A computational model for early events in B cell antigen receptor signaling: analysis of the roles of Lyn and Fyn.
ABSTRACT: BCR signaling regulates the activities and fates of B cells. BCR signaling encompasses two feedback loops emanating from Lyn and Fyn, which are Src family protein tyrosine kinases (SFKs). Positive feedback arises from SFK-mediated trans phosphorylation of BCR and receptor-bound Lyn and Fyn, which increases the kinase activities of Lyn and Fyn. Negative feedback arises from SFK-mediated cis phosphorylation of the transmembrane adapter protein PAG1, which recruits the cytosolic protein tyrosine kinase Csk to the plasma membrane, where it acts to decrease the kinase activities of Lyn and Fyn. To study the effects of the positive and negative feedback loops on the dynamical stability of BCR signaling and the relative contributions of Lyn and Fyn to BCR signaling, we consider in this study a rule-based model for early events in BCR signaling that encompasses membrane-proximal interactions of six proteins, as follows: BCR, Lyn, Fyn, Csk, PAG1, and Syk, a cytosolic protein tyrosine kinase that is activated as a result of SFK-mediated phosphorylation of BCR. The model is consistent with known effects of Lyn and Fyn deletions. We find that BCR signaling can generate a single pulse or oscillations of Syk activation depending on the strength of Ag signal and the relative levels of Lyn and Fyn. We also show that bistability can arise in Lyn- or Csk-deficient cells.
Project description:In subtypes and late stages of leukemias driven by the tyrosine kinase fusion protein Bcr-Abl, signaling by the Src family kinases (SFKs) critically contributes to the leukemic phenotype. We performed global tyrosine phosphoprofiling by quantitative mass spectrometry of Bcr-Abl-transformed cells in which the activities of the SFKs were perturbed to build a detailed context-dependent network of cancer signaling. Perturbation of the SFKs Lyn and Hck with genetics or inhibitors revealed Bcr-Abl downstream phosphorylation events either mediated by or independent of SFKs. We identified multiple negative feedback mechanisms within the network of signaling events affected by Bcr-Abl and SFKs and found that Bcr-Abl attenuated these inhibitory mechanisms. The C-terminal Src kinase (Csk)-binding protein Pag1 (also known as Cbp) and the tyrosine phosphatase Ptpn18 both mediated negative feedback to SFKs. We observed Bcr-Abl-mediated phosphorylation of the phosphatase Shp2 (Ptpn11), and this may contribute to the suppression of these negative feedback mechanisms to promote Bcr-Abl-activated SFK signaling. Csk and a kinase-deficient Csk mutant both produced similar globally repressive signaling consequences, suggesting a critical role for the adaptor protein function of Csk in its inhibition of Bcr-Abl and SFK signaling. The identified Bcr-Abl-activated SFK regulatory mechanisms are candidates for dysregulation during leukemia progression and acquisition of SFK-mediated drug resistance.
Project description:Src family kinases (SFK) control multiple processes during brain development and function. We show here that the phosphoprotein associated with glycosphigolipid-enriched microdomains (PAG)/Csk binding protein (Cbp) modulates SFK activity in the brain. The timing and localization of PAG expression overlap with Fyn and Src, both of which we find associated to PAG. We demonstrate in newborn (P1) mice that PAG negatively regulates Src family kinases (SFK). P1 Pag1(-/-) mouse brains show decreased recruitment of Csk into lipid rafts, reduced phosphorylation of the inhibitory tyrosines within SFKs, and an increase in SFK activity of >/?=?50%. While in brain of P1 mice, PAG and Csk are highly and ubiquitously expressed, little Csk is found in adult brain suggesting altered modes of SFK regulation. In adult brain Pag1-deficiency has no effect upon Csk-distribution or inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation, but kinase activity is now reduced (-20-30%), pointing to the development of a compensatory mechanism that may involve PSD93. The distribution of the Csk-homologous kinase CHK is not altered. Importantly, since the activities of Fyn and Src are decreased in adult Pag1(-/-) mice, thus presenting the reversed phenotype of P1, this provides the first in vivo evidence for a Csk-independent positive regulatory function for PAG in the brain.
Project description:There are eight human Src-family tyrosine kinases (SFKs). SFK members c-Src, c-Yes, Fyn, and Lyn are expressed in various cancer cells. SFK kinase activity is negatively regulated by Csk tyrosine kinase. Reduced activity of Csk causes aberrant activation of SFKs, which can be degraded by a compensatory mechanism depending on Cbl-family ubiquitin ligases. We herein investigated whether all SFK members are similarly downregulated by Cbl-family ubiquitin ligases in cancer cells lacking Csk activity. We performed Western blotting of multiple cancer cells knocked down for Csk and found that the protein levels of the 56?kDa isoform of Lyn (LynA), 53?kDa isoform of Lyn (LynB), c-Src, and Fyn, but not of c-Yes, were reduced by Csk depletion. Induction of c-Cbl protein levels was also observed in Csk-depleted cells. The reduction of LynA accompanying the depletion of Csk was significantly reversed by the knockdown for Cbls, whereas such significant recovery of LynB, c-Src, and Fyn was not observed. These results suggested that LynA is selectively downregulated by Cbls in cancer cells lacking Csk activity.
Project description:SFKs (Src family kinases) contribute importantly to platelet function in haemostasis. SFK activity is controlled by Csk (C-terminal Src kinase), which phosphorylates a C-terminal tyrosine residue on SFKs, resulting in inhibition of SFK activity. Csk is recruited to sites of SFK activity by tyrosine-phosphorylated Csk-binding proteins. Paxillin, a multidomain adaptor protein, has been shown to act as a Csk-binding protein and to inhibit Src activity during growth factor signalling. Human platelets express Hic-5, a member of the paxillin family; however, its ability to act as a Csk-binding protein has not been characterized. We sought to identify and characterize the ability of paxillin family members to act as Csk-binding proteins during platelet activation. We found that murine and human platelets differ in the complement of paxillin family members expressed. Human platelets express Hic-5, whereas murine platelets express paxillin and leupaxin in addition to Hic-5. In aggregating human platelets, Hic-5 was tyrosine phosphorylated and recruited Csk via its SH2 domains. In aggregating murine platelets, however, Csk bound preferentially to paxillin, even though both paxillin and Hic-5 were abundantly present and became tyrosine phosphorylated. The SFK Lyn, but not Src or Fyn, was associated with paxillin family members in resting and aggregated human and murine platelets. Lyn, however, was phosphorylated on its C-terminal inhibitory tyrosine residue only following platelet aggregation, which was coincident with recruitment of Csk to paxillin and/or Hic-5 in a manner dependent on prior alpha(IIb)beta3 engagement. These observations support the notion that Hic-5 and paxillin function as negative feedback regulators of SFKs in aggregated platelets and that, when both are present, paxillin is preferentially used.
Project description:Cbp, a C-terminal Src kinase (Csk)-binding protein, is a transmembrane phosphoprotein that has been implicated in the regulation of the Src family kinase (SFK) through recruiting Csk, a negative regulator of SFK, to a membrane microdomain of lipid rafts. To examine the contribution of Cbp to cell adhesion signaling mediated by SFK, we investigated the kinase responsible for phosphorylating Cbp and the mode of phosphorylation during the cell adhesion process. The results obtained by using mutant mice or cells that lack Csk and/or a member of SFK, Fyn, reveal that Cbp is phosphorylated predominantly by raft-localized Fyn in vivo. Upon cell adhesion onto fibronectin, Cbp becomes transiently phosphorylated (consistent with SFK activation) and recruits Csk to lipid rafts. These events are completed before the full activation of focal adhesion kinase, indicating that the transient activation and down-regulation of SFK in lipid rafts are earlier events in cell adhesion signaling. In Csk-deficient cells, continuous hyperactivation of SFK leads to continuous hyperphosphorylation of Cbp, accompanied by impaired cell spreading and migration. Silencing of Cbp by RNA interference also induced impaired cell spreading. These findings suggest that Cbp could serve as a sensor of SFK activity in early stages of cell adhesion signaling, and that Csk-mediated down-regulation of SFK is essential to allow dynamic cellular events involved in the regulation of cell spreading and migration.
Project description:IgE/antigen-dependent mast cell activation plays a central role in immediate hypersensitivity and other allergic reactions. The Src family tyrosine kinase (SFK) Lyn is activated by the cross-linking of high-affinity IgE receptors (FcepsilonRI). Activated Lyn phosphorylates the FcepsilonRI subunits, beta and gamma, leading to subsequent activation of various signaling pathways. Lyn also plays a negative regulatory function by activating negative regulatory molecules. Another SFK, Fyn, also contributes to mast cell degranulation by inducing Gab2-dependent microtubule formation. Here we show that a third SFK, Hck, plays a critical role in mast cell activation. Degranulation and cytokine production are reduced in FcepsilonRI-stimulated hck(-/-) mast cells. The reduced degranulation can be accounted for by defects in Gab2 phosphorylation and microtubule formation. Importantly, Lyn activity is elevated in hck(-/-) cells, leading to increased phosphorylation of several negative regulators. However, positive regulatory events, such as activation of Syk, Btk, JNK, p38, Akt, and NF-kappaB, are substantially reduced in hck(-/-) mast cells. Analysis of lyn(-/-)hck(-/-), lyn(-/-)FcepsilonRIbeta(-/-), and hck(-/-)FcepsilonRIbeta(-/-) cells shows that Hck exerts these functions via both Lyn-dependent and Lyn-independent mechanisms. Thus, this study has revealed a hierarchical regulation among SFK members to fine-tune mast cell activation.
Project description:Src family tyrosine kinases (SFKs) function in multiple signaling pathways, raising the question of how appropriate regulation and substrate choice are achieved. SFK activity is modulated by several protein-tyrosine phosphatases, among which RPTPalpha and SHP2 are the best established. We studied how RPTPalpha affects substrate specificity and regulation of c-Src and Fyn in response to epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor. We find that RPTPalpha, in a growth factor-specific manner, directs the specificity of these kinases toward a specific subset of SFK substrates, particularly the focal adhesion protein Paxillin and the lipid raft scaffolding protein Cbp/PAG. A significant fraction of RPTPalpha is present in lipid rafts, where its targets Fyn and Cbp/PAG reside, and growth factor-mediated SFK activation within this compartment is strictly dependent on RPTPalpha. Forced concentration of RPTPalpha into lipid rafts is compatible with activation of Fyn. Finally, RPTPalpha-induced phosphorylation of Paxillin and Cbp/PAG induces recruitment of the SFK inhibitory kinase Csk, indicative of negative feedback loops limiting SFK activation by RPTPalpha. Our findings indicate that individual SFK-controlling PTPs play important and specific roles in dictating SFK substrate specificity and regulatory mechanism.
Project description:B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and CD40 signaling are rewired in germinal center (GC) B cells (GCBCs) to optimize selection for high-affinity B cells. In GCBC, BCR signals are constrained, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Here we describe a GC-specific, AKT-kinase-driven negative feedback loop that attenuates BCR signaling. Mass spectrometry revealed that AKT target activity was altered in GCBCs compared with naive B cells. Retargeting was linked to differential AKT T308 and S473 phosphorylation, in turn controlled by GC-specific upregulation of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase PDK1 and the phosphatase PTEN. In GCBCs, AKT preferentially targeted CSK, SHP-1 and HPK1, which are negative regulators of BCR signaling. We found that phosphorylation enhances enzymatic activity of these proteins, creating a negative feedback loop that dampens upstream BCR signaling. AKT inhibition relieved this negative feedback and enhanced activation of BCR-proximal kinase LYN, as well as downstream BCR signaling molecules in GCBCs.
Project description:C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) is a major negative regulator of Src family tyrosine kinases (SFKs) that play critical roles in immunoreceptor signaling. CSK is brought in contiguity to the plasma membrane-bound SFKs via binding to transmembrane adaptor PAG, also known as CSK-binding protein. The recent finding that PAG can function as a positive regulator of the high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc?RI)-mediated mast cell signaling suggested that PAG and CSK have some non-overlapping regulatory functions in mast cell activation. To determine the regulatory roles of CSK in Fc?RI signaling, we derived bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) with reduced or enhanced expression of CSK from wild-type (WT) or PAG knockout (KO) mice and analyzed their Fc?RI-mediated activation events. We found that in contrast to PAG-KO cells, antigen-activated BMMCs with CSK knockdown (KD) exhibited significantly higher degranulation, calcium response, and tyrosine phosphorylation of Fc?RI, SYK, and phospholipase C. Interestingly, Fc?RI-mediated events in BMMCs with PAG-KO were restored upon CSK silencing. BMMCs with CSK-KD/PAG-KO resembled BMMCs with CSK-KD alone. Unexpectedly, cells with CSK-KD showed reduced kinase activity of LYN and decreased phosphorylation of transcription factor STAT5. This was accompanied by impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in antigen-activated cells. In line with this, BMMCs with CSK-KD exhibited enhanced phosphorylation of protein phosphatase SHP-1, which provides a negative feedback loop for regulating phosphorylation of STAT5 and LYN kinase activity. Furthermore, we found that in WT BMMCs SHP-1 forms complexes containing LYN, CSK, and STAT5. Altogether, our data demonstrate that in Fc?RI-activated mast cells CSK is a negative regulator of degranulation and chemotaxis, but a positive regulator of adhesion to fibronectin and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Some of these pathways are not dependent on the presence of PAG.
Project description:Src-family kinase (SFK) signaling impacts multiple tumor-related properties, particularly in the context of the brain tumor glioblastoma. Consequently, the pan-SFK inhibitor dasatinib has emerged as a therapeutic strategy, despite physiologic limitations to its effectiveness in the brain. We investigated the importance of individual SFKs (Src, Fyn, Yes, and Lyn) to glioma tumor biology by knocking down individual SFK expression both in culture (LN229, SF767, GBM8) and orthotopic xenograft (GBM8) contexts. We evaluated the effects of these knockdowns on tumor cell proliferation, migration, and motility-related signaling in culture, as well as overall survival in the orthotopic xenograft model. The four SFKs differed significantly in their importance to these properties. In culture, Src, Fyn, and Yes knockdown generally reduced growth and migration and altered motility-related phosphorylation patterns while Lyn knockdown did so to a lesser extent. However the details of these effects varied significantly depending on the cell line: in no case were conclusions about the role of a particular SFK applicable to all of the measures or all of the cell types examined. In the orthotopic xenograft model, mice implanted with non-target or Src or Fyn knockdown cells showed no differences in survival. In contrast, mice implanted with Yes knockdown cells had longer survival, associated with reduced tumor cell proliferation. Those implanted with Lyn knockdown cells had shorter survival, associated with higher overall tumor burden. Together, our results suggest that Yes signaling directly affects tumor cell biology in a pro-tumorigenic manner, while Lyn signaling affects interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironment in an anti-tumor manner. In the context of therapeutic targeting of SFKs, these results suggest that pan-SFK inhibitors may not produce the intended therapeutic benefit when Lyn is present.