the most frequent clinical groupings were general medicine (13.18) and orthopaedics (9.69). Conclusion The proportion of Emergency Department cases that could potentially be managed by a pharmacist was 36%. Greatest potential for pharmacist management was in general medicine and orthopaedics (usually minor trauma). Findings support the case for extending the clinical role of pharmacists.
Project description:Clinical trial data management tools are widely available-some free to access and others relatively expensive, particularly for low- and middle-income countries. Such tools also do not always permit adaptation for local conditions nor include options to capture environmental and meteorological data. In the context of climate change and pressing environmental health threats, more studies that aim to assess the impacts of environmental change on public health are being carried out. Here, using freely available software, we tailor-made a clinical trial data management tool that managed all aspects of an intervention-based clinical trial to assess the impact of personal solar ultraviolet radiation exposure on vaccine effectiveness. Data captured and associated procedures included patient data, scheduling, reporting, analysis and data management. Moreover, patient enrolment, recruitment, follow-up and decision-making in response to patient data were managed. Given the multidisciplinary study approach, the tool also managed all environmental and meteorological data for the rural African study site. Application of the tool ensured efficient communication between rural sites, a relatively high overall participant response rate (87%) and minimal loss to follow-up. This study suggests that it is possible to tailor-make a clinical trial data management tool for environmental and public health studies.
Project description:PurposeTo assess and compare the subjective improvement in symptoms and quality of life in adult patients who underwent commonly performed oculoplastic surgical interventions to treat epiphora.Materials and methodsA prospective study was undertaken involving all adult patients undergoing dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR), lid tightening (lateral tarsal strip or lateral wedge resection), and punctoplasty surgery at our institution. We assessed severity of epiphora preoperatively using the Munk score. At 3 months postoperatively, all patients were sent postal questionnaires comprising of Munk score, 'social impact score' from validated Lac-Q questionnaire ranging from 0 (no impact) to 5 (maximal negative impact) and Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) score, ranging from -100 (maximal detriment) to +100 (maximal benefit).ResultsA total of 134 questionnaires were sent with an overall response rate of 74.6%. For the purpose of data analysis, patients were divided into four groups: DCR, lid tightening, punctoplasty, and combined group (lid tightening plus punctoplasty). There was statistically significant improvement in subjective epiphora postoperatively, as assessed by Munk score (P<0.001) in all groups. The total GBI scores were +42.67 (95% CI: 33.42-51.91) for DCR, +19.65 (95% CI: 10.33-28.97) for lid tightening, +16.06 (95% CI: 2.65-29.48) for punctoplasty, and +26.53 (95% CI: 13.15-39.90) for the combined group, demonstrating a positive change in health status for all groups. There was negative correlation between total GBI and post-operative Munk scores (r=-0.58, P<0.001), and positive correlation between Lac-Q and Munk scores (r=0.65, P<0.001).ConclusionPatients derived significant improvement in symptoms and health-related quality of life benefit following all surgical interventions for epiphora.
Project description:In the United States, Black and White individuals show discrepant rates of diagnosis of bipolar disorder versus schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder, as well as disparate access to and utilization of treatment for these disorders (e.g., Alegria, Chatterji, et al., 2008; Chrishon, Anderson, Arora, & Bailey, 2012). Such diagnostic discrepancies might stem from racially related cognitive biases in clinical judgment or from racial biases in measurements of bipolar disorder. The General Behavior Inventory (GBI) is among the most well-validated and widely used measures of bipolar mood symptoms, but the psychometric properties of the GBI have been examined primarily in predominantly White samples. In this study, we used multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to examine the invariance of GBI scores across racial groups with a nonclinical sample. Fit was acceptable for tests of configural invariance, equal factor loadings, and equal intercepts, but not invariance of residuals. Findings indicate that GBI scores provide functionally invariant measurement of mood symptoms in both Black and White samples. The use of GBI scores may contribute consistent information to clinical assessments and could potentially reduce diagnostic discrepancies and associated differences in access to and utilization of mental health services.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate health outcomes, resource use and corresponding costs attributable to managing burns in clinical practice, from initial presentation, among a cohort of adults in the UK. DESIGN:Retrospective cohort analysis of the records of a randomly selected cohort of 260 patients from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database who had 294 evaluable burns. SETTING:Primary and secondary care sectors in the UK. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Patients' characteristics, wound-related health outcomes, healthcare resource use and total National Health Service (NHS) cost of patient management. RESULTS:Diagnosis was incomplete in 63% of patients' records as the location, depth and size of the burns were missing. Overall, 70% of all the burns healed within 24 months and the time to healing was a mean of 7.8 months per burn. Sixty-six per cent of burns were initially managed in the community and the other 34% were managed at accident and emergency departments. Patients' wounds were subsequently managed predominantly by practice nurses and hospital outpatient clinics. Forty-five per cent of burns had no documented dressings in the patients' records. The mean NHS cost of wound care in clinical practice over 24 months from initial presentation was an estimated £16?924 per burn, ranging from £12?002 to £40?577 for a healed and unhealed wound, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Due to incomplete documentation in the patients' records, it is difficult to say whether the time to healing was excessive or what other confounding factors may have contributed to the delayed healing. This study indicates the need for education of general practice clinicians on the management and care of burn wounds. Furthermore, it is beholden on the burns community to determine how the poor healing rates can be improved. Strategies are required to improve documentation in patients' records, integration of care between different providers, wound healing rates and reducing infection.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To elicit European healthcare policy-makers' views, understanding and attitudes about the implementation of frailty screening and management strategies and responses to stakeholders' views. DESIGN:Thematic analysis of semistructured qualitative interviews. SETTING:European healthcare policy departments. PARTICIPANTS:Seven European healthcare policy-makers representing the European Union (n=2), UK (n=2), Italy (n=1), Spain (n=1) and Poland (n=1). Participants were sourced through professional networks and the European Commission Authentication Service website and were required to be in an active healthcare policy or decision-making role. RESULTS:Seven themes were identified. Our findings reveal a 'knowledge gap', around frailty and awareness of the malleability of frailty, which has resulted in restricted ownership of frailty by specialists. Policy-makers emphasised the need to recognise frailty as a clinical syndrome but stressed that it should be managed via an integrated and interdisciplinary response to chronicity and ageing. That is, through social co-production. This would require a culture shift in care with redeployment of existing resources to deliver frailty management and intervention services. Policy-makers proposed barriers to a culture shift, indicating a need to be innovative with solutions to empower older adults to optimise their health and well-being, while still fully engaging in the social environment. The cultural acceptance of an integrated care system theme described the complexities of institutional change management, as well as cultural issues relating to working democratically, while in signposting adult care, the need for a personal navigator to help older adults to access appropriate services was proposed. Policy-makers also believed that screening for frailty could be an effective tool for frailty management. CONCLUSIONS:There is potential for frailty to be managed in a more integrated and person-centred manner, overcoming the challenges associated with niche ownership within the healthcare system. There is also a need to raise its profile and develop a common understanding of its malleability among stakeholders, as well as consistency in how and when it is measured.
Project description:Little is reported about the role of medical management in the treatment of spinal arachnoid diverticula (SAD) in dogs.To describe the outcome of 96 dogs treated medically or surgically for SAD.Ninety-six dogs with SAD.Retrospective case series. Medical records were searched for spinal arachnoid diverticula and all dogs with information on treatment were included. Outcome was assessed with a standardized questionnaire.Fifty dogs were managed medically and 46 dogs were treated surgically. Dogs that underwent surgery were significantly younger than dogs that received medical management. No other variables, related to clinical presentation, were significantly different between both groups of dogs. The median follow-up time was 16 months (1-90 months) in the medically treated and 23 months (1-94 months) in the surgically treated group. Of the 38 dogs treated surgically with available long-term follow-up, 82% (n = 31) improved, 3% (n = 1) remained stable and 16% (n = 6) deteriorated after surgery. Of the 37 dogs treated medically with available long-term follow-up, 30% (n = 11) improved, 30% (n = 11) remained stable, and 40% (n = 15) deteriorated. Surgical treatment was more often associated with clinical improvement compared to medical management (P = .0002).The results of this study suggest that surgical treatment might be superior to medical treatment in the management of SAD in dogs. Further studies with standardized patient care are warranted.