ARF6-mediated endosomal transport of Telencephalin affects dendritic filopodia-to-spine maturation.
ABSTRACT: Dendritic filopodia are dynamic structures thought to be the precursors of spines during synapse development. Morphological maturation to spines is associated with the stabilization and strengthening of synapses, and can be altered in various neurological disorders. Telencephalin (TLN/intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM5)) localizes to dendritic filopodia, where it facilitates their formation/maintenance, thereby slowing spine morphogenesis. As spines are largely devoid of TLN, its exclusion from the filopodia surface appears to be required in this maturation process. Using HeLa cells and primary hippocampal neurons, we demonstrate that surface removal of TLN involves internalization events mediated by the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6), and its activator EFA6A. This endocytosis of TLN affects filopodia-to-spine transition, and requires Rac1-mediated dephosphorylation/release of actin-binding ERM proteins from TLN. At the somato-dendritic surface, TLN and EFA6A are confined to distinct, flotillin-positive membrane subdomains. The co-distribution of TLN with this lipid raft marker also persists during its endosomal targeting to CD63-positive late endosomes. This suggests a specific microenvironment facilitating ARF6-mediated mobilization of TLN that contributes to promotion of dendritic spine development.
Project description:The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of dendritic spines are not fully understood. ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) is a small GTPase known to regulate actin remodeling and membrane traffic. Here, we report involvement of ARF6 and exchange factor for ARF6 (EFA6A) in the regulation of spine development and maintenance. An active form of ARF6 promotes the formation of dendritic spines at the expense of filopodia. EFA6A promotes spine formation in an ARF6 activation-dependent manner. Knockdown of ARF6 and EFA6A by small interfering RNA decreases spine formation. Live imaging indicates that ARF6 knockdown decreases the conversion of filopodia to spines and the stability of early spines. The spine-promoting effect of ARF6 is partially blocked by Rac1. ARF6 and EFA6A protect mature spines from inactivity-induced destabilization. These results suggest that ARF6 and EFA6A may regulate the conversion of filopodia to spines and the stability of both early and mature spines.
Project description:Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes intellectual disability, as well as the leading monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), in which neurons show aberrant dendritic spine structure. The reduction/absence of the functional FMRP protein, coded by the X-linked Fmr1 gene in humans, is responsible for the syndrome. Targets of FMRP, CLSTN1, and ICAM5, play critical roles in the maturation of dendritic spines, synapse formation and synaptic plasticity. However, the implication of CLSTN1 and ICAM5 in dendritic spine abnormalities and the underlying neuropathologic processes in FXS remain uninvestigated. In this study, we demonstrated that CLSTN1 co-localizes and co-transports with ICAM5 in cultured cortical neurons. Also we showed that shRNA-mediated downregulation of CLSTN1 in cultured WT neurons increases ICAM5 on the surface of synaptic membrane, subsequently affecting the maturation of dendritic spines. Whereas, normalization of CLSTN1 level in Fmr1 KO neurons reduces ICAM5 abundance and rescues impaired dendritic spine phenotypes. Most importantly, CLSTN1 protein is reduced in the postnatal medial prefrontal cortex of Fmr1 KO mice, which is correlated with increased ICAM5 levels on the surface of synapses and excessive filopodia-like spines. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that CLSTN1 plays a critical role in dendritic spine formation and maturation in FXS by regulating ICAM5 redistribution.
Project description:Dendritic filopodia are thin, long, and highly mobile protrusions functioning as spine precursors. By contrast with a wealth of knowledge on molecular profiles in spines, little is known about structural and functional proteins present in dendritic filopodia. To reveal the molecular constituents of dendritic filopodia, we developed a new method for biochemical preparation of proteins enriched in dendritic filopodia, by taking advantage of specific and strong binding between a dendritic filopodial membrane protein, telencephalin, and its extracellular matrix ligand, vitronectin. When vitronectin-coated magnetic microbeads were added onto cultured hippocampal neurons, phagocytic cup-like membrane protrusions were formed on dendrites through the binding to telencephalin. Magnetically purified membrane protrusion fraction was subjected to comprehensive mass spectrometric analysis and 319 proteins were identified, many of which were confirmed to be localized to dendritic filopodia. Thus, this study provides a useful resource for studying molecular mechanisms underlying dendritic development, synapse formation, and plasticity.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 are pivotal in remodeling many tissues. However, their functions and candidate substrates for brain development are poorly characterized. Intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5; Telencephalin) is a neuronal adhesion molecule that regulates dendritic elongation and spine maturation. We find that ICAM-5 is cleaved from hippocampal neurons when the cells are treated with N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA). The cleavage is blocked by MMP-2 and -9 inhibitors and small interfering RNAs. Newborn MMP-2- and MMP-9-deficient mice brains contain more full-length ICAM-5 than wild-type mice. NMDA receptor activation disrupts the actin cytoskeletal association of ICAM-5, which promotes its cleavage. ICAM-5 is mainly located in dendritic filopodia and immature thin spines. MMP inhibitors block the NMDA-induced cleavage of ICAM-5 more efficiently in dendritic shafts than in thin spines. ICAM-5 deficiency causes retraction of thin spine heads in response to NMDA stimulation. Soluble ICAM-5 promotes elongation of dendritic filopodia from wild-type neurons, but not from ICAM-5-deficient neurons. Thus, MMPs are important for ICAM-5-mediated dendritic spine development.
Project description:Recent studies reported contradictory results regarding the role of ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6), a small GTPase known to regulate actin cytoskeleton, in dendritic spine development and maintenance. We readdress this question, and found that ARF6 either positively or negatively regulates dendritic spine formation depending on neuronal maturation and activity. ARF6 activation facilitates filopodia to spines transition, increasing the spine formation in developing neurons while it decreases spine density in matured neurons. Consistently, genome-wide microarray analysis revealed that Arf6 activation in developing and matured neurons leads to opposite expression patterns of a subset of genes that are involved in neuronal morphology. Overall design: To readdress effects of ARF6-T157A on spine formation in both developing and matured neurons, we have generated the Sindbis virus for ARF6-T157A-6xHis and performed its infection into rat hippocampal neuron culture at 10 DIV (days in vitro) for developing stage and 17 DIV for mature stage, and maintained for additional 48 h. Infected neurons were washed twice with PBS and were frozen at -70C for storage. Samples were lysed and RNA isolation was carried out using the RNA-spin total RNA extraction kit (iNtRON Biotechnology, Sungnam, Kyungki-Do, South Korea). Then, genome-wide microarray analysis was performed. Microarray analysis revealed that Arf6 activation in developing and matured neurons leads to opposite expression patterns of a subset of genes that are involved in neuronal morphology.
Project description:Dendritic filopodia are thought to participate in neuronal contact formation and development of dendritic spines; however, molecules that regulate filopodia extension and their maturation to spines remain largely unknown. Here we identify paralemmin-1 as a regulator of filopodia induction and spine maturation. Paralemmin-1 localizes to dendritic membranes, and its ability to induce filopodia and recruit synaptic elements to contact sites requires protein acylation. Effects of paralemmin-1 on synapse maturation are modulated by alternative splicing that regulates spine formation and recruitment of AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Paralemmin-1 enrichment at the plasma membrane is subject to rapid changes in neuronal excitability, and this process controls neuronal activity-driven effects on protrusion expansion. Knockdown of paralemmin-1 in developing neurons reduces the number of filopodia and spines formed and diminishes the effects of Shank1b on the transformation of existing filopodia into spines. Our study identifies a key role for paralemmin-1 in spine maturation through modulation of filopodia induction.
Project description:Myosin X (Myo10) is an unconventional myosin with two known isoforms: full-length (FL)-Myo10 that has motor activity, and a recently identified brain-expressed isoform, headless (Hdl)-Myo10, which lacks most of the motor domain. FL-Myo10 is involved in the regulation of filopodia formation in non-neuronal cells; however, the biological function of Hdl-Myo10 remains largely unknown. Here, we show that FL- and Hdl-Myo10 have important, but distinct, roles in the development of dendritic spines and synapses in hippocampal neurons. FL-Myo10 induces formation of dendritic filopodia and modulates filopodia dynamics by trafficking the actin-binding protein vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) to the tips of filopodia. By contrast, Hdl-Myo10 acts on dendritic spines to enhance spine and synaptic density as well as spine head expansion by increasing the retention of VASP in spines. Thus, this study demonstrates a novel biological function for Hdl-Myo10 and an important new role for both Myo10 isoforms in the development of dendritic spines and synapses.
Project description:Dendritic spines are small protrusions that receive synaptic signals in neuronal networks. The actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in regulating spine morphogenesis, as well as in the function of synapses. Here we report the first quantitative measurement of F-actin retrograde flow rate in dendritic filopodia, the precursor of dendritic spines, and in newly formed spines, using a technique based on photoactivation localization microscopy. We found a fast F-actin retrograde flow in the dendritic filopodia but not in the spine necks. The quantification of F-actin flow rates, combined with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements, allowed for a full quantification of spatially resolved kinetic rates of actin turnover, which was not previously feasible. Furthermore we provide evidences that myosin II regulates the actin flow in dendritic filopodia and translocates from the base to the tip of the protrusion upon spine formation. Rac1 inhibition led to mislocalization of myosin II, as well as to disruption of the F-actin flow. These results provide advances in the quantitative understanding of F-actin remodeling during spine formation.
Project description:Centaurin alpha1 is an Arf GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that is highly expressed in the nervous system. In the current study, we show that endogenous centaurin alpha1 protein is localized in the synaptosome fraction, with peak expression in early postnatal development. In cultured dissociated hippocampal neurons, centaurin alpha1 localizes to dendrites, dendritic spines and the postsynaptic region. siRNA-mediated knockdown of centaurin alpha1 levels or overexpression of a GAP-inactive mutant of centaurin alpha1 leads to inhibition of dendritic branching, dendritic filopodia and spine-like protrusions in dissociated hippocampal neurons. Overexpression of wild-type centaurin alpha1 in cultured hippocampal neurons in early development enhances dendritic branching, and increases dendritic filopodia and lamellipodia. Both filopodia and lamellipodia have been implicated in dendritic branching and spine formation. Following synaptogenesis in cultured neurons, wild-type centaurin alpha1 expression increases dendritic filopodia and spine-like protrusions. Expression of a GAP-inactive mutant diminishes spine density in CA1 pyramidal neurons within cultured organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. These data support the conclusion that centaurin alpha1 functions through GAP-dependent Arf regulation of dendritic branching and spines that underlie normal dendritic differentiation and development.
Project description:Intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5) is a dendrite-specific adhesion molecule, which functions in both the immune and nervous systems. ICAM-5 is the only negative regulator that has been identified for maturation of dendritic spines so far. Shedding of the ICAM-5 ectodomain promotes spine maturation and enhances synaptic activity. However, the mechanism by which ICAM-5 regulates spine development remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that ablation of ICAM5 expression resulted in a significant increase in the formation of synaptic contacts and the frequency of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents, an indicator of pre-synaptic release probability. Antibodies against ICAM-5 and ?1 integrins altered spine maturation. Furthermore, we found that ?1 integrins serve as binding partners for ICAM-5. ?1 integrins were immunoprecipitated with ICAM-5 from mouse brain and the binding region in ICAM-5 was localized to the two first Ig domains. ?1 integrins were juxtaposed to filopodia tips at the early stage of synaptic formation, but as synapses matured, ?1 integrins covered the mushroom spines. Loss of ?1 integrins from the pre-synaptic sites affected the morphology of the post-synaptic structures. ICAM-5 ectodomain cleavage decreased or increased when the interaction between ICAM-5 and ?1 integrins was potentiated or weakened, respectively, using antibodies. These results suggest that the interaction between ICAM-5 and ?1 integrins is important in formation of functional synapses.