Selective ?2-adrenoreceptor stimulation attenuates myocardial cell death and preserves cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion injury.
ABSTRACT: ?(2)-adrenoreceptor activation has been shown to protect cardiac myocytes from cell death. We hypothesized that acute ?(2)-adrenoreceptor stimulation, using arformoterol (ARF), would attenuate myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (R) injury via NO synthase activation and cause a subsequent increase in NO bioavailability.Male C57BL/6J and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) knockout mice were subjected to 45 minutes of myocardial ischemia and 24 hours of R. ARF or vehicle was administered 5 minutes before R. Serum troponin-I was measured, and infarct size per area-at-risk was evaluated at 24 hours of R. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and 2 weeks after R. Myocardial cAMP, protein kinase A, eNOS/Akt phosphorylation status, and NO metabolite levels were assayed. ARF (1 µg/kg) reduced infarct size per area-at-risk by 53.1% (P<0.001 versus vehicle) and significantly reduced troponin-I levels (P<0.001 versus vehicle). Ejection fraction was significantly preserved in ARF-treated hearts compared with vehicle hearts at 2 weeks of R. Serum cAMP and nuclear protein kinase A C-? increased 5 and 15 minutes after ARF injection, respectively (P<0.01). ARF increased Akt phosphorylation at Thr(308) (P<0.001) and Ser(473) (P<0.01), and eNOS phosphorylation at Ser(1177) (P<0.01). ARF treatment increased heart nitrosothiol levels (P<0.001) at 15 min after injection. ARF failed to reduce infarct size in eNOS(-/-) mice.Our results indicate that ?(2)-adrenoreceptor stimulation activates cAMP, protein kinase A, Akt, and eNOS and augments NO bioavailability. Activation of this prosurvival signaling pathway attenuates myocardial cell death and preserves cardiac function after ischemia/reperfusion.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The current study was designed to test our hypothesis that atorvastatin could reduce infarct size in intact mice by activating eNOS, specifically the eNOS in bone marrow-derived cells. C57BL/6J mice (B6) and congenic eNOS knockout (KO) mice underwent 45 min LAD occlusion and 60 min reperfusion. Chimeric mice, created by bone marrow transplantation between B6 and eNOS KO mice, underwent 40 min LAD occlusion and 60 min reperfusion. Mice were treated either with vehicle or atorvastatin in 5% ethanol at a dose of 10 mg/kg IV 5 min before initiating reperfusion. Infarct size was evaluated by TTC and Phthalo blue staining.<h4>Results</h4>Atorvastatin treatment reduced infarct size in B6 mice by 19% (p<0.05). In eNOS KO vehicle-control mice, infarct size was comparable to that of B6 vehicle-control mice (p?=?NS). Atorvastatin treatment had no effect on infarct size in eNOS KO mice (p?=?NS). In chimeras, atorvastatin significantly reduced infarct size in B6/B6 (donor/recipient) mice and B6/KO mice (p<0.05), but not in KO/KO mice or KO/B6 mice (p?=?NS).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results demonstrate that acute administration of atorvastatin significantly reduces myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in an eNOS-dependent manner, probably through the post-transcriptional activation of eNOS in bone marrow-derived cells.
Project description:This paper examined whether nebivolol protects the heart via nitric oxide (NO) synthase and NO-dependent signaling in an in vivo model of acute myocardial infarction.Beta(3)-adrenergic receptor (AR) activation promotes endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and NO bioavailability. We hypothesized that specific beta(3)-AR agonists would attenuate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury via eNOS activation and increased NO bioavailability.Mice were subjected to 45 min of myocardial ischemia in vivo followed by 24 h of reperfusion (R). Nebivolol (500 ng/kg), CL 316243 (1 ?g/kg), BRL-37344 (1 ?g/kg), or vehicle (VEH) was administered at the time of R. Myocardial area-at-risk (AAR) and infarct size (INF)/AAR was measured at 24 h of R. Cardiac tissue and plasma were collected to evaluate eNOS phosphorylation, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and nitrite and nitrosothiol levels.Nebivolol (500 ng/kg) reduced INF/AAR by 37% (p < 0.001 vs. VEH) and serum troponin-I levels from 41 ± 4 ng/ml to 25 ± 4 ng/ml (p < 0.05 vs. VEH). CL 316243 and BRL-37344 reduced INF by 39% and 42%, respectively (p < 0.001 vs. VEH). Nebivolol and CL 316243 increased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177 (p < 0.05 vs. VEH) and increased nitrite and total nitrosylated protein levels. Nebivolol and CL 316243 significantly increased myocardial nNOS expression. Nebivolol failed to reduce INF after MI/R in beta(3)-AR (-/-), eNOS(-/-), and in nNOS(-/-) mice.Our results indicate that beta(3)-AR agonists protect against MI/R injury. Furthermore, the cardioprotective effects of beta(3)-AR agonists are mediated by rapid eNOS and nNOS activation and increased NO bioavailability.
Project description:The transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a key master switch that controls the expression of antioxidant and cytoprotective enzymes, including enzymes catalyzing glutathione de novo synthesis. In this study, we aimed to analyze whether Nrf2 deficiency influences antioxidative capacity, redox state, NO metabolites, and outcome of myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. In Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2 KO) mice, we found elevated eNOS expression and preserved NO metabolite concentrations in the aorta and heart as compared to wild types (WT). Unexpectedly, Nrf2 KO mice have a smaller infarct size following myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury than WT mice and show fully preserved left ventricular systolic function. Inhibition of NO synthesis at onset of ischemia and during early reperfusion increased myocardial damage and systolic dysfunction in Nrf2 KO mice, but not in WT mice. Consistent with this, infarct size and diastolic function were unaffected in eNOS knockout (eNOS KO) mice after ischemia/reperfusion. Taken together, these data suggest that eNOS upregulation under conditions of decreased antioxidant capacity might play an important role in cardioprotection against I/R. Due to the redundancy in cytoprotective mechanisms, this fundamental antioxidant property of eNOS is not evident upon acute NOS inhibition in WT mice or in eNOS KO mice until Nrf2-related signaling is abrogated.
Project description:Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and reduced BH4 availability leads to endothelial NOS (eNOS) uncoupling and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Questions remain regarding the functional state of eNOS and role of BH4 availability in the process of in vivo myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Rats were subjected to 60min of in vivo left coronary artery occlusion and varying periods of reperfusion with or without pre-ischemic liposomal BH4 supplementation (1mg/kg, iv). Myocardial infarction was correlated with cardiac BH4 content, eNOS protein level, NOS enzyme activity, and ROS generation. In the vehicle group, 60-min ischemia drastically reduced myocardial BH4 content in the area at risk (AAR) compared to non-ischemic (NI) area and the level remained lower during early reperfusion followed by recovery after 24-h reperfusion. Total eNOS, activated eNOS protein level (eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation) and NOS activity were also significantly reduced during ischemia and/or early reperfusion, but recovered after 24-h reperfusion. With liposomal BH4 treatment, BH4 levels were identical in the AAR and NI area during ischemia and/or early reperfusion, and were significantly higher than with vehicle. BH4 pre-treatment preserved eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation and NOS activity in the AAR, and significantly reduced myocardial ROS generation and infarction compared to vehicle. These findings provide direct evidence that in vivo I/R induces eNOS dysfunction secondary to BH4 depletion, and that pre-ischemic liposomal BH4 administration preserves eNOS function conferring cardioprotection with reduced oxidative stress.
Project description:Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone known to stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion. The GLP-1 receptor agonist, exendin-4, has similar properties to GLP-1 and is currently in clinical use for type 2 diabetes mellitus. As GLP-1 and exendin-4 confer cardioprotection after myocardial infarction, this study was designed to assess the neuroprotective effects of exendin-4 against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mice received a transvenous injection of exendin-4, after a 60-minute focal cerebral ischemia. Exendin-4-treated vehicle and sham groups were evaluated for infarct volume, neurologic deficit score, various physiologic parameters, and immunohistochemical analyses at several time points after ischemia. Exendin-4 treatment significantly reduced infarct volume and improved functional deficit. It also significantly suppressed oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and cell death after reperfusion. Furthermore, intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels were slightly higher in the exendin-4 group than in the vehicle group. No serial changes were noted in insulin and glucose levels in both groups. This study suggested that exendin-4 provides neuroprotection against ischemic injury and that this action is probably mediated through increased intracellular cAMP levels. Exendin-4 is potentially useful in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.
Project description:AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a stress signaling enzyme that orchestrates the regulation of energy-generating and -consuming pathways. Intrinsic AMPK activation protects the heart against ischemic injury and apoptosis, but whether pharmacologic AMPK stimulation mitigates ischemia-reperfusion damage is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether direct stimulation of AMPK using a small molecule activator, A-769662, attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and to examine its cardioprotective mechanisms. Isolated mouse hearts pre-treated with A-769662 had better recovery of left ventricular contractile function (55% vs. 29% of baseline rate-pressure product; p=0.03) and less myocardial necrosis (56% reduction in infarct size; p<0.01) during post-ischemic reperfusion compared to control hearts. Pre-treatment with A-769662 in vivo attenuated infarct size in C57Bl/6 mice undergoing left coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion compared to vehicle (36% vs. 18%, p=0.025). Mouse hearts with genetically inactivated AMPK were not protected by A-769662, indicating the specificity of this compound. Pre-treatment with A-769662 increased the phosphorylation and inactivation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), preserved energy charge during ischemia, delayed the development of ischemic contracture, and reduced myocardial apoptosis and necrosis. A-769662 also augmented endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation during ischemia, which partially attenuated myocardial stunning, but did not prevent necrosis. AMPK is a therapeutic target that can be stimulated by a direct-acting small molecule in order to prevent injury during ischemia-reperfusion. The use of AMPK activators may represent a novel strategy to protect the heart and other solid organs against ischemia.
Project description:Opioids reduce injury from myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in humans. In experimental models, this mechanism involves GSK3? inhibition. HSP90 regulates mitochondrial protein import, with GSK3? inhibition increasing HSP90 mitochondrial content. Therefore, we determined whether morphine-induced cardioprotection is mediated by HSP90 and if the protective effect is downstream of GSK3? inhibition. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 8-10 weeks, were subjected to an in vivo myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury protocol involving 30 minutes of ischemia followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. Hemodynamics were continually monitored and myocardial infarct size determined. Rats received morphine (0.3 mg/kg), the GSK3? inhibitor, SB216763 (0.6 mg/kg), or saline, 10 minutes prior to ischemia. Some rats received selective HSP90 inhibitors, radicicol (0.3 mg/kg), or deoxyspergualin (DSG, 0.6 mg/kg) alone or 5 minutes prior to morphine or SB216763. Morphine reduced myocardial infarct size when compared to control (42 ± 2% versus 60 ± 1%). This protection was abolished by prior treatment of radicicol or DSG (59 ± 1%, 56 ± 2%). GSK3? inhibition also reduced myocardial infarct size (41 ± 2%) with HSP90 inhibition by radicicol or DSG partially inhibiting SB216763-induced infarct size reduction (54 ± 3%, 47 ± 1%, resp.). These data suggest that opioid-induced cardioprotection is mediated by HSP90. Part of this protection afforded by HSP90 is downstream of GSK3?, potentially via the HSP-TOM mitochondrial import pathway.
Project description:AIMS:Nitroglycerine (NTG) given prior to an ischaemic insult exerts cardioprotective effects. However, whether administration of an acute low dose of NTG in a clinically relevant manner following an ischaemic episode limits infarct size, has not yet been explored. METHODS AND RESULTS:Adult mice were subjected to acute myocardial infarction in vivo and then treated with vehicle or low-dose NTG prior to reperfusion. This treatment regimen minimized myocardial infarct size without affecting haemodynamic parameters but the protective effect was absent in mice rendered tolerant to the drug. Mechanistically, NTG was shown to nitrosate and inhibit cyclophilin D (CypD), and NTG administration failed to limit infarct size in CypD knockout mice. Additional experiments revealed lack of the NTG protective effect following genetic (knockout mice) or pharmacological inhibition (L-NAME treatment) of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The protective effect of NTG was attributed to preservation of the eNOS dimer. Moreover, NTG retained its cardioprotective effects in a model of endothelial dysfunction (ApoE knockout) by preserving CypD nitrosation. Human ischaemic heart biopsies revealed reduced eNOS activity and exhibited reduced CypD nitrosation. CONCLUSION:Low-dose NTG given prior to reperfusion reduces myocardial infarct size by preserving eNOS function, and the subsequent eNOS-dependent S-nitrosation of CypD, inhibiting cardiomyocyte necrosis. This novel pharmacological action of NTG warrants confirmation in clinical studies, although our data in human biopsies provide promising preliminary results.
Project description:Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) could ameliorate myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) by various mechanisms, but there hadn't been any reports on that CAPE could regulate silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to exert cardioprotective effect. The present study aimed to investigate the cardioprotective potential of caffeic acid o-nitro phenethyl ester (CAPE-oNO<sub>2</sub>) on MIRI and the possible mechanism based on the positive control of CAPE. The SD rats were subjected to left coronary artery ischemia /reperfusion (IR) and the H9c2 cell cultured in hypoxia/reoxygenation (HR) to induce the MIRI model. Prior to the procedure, vehicle, CAPE or CAPE-oNO<sub>2</sub> were treated in the absence or presence of a SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM) and an eNOS inhibitor N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). In vivo, CAPE and CAPE-oNO<sub>2</sub> conferred a cardioprotective effect as shown by reduced myocardial infarct size, cardiac marker enzymes and structural abnormalities. From immunohistochemical and sirius red staining, above two compounds ameliorated the TNF-? release and collagen deposition of IR rat hearts. They could agitate SIRT1 and eNOS expression, and consequently enhance NO release and suppress NF-?B signaling, to reduce the malondialdehyde content and cell necrosis. In vitro, they could inhibit HR-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis and ROS generation by activating SIRT1/eNOS pathway and inhabiting NF-?B expression. Emphatically, CAPE-oNO<sub>2</sub> presented the stronger cardioprotection than CAPE both in vivo and in vitro. However, NAM and L-NAME eliminated the CAPE-oNO<sub>2</sub>-mediated cardioprotection by restraining SIRT1 and eNOS expression, respectively. It suggested that CAPE-oNO<sub>2</sub> ameliorated MIRI by suppressing the oxidative stress, inflammatory response, fibrosis and necrocytosis via the SIRT1/eNOS/NF-?B pathway.
Project description:To determine the role of the p-nitrobenzylthioinosine-sensitive equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (es-ENT1) in postmyocardial infarction reperfusion injury-mediated ventricular fibrillation and regional dysfunction. We used erythro-9 (2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine and p-nitrobenzylthioinosine to inhibit both adenosine deamination and transport in a canine model of off pump acute myocardial infarction.Anesthetized adult dogs (n = 37), instrumented to monitor the percentage of systolic segmental shortening and wall thickening using sonomicrometry, underwent 90 minutes of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and 120 minutes of reperfusion. Myocardial coronary blood flow, adenosine triphosphate pool, infarct size, and the incident of ventricular fibrillation and cardioversion were also measured. The dogs received an intravenous infusion of the vehicle (control) or 100 ?M of erythro-9 (2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine and 25 ?M p-nitrobenzylthioinosine before ischemia (preconditioning group) or just before reperfusion (postconditioning group).In the control group, adenosine triphosphate depletion was associated with the accumulation of more inosine than adenosine during ischemia and washed out during reperfusion. Myocardial adenosine and inosine were the major nucleosides in the pre- and postconditioning groups during ischemia and remained detectable during reperfusion. In both groups, recovery of systolic segmental shortening and wall thickening and a reduction in the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (P < .05 vs the control group) coincided with retention of myocardial nucleosides. The infarct size in the 3 groups was not significantly different, independent of myocardial blood flow during ischemia.Preconditioning or postconditioning with erythro-9 (2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine/p-nitrobenzylthioinosine significantly reduced the incidence of ventricular fibrillation and cardioversion and attenuated regional contractile dysfunction mediated by postmyocardial infarction reperfusion injury. It is concluded that p-nitrobenzylthioinosine-sensitive equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 played a major role in these events.