Munc18-1 regulates first-phase insulin release by promoting granule docking to multiple syntaxin isoforms.
ABSTRACT: Attenuated levels of the Sec1/Munc18 (SM) protein Munc18-1 in human islet ?-cells is coincident with type 2 diabetes, although how Munc18-1 facilitates insulin secretion remains enigmatic. Herein, using conventional Munc18-1(+/-) and ?-cell specific Munc18-1(-/-) knock-out mice, we establish that Munc18-1 is required for the first phase of insulin secretion. Conversely, human islets expressing elevated levels of Munc18-1 elicited significant potentiation of only first-phase insulin release. Insulin secretory changes positively correlated with insulin granule number at the plasma membrane: Munc18-1-deficient cells lacked 35% of the normal component of pre-docked insulin secretory granules, whereas cells with elevated levels of Munc18-1 exhibited a ?20% increase in pre-docked granule number. Pre-docked syntaxin 1-based SNARE complexes bound by Munc18-1 were detected in ?-cell lysates but, surprisingly, were reduced by elevation of Munc18-1 levels. Paradoxically, elevated Munc18-1 levels coincided with increased binding of syntaxin 4 to VAMP2 at the plasma membrane. Accordingly, syntaxin 4 was a requisite for Munc18-1 potentiation of insulin release. Munc18c, the cognate SM isoform for syntaxin 4, failed to bind SNARE complexes. Given that Munc18-1 does not pair with syntaxin 4, these data suggest a novel indirect role for Munc18-1 in facilitating syntaxin 4-mediated granule pre-docking to support first-phase insulin exocytosis.
Project description:Both SM proteins (for Sec1/Munc18-like proteins) and SNARE proteins (for soluble NSF-attachment protein receptors) are essential for intracellular membrane fusion, but the general mechanism of coupling between their functions is unclear, in part because diverse SM protein/SNARE binding modes have been described. During synaptic vesicle exocytosis, the SM protein Munc18-1 is known to bind tightly to the SNARE protein syntaxin-1, but only when syntaxin-1 is in a closed conformation that is incompatible with SNARE complex formation. We now show that Munc18-1 also binds tightly to assembled SNARE complexes containing syntaxin-1. The newly discovered Munc18-1/SNARE complex interaction involves contacts of Munc18-1 with the N-terminal H(abc) domain of syntaxin-1 and the four-helical bundle of the assembled SNARE complex. Together with earlier studies, our results suggest that binding of Munc18-1 to closed syntaxin-1 is a specialization that evolved to meet the strict regulatory requirements of neuronal exocytosis, whereas binding of Munc18-1 to assembled SNARE complexes reflects a general function of SM proteins involved in executing membrane fusion.
Project description:Membrane fusion during exocytosis is mediated by assemblies of SNARE (soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor) and SM (Sec1/Munc18-like) proteins. The SNARE/SM proteins involved in vesicle fusion during neurotransmitter release are well understood, whereas little is known about the protein machinery that mediates activity-dependent AMPA receptor (AMPAR) exocytosis during long-term potentiation (LTP). Using direct measurements of LTP in acute hippocampal slices and an in vitro LTP model of stimulated AMPAR exocytosis, we demonstrate that the Q-SNARE proteins syntaxin-3 and SNAP-47 are required for regulated AMPAR exocytosis during LTP but not for constitutive basal AMPAR exocytosis. In contrast, the R-SNARE protein synaptobrevin-2/VAMP2 contributes to both regulated and constitutive AMPAR exocytosis. Both the central complexin-binding and the N-terminal Munc18-binding sites of syntaxin-3 are essential for its postsynaptic role in LTP. Thus, postsynaptic exocytosis of AMPARs during LTP is mediated by a unique fusion machinery that is distinct from that used during presynaptic neurotransmitter release.
Project description:Sec1/Munc18 (SM) family proteins are essential for every vesicle fusion pathway. The best-characterized SM protein is the synaptic factor Munc18-1, but it remains unclear whether its functions represent conserved mechanisms of SM proteins or specialized activities in neurotransmitter release. To address this question, we dissected Munc18c, a functionally distinct SM protein involved in nonsynaptic exocytic pathways. We discovered that Munc18c binds to the trans-SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) complex and strongly accelerates the fusion rate. Further analysis suggests that Munc18c recognizes both vesicle-rooted SNARE and target membrane-associated SNAREs, and promotes trans-SNARE zippering at the postdocking stage of the fusion reaction. The stimulation of fusion by Munc18c is specific to its cognate SNARE isoforms. Because Munc18-1 regulates fusion in a similar manner, we conclude that one conserved function of SM proteins is to bind their cognate trans-SNARE complexes and accelerate fusion kinetics. Munc18c also binds syntaxin-4 monomer but does not block target membrane-associated SNARE assembly, in agreement with our observation that six- to eightfold increases in Munc18c expression do not inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Thus, the inhibitory "closed" syntaxin binding mode demonstrated for Munc18-1 is not conserved in Munc18c. Unexpectedly, we found that Munc18c recognizes the N-terminal region of the vesicle-rooted SNARE, whereas Munc18-1 requires the C-terminal sequences, suggesting that the architecture of the SNARE/SM complex likely differs across fusion pathways. Together, these comparative studies of two distinct SM proteins reveal conserved as well as divergent mechanisms of SM family proteins in intracellular vesicle fusion.
Project description:Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins bind cognate soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes and stimulate vesicle membrane fusion. Before fusion, vesicles are docked to specific target membranes. Regulation of vesicle docking is attributed to some but not all SM proteins, suggesting specialization of this earlier function. Yeast Sec1p seems to function only after vesicles are docked and SNARE complexes are assembled. Here, we show that yeast Sec1p is required before and after SNARE complex assembly, in support of general requirements for SM proteins in both vesicle docking and fusion. Two classes of sec1 mutants were isolated. Class A mutants are tightly blocked in cell growth and secretion at a step before SNARE complex assembly. Class B mutants have a SNARE complex binding defect, with a range in severity of cell growth and secretion defects. Mapping the mutations onto an SM protein structure implicates a peripheral bundle of helices for the early, docking function and a deep groove, opposite the syntaxin-binding cleft on nSec1/Munc-18, for the interaction between Sec1p and the exocytic SNARE complex.
Project description:Regulated exocytosis requires the general membrane fusion machinery-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) and Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins. Using reconstituted giant unilamellar vesicles containing preassembled t-SNARE proteins (syntaxin 1·SNAP-25), we determined how Munc18-1 controls the docking, priming, and fusion of small unilamellar vesicles containing the v-SNARE VAMP2 and the Ca(2+) sensor synaptotagmin 1. In vitro assays allowed us to position Munc18-1 in the center of a sequential reaction cascade; vesicle docking by synaptotagmin 1 is a prerequisite for Munc18-1 to accelerate trans-SNARE complex (SNAREpin) assembly and membrane fusion. Complexin II stalls SNAREpin zippering at a late stage and, hence, contributes to synchronize membrane fusion in a Ca(2+)- and synaptotagmin 1-dependent manner. Thus, at the neuronal synapse, the priming factor Munc18-1 may accelerate the conversion of docked synaptic vesicles into a readily releasable pool by activating SNAREs for efficient membrane fusion.
Project description:Sec1/Munc18-family (SM) proteins are required for SNARE-mediated membrane fusion, but their mechanism(s) of action remain controversial. Using single-molecule force spectroscopy, we found that the SM protein Munc18-1 catalyzes step-wise zippering of three synaptic SNAREs (syntaxin, VAMP2, and SNAP-25) into a four-helix bundle. Catalysis requires formation of an intermediate template complex in which Munc18-1 juxtaposes the N-terminal regions of the SNARE motifs of syntaxin and VAMP2, while keeping their C-terminal regions separated. SNAP-25 binds the templated SNAREs to induce full SNARE zippering. Munc18-1 mutations modulate the stability of the template complex in a manner consistent with their effects on membrane fusion, indicating that chaperoned SNARE assembly is essential for exocytosis. Two other SM proteins, Munc18-3 and Vps33, similarly chaperone SNARE assembly via a template complex, suggesting that SM protein mechanism is conserved.
Project description:Intracellular membrane fusion is mediated by the concerted action of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) and Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins. During fusion, SM proteins bind the N-terminal peptide (N-peptide) motif of the SNARE subunit syntaxin, but the function of this interaction is unknown. Here, using FRET-based biochemical reconstitution and Caenorhabditis elegans genetics, we show that the N-peptide of syntaxin-1 recruits the SM protein Munc18-1/nSec1 to the SNARE bundle, facilitating their assembly into a fusion-competent complex. The recruitment is achieved through physical tethering rather than allosteric activation of Munc18-1. Consistent with the recruitment role, the N-peptide is not spatially constrained along syntaxin-1, and it is functional when translocated to another SNARE subunit SNAP-25 or even when simply anchored in the target membrane. The N-peptide function is restricted to an early initiation stage of the fusion reaction. After association, Munc18-1 and the SNARE bundle together drive membrane merging without further involving the N-peptide. Thus, the syntaxin N-peptide is an initiation factor for the assembly of the SNARE-SM membrane fusion complex.
Project description:Membrane fusion is mediated by complexes formed by SNAP-receptor (SNARE) and Secretory 1 (Sec1)/mammalian uncoordinated-18 (Munc18)-like (SM) proteins, but it is unclear when and how these complexes assemble. Here we describe an improved two-color fluorescence nanoscopy technique that can achieve effective resolutions of up to 7.5-nm full width at half maximum (3.2-nm localization precision), limited only by stochastic photon emission from single molecules. We use this technique to dissect the spatial relationships between the neuronal SM protein Munc18-1 and SNARE proteins syntaxin-1 and SNAP-25 (25 kDa synaptosome-associated protein). Strikingly, we observed nanoscale clusters consisting of syntaxin-1 and SNAP-25 that contained associated Munc18-1. Rescue experiments with syntaxin-1 mutants revealed that Munc18-1 recruitment to the plasma membrane depends on the Munc18-1 binding to the N-terminal peptide of syntaxin-1. Our results suggest that in a primary neuron, SNARE/SM protein complexes containing syntaxin-1, SNAP-25, and Munc18-1 are preassembled in microdomains on the presynaptic plasma membrane. Our superresolution imaging method provides a framework for investigating interactions between the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery and other subcellular systems in situ.
Project description:Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins and soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) form part of the core intracellular membrane fusion machinery, but it is unclear how they cooperate in membrane fusion. The synaptic vesicle SNARE synaptobrevin and the plasma membrane SNAREs syntaxin-1 and SNAP-25 assemble into a tight SNARE complex that includes a four-helix bundle formed by their SNARE motifs and is key for fusion. The neuronal SM protein Munc18-1 binds to syntaxin-1 and to the SNARE complex through interactions with the syntaxin-1 N-terminal region that are critical for neurotransmitter release. It has been proposed that Munc18-1 also binds to synaptobrevin and to the SNARE four-helix bundle and that such interactions might be crucial for membrane fusion, but definitive, direct evidence of these interactions has not been described. Using diverse biophysical approaches, we now demonstrate that Munc18-1 indeed binds to synaptobrevin and to the SNARE four-helix bundle. Both interactions have similar affinities (in the low micromolar range) and appear to involve the same cavity of Munc18-1 that binds to syntaxin-1. Correspondingly, the N-terminal region of syntaxin-1 competes with the SNARE four-helix bundle and synaptobrevin for Munc18-1 binding. Importantly, the Munc18-1 binding site on synaptobrevin is located at the C-terminus of its SNARE motif, suggesting that this interaction places Munc18-1 right at the site where fusion occurs. These results suggest a model in which neurotransmitter release involves a sequence of three different types of Munc18-1-SNARE interactions and in which Munc18-1 plays a direct, active role in membrane fusion in cooperation with the SNAREs.
Project description:The Sec1/Munc18 (SM) protein Munc18-1 and the SNAREs syntaxin-1, SNAP-25 and synaptobrevin form the core of the membrane fusion machinery that triggers neurotransmitter release. Munc18-1 binds to syntaxin-1 folded into a closed conformation and to the SNARE complex formed by the three SNAREs, which involves an open syntaxin-1 conformation. The former interaction is likely specialized for neurotransmitter release, whereas SM protein/SNARE complex interactions are likely key for all types of intracellular membrane fusion. It is currently unclear whether the closed conformation is highly or only marginally populated in isolated syntaxin-1, and whether Munc18-1 stabilizes the close conformation or helps to open it to facilitate SNARE complex formation. A detailed NMR analysis now suggests that the closed conformation is almost quantitatively populated in isolated syntaxin-1 in the absence of oligomerization, and indicates that its structure is very similar to that observed previously in the crystal structure of the Munc18-1/syntaxin-1 complex. Moreover, we demonstrate that Munc18-1 binding prevents opening of the syntaxin-1 closed conformation. These results support a model whereby the closed conformation constitutes a key intrinsic property of isolated syntaxin-1 and Munc18-1 binding stabilizes this conformation; in this model, Munc18-1 plays in addition an active role in downstream events after another factor(s) helps to open the syntaxin-1 conformation.