Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging: Novel Insights into the Vascular Response After Coronary Stent Implantation.
ABSTRACT: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution imaging technique that is increasingly used for intracoronary imaging to characterize coronary atherosclerotic plaques and vascular responses after coronary stent implantation. Introduction of optical frequency-domain imaging (OFDI; second generation OCT) has simplified practical use of this novel imaging modality resulting in a more widespread availability in interventional cardiology. Here we highlight recent insights into the acute and chronic vascular response after coronary stent implantation by OCT imaging. OCT provides cross-sectional images with approximately 10-fold higher resolution as compared to intravascular-ultrasound (IVUS), allowing for precise evaluation of tissue coverage and malapposition of coronary stent struts. More than 30 studies using OCT to compare vascular responses to different stents have now been reported. Recent studies have examined the relation between OCT-image characteristics and tissue composition around stent struts. OCT is used for evaluation of novel stent concepts, such as bioengineered stents and bioabsorbable stents, where it provides more accurate information than IVUS. While intracoronary OCT imaging is further developed, including faster 3D-OCT-image-reconstruction, larger OCT studies/registries with standardized analysis will provide more insights into clinical implications of observations from OCT-imaging after coronary stent implantation.
Project description:Frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) has become one of the important clinical tools for intracoronary imaging to diagnose and monitor coronary artery disease, which has been one of the leading causes of death. To help more accurate diagnosis and monitoring of the disease, many researchers have recently worked on visualization of various coronary microscopic features including stent struts by constructing three-dimensional (3D) volumetric rendering from series of cross-sectional intracoronary FD-OCT images. In this paper, we present the first, to our knowledge, "push-of-a-button" graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated framework for intracoronary OCT imaging. Our framework visualizes 3D microstructures of the vessel wall with stent struts from raw binary OCT data acquired by the system digitizer as one seamless process. The framework reports the state-of-the-art performance; from raw OCT data, it takes 4.7 seconds to provide 3D visualization of a 5-cm-long coronary artery (of size 1600 samples x 1024 A-lines x 260 frames) with stent struts and detection of malapposition automatically at the single push of a button.
Project description:Fibrin deposition and absent endothelium characterize unhealed stents that are at heightened risk of stent thrombosis. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is increasingly used for assessing stent tissue coverage as a measure of healed stents, but cannot precisely identify whether overlying tissue represents physiological neointima. Here we assessed and compared fibrin deposition and persistence on bare metal stent (BMS) and drug-eluting stent (DES) using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) molecular imaging in vivo, in combination with simultaneous OCT stent coverage.Rabbits underwent implantation of one BMS and one DES without overlap in the infrarenal aorta (N = 20 3.5 × 12 mm). At Days 7 and/or 28, intravascular NIRF-OCT was performed following the injection of fibrin-targeted NIRF molecular imaging agent FTP11-CyAm7. Intravascular NIRF-OCT enabled high-resolution imaging of fibrin overlying stent struts in vivo, as validated by histopathology. Compared with BMS, DES showed greater fibrin deposition and fibrin persistence at Days 7 and 28 (P < 0.01 vs. BMS). Notably, for edge stent struts identified as covered by OCT on Day 7, 92.8 ± 9.5% of DES and 55.8 ± 23.6% of BMS struts were NIRF fibrin positive (P < 0.001). At Day 28, 18.6 ± 10.6% (DES) and 5.1 ± 8.7% (BMS) of OCT-covered struts remained fibrin positive (P < 0.001).Intravascular NIRF fibrin molecular imaging improves the detection of unhealed stents, using clinically translatable technology that complements OCT. A sizeable percentage of struts deemed covered by OCT are actually covered by fibrin, particularly in DES, and therefore such stents might remain prothrombotic. These findings have implications for the specificity of standalone clinical OCT assessments of stent healing.
Project description:The bioresorbable vascular stent (BVS) is totally translucent and radiolucent, leading to challenges when using conventional invasive imaging modalities. Agreement between quantitative coronary angiography (QCA), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the BVS is unknown. Forty five patients enrolled in the ABSORB cohort B1 study underwent coronary angiography, IVUS and OCT immediately post BVS implantation, and at 6 months. OCT estimated stent length accurately compared to nominal length (95% CI of the difference: -0.19; 0.37 and -0.15; 0.47 mm(2) for baseline and 6 months, respectively), whereas QCA incurred consistent underestimation of the same magnitude at both time points (Pearson correlation = 0.806). IVUS yielded low accuracy (95% CI of the difference: 0.77; 3.74 and -1.15; 3.27 mm(2) for baseline and 6 months, respectively), with several outliers and random variability test-retest. Minimal lumen area (MLA) decreased substantially between baseline and 6 months on QCA and OCT and only minimally on IVUS (95% CI: 0.11; 0.42). Agreement between the different imaging modalities is poor: worst agreement Videodensitometry-IVUS post-implantation (ICCa 0.289); best agreement IVUS-OCT at baseline (ICCa 0.767). All pairs deviated significantly from linearity (P < 0.01). Passing-Bablok non-parametric orthogonal regression showed constant and proportional bias between IVUS and OCT. OCT is the most accurate technique for measuring stent length, whilst QCA incurs systematic underestimation (foreshortening) and solid state IVUS incurs random error. Volumetric calculations using solid state IVUS are therefore not reliable. There is poor agreement for MLA estimation between all the imaging modalities studied, including IVUS-OCT, hence their values are not interchangeable.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Coronary angiography (CAG) is the standard modality for assessment of coronary stenoses and intraprocedural guidance of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). However, the limitations of CAG are well recognized. Intracoronary imaging (ICI) can potentially overcome these limitations. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are the main ICI techniques utilized in clinical practice. AIM:This narrative literature review addresses the current clinical applications of OCT in relation to IVUS and CAG in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Items reviewed are: technical implications of OCT and IVUS, lesion characterization and decision-making, stent optimization criteria, post-stenting results, safety in terms of procedural complications, clinical outcomes, and indications. MAIN FINDINGS:OCT is able to reveal more detail than IVUS due to its higher resolution. However, this higher resolution comes at the cost of a lower penetration depth. Pre-stenting OCT results in procedural change in more than 50% of the cases in terms of stent length and diameter. Post-stenting OCT resulting in stent optimization is reported in at least 27% of the cases. Malapposition and under-expansion are treated with post-dilatations, while edge dissections are treated with additional stent placement. Stent expansion, stent apposition, distal stent edge dissections, and reference lumen areas seem to be the most important stent optimization criteria for both decision-making and for reducing the risk of adverse events during follow-up. Both OCT and IVUS are superior in terms of post-stenting results compared with CAG alone. However, there is no consensus about whether OCT guidance results in better stent expansion than IVUS guidance. OCT, IVUS, and CAG are safe procedures with few reported procedural complications. In general, OCT guidance seems to contribute to favorable clinical outcomes compared with CAG guidance only. However, OCT guidance results in similar clinical outcomes as with IVUS guidance. OCT could be considered for lumen assessment and stent-related morphology in more complex cases in which CAG interpretation remains uncertain. Since OCT and IVUS have distinct characteristics, these techniques are complementary and should be considered carefully for each patient case based on the benefits and limitations of both techniques.
Project description:Up to 80% of all endovascular stents have malapposed struts, and while some impose catastrophic events others are inconsequential. Thirteen stents were implanted in coronary arteries of seven healthy Yorkshire pigs, using specially-designed cuffed balloons inducing controlled stent malapposition and under-expansion. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging confirmed that 25% of struts were malapposed (strut-wall distance <strut thickness) to variable extent (max. strut-wall distance malapposed group 0.51 ± 0.05 mm vs. apposed group 0.09 ± 0.05 mm, p = 2e-3). Imaging at follow-up revealed malapposition acutely resolved (<1% of struts remained malapposed at day 5), with strong correlation between lumen and the stent cross-sectional areas (slope = 0.86, p < 0.0001, R (2) = 0.94). OCT in three of the most significantly malapposed vessels at baseline showed high correlation of elastic lamina area and lumen area (R (2) = 0.96) suggesting all lumen loss was related to contraction of elastic lamina with negligible plaque/intimal hyperplasia growth. Simulation showed this vascular recoil could be partially explained by the non-uniform strain environment created from sub-optimal expansion of device and balloon, and the inability of stent support in the malapposed region to resist recoil. Malapposition as a result of stent under-expansion is resolved acutely in healthy normal arteries, suggesting existing animal models are limited in replicating clinically observed persistent stent malapposition.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Inadequate stent implantation is associated with stent thrombosis and restenosis. StentBoost can enhance stent visualization and evaluate stent expansion. Currently, there are limited comparison studies between StentBoost and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). We aimed to test the correlation and agreement between IVUS and StentBoost measurements. METHODS:From December 2010 to December 2011, 38 patients (54 stents) were analyzed using IVUS and StentBoost. Minimal stent diameter and proximal and distal edge stent diameter were compared between imaging techniques using Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman scatter plot. RESULTS:There was good correlation between StentBoost and IVUS measurements regarding minimal stent diameter (p < 0.001 in all stent portions) and an optimal agreement between IVUS and StentBoost, while lesser agreement was found between IVUS and quantitative coronary angiography. CONCLUSION:The assessment of stent implantation using StentBoost showed an adequate correlation and agreement with IVUS. This easily applicable angiographic technique can be used to guide stent implantation.
Project description:Early-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) have been demonstrated to delay vascular healing. Limited optical coherence tomography (OCT) data on the very long-term neointimal response after DES implantation are available. The aim of this study was a serial OCT assessment of neointimal thickness, stent strut coverage, malapposition, and protrusion as markers of neointimal response at 3 and 9 years after implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES). In this single-centre, longitudinal study consecutive patients undergoing elective PCI with SES or PES were included. OCT analysis was performed after 3 and 9 years by the independent core laboratory. A total of 22 subjects (8 SES and 14 PES) underwent an OCT assessment at 3 and 9 years post index procedure. The lumen, neointimal and malapposition area and the neointimal thickness (SES ∆50 µm, p = 0.195, PES ∆10 µm, p = 0.951) did not change significantly over the 6 year follow-up. No differences in the incidence of uncovered, malapposed or protruding struts were found in each type of stent. At 3 and 9 years after PCI, implantation of early-generation SES and PES may be associated with similar neointimal thickness, strut coverage, malapposition and protrusion, as assessed by serial OCT examination among patients with uneventful follow-up at 3 years post procedure. The small size of the study warrants judicious interpretation of our results and confirmation in larger multimodality imaging studies, including patients treated with contemporary stent platforms.
Project description:Objectives:To assess the expansion pattern of coronary stents by using different balloon inflation times and pressures. Background:The selection of coronary stent size and its proper deployment is crucial in coronary artery interventions, having an impact on the success of the procedure and further therapy. Methods:Ten pairs of different stents were deployed under nominal pressure using sequential (5, 5, 10, and 10 seconds of repeated inflations, thus 30 seconds of summarized time) and continuous (30 seconds) deployment pattern. After each given time-point, intraluminal stent measurements were performed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Results:Both in-stent diameters and cross-section areas (CSA) of paired stents measured by OCT at all sequential time-points were significantly smaller compared to given manufacturers charts' values (90% to 94% for diameters and 81% to 88% for CSA, p<0.05). Significant increase of in-stent diameter and CSA was observed across the step-by-step deployment pattern. In-stent lumen measurements were significantly larger when sequential deployment pattern was applied compared to continuous deployment. Additional measurements were also done for overlapping segments of stents, showing smaller in-stent measurements of the latter compared to nonoverlapping segments. Validation of OCT and IVUS measurements using a phantom metallic tube showed perfect reproducibility with OCT and overestimation with IVUS (8% for diameters and 16% for CSA). Conclusions:Stent diameter after deployment is time-dependent and not only pressure-dependent. Different stent expansion behavior, depending on the applied deployment pattern (sequential and nonsequential), was observed.
Project description:Background:To date, there have been limited comparisons performed between everolimus-eluting stents (EES) and zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The objectives of this study was to assess the use of second-generation drug-eluting stents in patients with DM, using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to compare the level of stent coverage of Boston Scientific Promus Element EES compared with Medtronic Resolute Integrity ZES.(Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT02060357). Methods:This is a single-centre randomised blinded trials assessing two commercially available stents in 60 patients with diabetes (ZES: n=30, EES: n=30). Patients underwent intracoronary assessment at 6 months with OCT assessing stent coverage, malapposition, neointimal thickness and percentage of in-stent restenosis (ISR). Results:Of the 60 patients randomised, 46 patients underwent OCT analysis. There was no difference in baseline characteristics between the two groups. Both Promus Element and Resolute Integrity had low rates of uncovered struts at 6 months with no significant difference between the two groups (2.44% vs 1.24%, respectively; P=0.17). Rates of malapposition struts (3.9% vs 2.5%, P=0.25) and percentage of luminal loss did not differ between stent types. In addition, there was no significant difference in major adverse cardiovascular events (P=0.24) between the stent types. Conclusions:This study is the first randomised trial to evaluate OCT at 6 months for ZES and EES in patients with diabetes. Both stents showed comparable strut coverage at 6 months, with no difference in ISR rates at 6 months.
Project description:Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds represent the next revolution in stent technology. They serve the dual purpose of antiproliferative drug delivery to vascular lumen like a drug-eluting stents (DES) as well as phased strut resorption over time leading to virtual elimination of stent thrombosis. The ABSORB GT-1 stent was the prototype bioresrbable vascular scaffold with maximum clinical experience and initial promising results. However, reports of stent thrombosis emerged with ABSORB too. Although the use of intracoronary imaging and proper implantation technique has the potential to reduce stent thrombosis rates, the device has been withdrawn from the market for now. We report a case of late stent thrombosis with ABSORB which was managed with DES-supported intracoronary imaging.