Comparison of health-related quality of life among patients using atypical antipsychotics for treatment of depression: results from the National Health and Wellness Survey.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Use of atypical antipsychotics (AA) in combination with an antidepressant is recommended as an augmentation strategy for patients with depression. However, there is a paucity of data comparing aripiprazole and other AAs in terms of patient reported outcomes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the levels of HRQoL and health utility scores in patients with depression using aripiprazole compared with patients using olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2009, 2010, and 2011 National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS), a cross-sectional, internet-based survey that is representative of the adult US population. Only those patients who reported being diagnosed with depression and taking an antidepressant and an atypical antipsychotic for depression were included. Patients taking an atypical antipsychotic for less than 2?months or who reported being diagnosed with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia were excluded. Patients taking aripiprazole were compared with patients taking other atypical antipsychotics. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and health utilities were assessed using the Short Form 12-item (SF-12) health survey. Differences between groups were analyzed using General Linear Models (GLM) controlling for demographic and health characteristics. RESULTS: Overall sample size was 426 with 59.9% taking aripiprazole (n=255) and 40.1% (n=171) taking another atypical antipsychotic (olanzapine (n=19), quetiapine (n=127), risperidone (n=14) or ziprasidone (n=11)). Of the SF-12 domains, mean mental component summary (MCS) score (p=.018), bodily pain (p=.047), general health (p=.009) and emotional role limitations (p=.009) were found to be significantly higher in aripiprazole users indicating better HRQoL compared to other atypical antipsychotics. After controlling for demographic and health characteristics, patients taking aripiprazole reported significantly higher mean mental SF-12 component summary (34.10 vs. 31.43, p=.018), bodily pain (55.19 vs. 49.05, p=.047), general health (50.05 vs. 43.07, p=.009), emotional role limitations (49.44 vs. 41.83, p=.009), and SF-6D utility scores (0.59 vs. 0.56, p=.042). CONCLUSIONS: Comparison of patients taking aripiprazole with a cohort of patients using another AA for depression demonstrated that aripiprazole was independently associated with better (both statistically and clinically) HRQoL and health utilities.
Project description:Patients with schizophrenia frequently switch between antipsychotics, underscoring the need to achieve and maintain important treatment outcomes such as health-related quality of life (HRQoL) following the switch. This analysis evaluated HRQoL changes among patients with schizophrenia switched from their current antipsychotic to lurasidone.Stable but symptomatic outpatients with schizophrenia were switched from their current antipsychotic to lurasidone in a six-week, open-label trial. HRQoL was assessed using two validated patient-reported measures, the Personal Evaluation of Transitions in Treatment (PETiT) scale and the Short-Form 12 (SF-12). Total and domain scores (psychosocial function and adherence-related attitude) were assessed using the PETiT scale; patients' mental and physical component summary scores (MCS and PCS) were assessed using the SF-12. Changes in HRQoL from baseline to study endpoint were compared using ANCOVA, with baseline score, treatment, and pooled site as covariates. Changes were assessed among all patients and those switched from specific antipsychotics to lurasidone.The analysis included 235 patients with data on the PETiT and SF-12 who had received ? 1 dose of lurasidone. Statistically significant improvements were observed from baseline to study endpoint on the PETiT total (mean change [SD]: 3.2 [8.5]) and psychosocial functioning (2.5 [6.9]) and adherence-related attitude (0.7 [2.6]) domain scores (all p ? 0.002). When examined by preswitch antipsychotic, significant improvements in PETiT total scores were observed in patients switched from quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, and ziprasidone (all p < 0.03) but not olanzapine (p = 0.893). Improvements on the SF-12 MCS score were observed for all patients (mean change [SD]: 3.7 [11.5], p < 0.001) and for those switched from quetiapine or aripiprazole (both p < 0.03). The SF-12 PCS scores remained comparable to those at baseline in all patient groups.These findings indicate that patients switching from other antipsychotics to lurasidone experienced statistically significant improvement of HRQoL, based on PETiT scores, within six weeks of treatment. Patient health status remained stable with respect to the SF-12 physical component and showed improvement on the mental component. Changes in HRQoL varied based on the antipsychotic used before switching to lurasidone.NCT01143077.
Project description:Previous meta-analyses of atypical antipsychotics for depression were limited by few trials with direct comparisons between two treatments. We performed a network meta-analysis, which integrates direct and indirect evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), to investigate the comparative efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive atypical antipsychotics for treatment-resistant depression (TRD).Systematic searches resulted in 18 RCTs (total n = 4422) of seven different types and different dosages of atypical antipsychotics and a placebo that were included in the review.All standard-dose atypical antipsychotics were significantly more efficacious than placebo in the efficacy (standardized mean differences [SMDs] ranged from -0.27 to -0.43). There were no significant differences between these drugs. Low-dose atypical antipsychotics were not significantly more efficacious than the placebo. In terms of tolerability, all standard-dose atypical antipsychotics, apart from risperidone, had significantly more side-effect discontinuations than placebo (odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 2.72 to 6.40). In terms of acceptability, only quetiapine (mean 250-350 mg daily) had significantly more all-cause discontinuation than placebo (OR = 1.89). In terms of quality of life/functioning, standard-dose risperidone and standard-dose aripiprazole were more beneficial than placebo (SMD = -0.38; SMD = -0.26, respectively), and standard-dose risperidone was superior to quetiapine (mean 250-350 mg daily).All standard-dose atypical antipsychotics for the adjunctive treatment of TRD are efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms. Risperidone and aripiprazole also showed benefits in improving the quality of life of patients. Atypical antipsychotics should be prescribed with caution due to abundant evidence of side effects.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is impaired in patients with stable angina but patients often present with other forms of chest pain. The aim of this study was to compare the pre-diagnostic HRQoL in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) according to angina type, gender, and presence of obstructive CAD. METHODS:From the pilot study for the European DISCHARGE trial, we analysed data from 24 sites including 1263 patients (45.9% women, 61.1?±?11.3?years) who were clinically referred for invasive coronary angiography (ICA; 617 patients) or coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA; 646 patients). Prior to the procedures, patients completed HRQoL questionnaires: the Short Form (SF)-12v2, the EuroQoL (EQ-5D-3?L) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. RESULTS:Fifty-five percent of ICA and 35% of CTA patients had typical angina, 23 and 33% had atypical angina, 18 and 28% had non-anginal chest discomfort and 5 and 5% had other chest discomfort, respectively. Patients with typical angina had the poorest physical functioning compared to the other angina groups (SF-12 physical component score; 41.2?±?8.8, 43.3?±?9.1, 46.2?±?9.0, 46.4?±?11.4, respectively, all age and gender-adjusted p?<?0.01), and highest anxiety levels (8.3?±?4.1, 7.5?±?4.1, 6.5?±?4.0, 4.7?±?4.5, respectively, all adjusted p?<?0.01). On all other measures, patients with typical or atypical angina had lower HRQoL compared to the two other groups (all adjusted p?<?0.05). HRQoL did not differ between patients with and without obstructive CAD while women had worse HRQoL compared with men, irrespective of age and angina type. CONCLUSIONS:Prior to a diagnostic procedure for stable chest pain, HRQoL is associated with chest pain characteristics, but not with obstructive CAD, and is significantly lower in women. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02400229.
Project description:Recently, several new atypical antipsychotic agents have been introduced in Ontario, and regulatory warnings have been issued regarding use of atypical antipsychotics in older adults. We sought to establish the impact of newer atypical antipsychotics on prescribing rates and costs.We performed a population-based cross-sectional study of Ontario adults aged 65 years or more using atypical antipsychotics from Jan. 1, 2007, to Mar. 31, 2013. These people have universal access to publicly funded drugs through the Ontario Health Insurance Plan and the Ontario Drug Benefit. We conducted time-series analysis to assess the impact of the introduction of new atypical antipsychotics on rates of use of atypical antipsychotics and associated expenditures.Rates of atypical antipsychotic use increased following the introduction of new agents in 2009, from 27.6 users per 1000 older adults in the third quarter of 2009 to 29.1 users per 1000 older adults at the end of the study period (p = 0.04). Although prescribing rates for the newer atypical agents (paliperidone, ziprasidone and aripiprazole) remained low relative to their older counterparts (risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine), rates of aripiprazole use rose to 1.0 user per 1000 older adults by the end of the study period. The proportion of prescriptions that were for brand-name agents fell from 57.5% in the second quarter of 2007 to 6.1% in the second quarter of 2009, and then rose to 11.7% by the end of the study period. By the first quarter of 2013, newer atypical antipsychotic agents were used by 4.4% of atypical antipsychotic users but accounted for 14.1% ($1.2 million of $8.5 million) of atypical antipsychotic expenditures.Although the overall prevalence of use of new atypical antipsychotic agents remains low, their introduction has led to increased prescribing of this class of drugs in older adults. Given the potential cost implications, further study of these trends would be prudent.
Project description:Long-term improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in schizophrenia may improve adherence and reduce relapse and rehospitalization. This analysis examines long-term changes in HRQoL among patients with schizophrenia switched to lurasidone from other antipsychotics.Patients who completed an open-label 6-week switch study continued on lurasidone for an additional 24-weeks. HRQoL was measured using the self-reported Personal Evaluation of Transitions in Treatment (PETiT) scale and Short-Form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire. The PETiT assessed HRQoL via total and domain scores (adherence-related attitude and psychosocial functioning). The SF-12 assessed patients' mental and physical component summary scores (MCS and PCS). Mean changes from the initial baseline were calculated at extension baseline and extension endpoint using analysis of covariance models. Analyses were further stratified by prior antipsychotic medication and responder status; responders were defined as having a ≥20 % improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale during the first 6-weeks of treatment.The analysis included 144 patients with PETIT or SF-12 data who received ≥1 dose of lurasidone. Mean (standard deviation) PETiT total score improved significantly from 34.9 (9.3) at baseline to 39.5 (8.9) at extension baseline and 39.1 (9.0) at extension endpoint, representing improvements of 4.5 (7.9) and 5.1 (7.2) points, respectively (both p < 0.001). Significant improvements in adherence-related attitude and psychosocial functioning were observed at extension baseline and extension endpoint (all p < 0.001). Improvement in SF-12 MCS score was observed at extension baseline and endpoint, and PCS score at extension endpoint (all p < 0.01). Patients who switched from quetiapine and aripiprazole showed significant improvement of PETiT total score and adherence-related attitude at extension baseline and extension endpoint. In addition, patients who switched from quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, or ziprasidone showed significant improvement in MCS scores from baseline to extension endpoint. Responders to lurasidone demonstrated greater improvement in PETiT total, psychosocial functioning, and MCS scores at extension baseline than nonresponders.After switching to lurasidone, patients with schizophrenia experienced HRQoL improvements that were sustained for an additional 24 weeks of treatment. Further study is warranted to understand the implications of these improvements in terms of employment, adherence, relapse, and rehospitalization.Clinical trials.gov identifier NCT01143090 (June 10th, 2010).
Project description:Atypical antipsychotics exert remarkable long-term efficacy on the personal and social functions of schizophrenic patients. However, quantitative information on the social function of schizophrenic patients treated with atypical antipsychotics is scarce in the current clinical guidelines. In this study, we established pharmacodynamic models to quantify the time-efficacy relationship of three antipsychotic drugs based on the data from a real-world study conducted in China. A total of 373 schizophrenic patients who received antipsychotic monotherapy with olanzapine (n?=?144), risperidone (n?=?160), or aripiprazole (n?=?69) were selected from a three-year prospective, multicenter study. The follow-up times were 13, 26, 52, 78, 104, 130, and 156 weeks after baseline. A time-efficacy model was developed with nonlinear mixed effect method based on changes in Personal and Social Performance (PSP) score compared with the baseline level. Crucial pharmacodynamic parameters, including maximum efficacy and drug onset time, were used to distinguish the efficacy of the three drugs. We quantified the time course of PSP improvement in patients after treatment with these three antipsychotics: olanzapine, risperidone, and aripiprazole reached an E<sub>max</sub> value of 80.3%, 68.2%, and 23.9% at weeks 56.7, 29.2, and 36.8, respectively. General psychotic symptoms, onset frequency, and illness course were identified as significant factors affecting the efficacy of these drugs. The newly constructed models provide an evidence of the benefit of long-term maintenance therapy with atypical antipsychotics in individualized schizophrenia treatment in China.
Project description:Given the complex nature of symptom presentation and medication regimens, psychiatric clinics may benefit from additional tools to personalize treatments. Utilizing pharmacogenetic information may be helpful in assessing unique responses to therapy. We report herein a case of wearing-off phenomena during treatment with aripiprazole long-acting injectable (LAI) and a proof of concept strategy of how pharmacogenetic information may be used to assess possible genetic factors and also hypothesize potential mechanisms for further study.A 51-year-old African American male with schizoaffective disorder was referred to a psychiatric clinic for medication management. After unsuccessful trials of multiple antipsychotics, oral aripiprazole was initiated (up to 30 mg/day) and transitioned to aripiprazole LAI with symptom improvement. At a high dose of aripiprazole LAI (400 mg Q3wks), the patient experienced breakthrough symptoms approximately 3 days prior to his next injection. Various considerations were examined to explain his atypical dose requirements, including but not limited to pharmacogenetic influences. Pharmacogenetic testing ruled out genetic influences on drug metabolism but noted a -141C Del variant in the dopamine-D2 receptor (DRD2) gene associated in prior studies of poor-response to antipsychotics. At this time, a new formulation, aripiprazole lauroxil, was explored due to its availability in higher dose options. Transition to the new formulation (882 mg Q4wks) greatly improved and stabilized the patient's symptoms with no breakthrough psychosis. Comparable daily dose equivalents were achieved with two different formulations due to the Q3wks vs Q4wks dosing strategies, although the two agents have some differences in pharmacokinetic profiles.We report a case of a patient experiencing wearing-off symptoms with aripiprazole LAI who benefited from switching to aripiprazole lauroxil. Pharmacogenetic testing revealed normal activity for relevant metabolism pathways but a DRD2 -141C variant that may influence brain D2 expression and antipsychotic responsiveness. The clinical utility of DRD2 information and what to do with genotyping results has not been previously addressed, despite availability on clinical test panels. Our case report suggests further investigations of altered dosing strategies and receptor genotype sensitivities to pharmacokinetic factors may be helpful in understanding symptom re-emergence observed in some patients taking LAI antipsychotics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There are interindividual differences in the adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics, which include autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. Accordingly, to clarify the interindividual differences in the adverse effects of specific atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenia, we investigated the association between ANS dysfunction and ATP-binding cassette transport sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) gene polymorphisms in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS:In total, 233 Japanese patients with schizophrenia participated in this study. All of the participants received an atypical antipsychotic as monotherapy: 89 participants received risperidone, 69 olanzapine, 48 aripiprazole, and 27 quetiapine. ANS activity was assessed by means of a power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCB1 (rs1045642, rs1128503, rs2032582, and rs2235048) were genotyped using the TaqMan method. RESULTS:For aripiprazole, sympathetic and total autonomic nervous activities were significantly lower in the rs1045642 T allele carrier-rs2235048 C allele carrier group than in the rs1045642 non-T allele carrier-rs2235048 non-C allele carrier group. In addition, in the aripiprazole group, the T-C-T-A haplotype (rs1045642-rs2235048-rs1128503-rs2032582) was associated with decreased ANS activity. However, there were no significant associations between ANS activity and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms in the risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine groups. Multiple regression analysis revealed that sympathetic and total nervous activities were significantly associated with the ABCB1 rs1045642-rs2235048 genotype and the T-C-T-A haplotype (rs1045642-rs2235048-rs1128503-rs2032582). CONCLUSION:We suggest that ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms affect aripiprazole-related ANS dysfunction but do not affect risperidone-, olanzapine-, or quetiapine-related ANS dysfunction.
Project description:Sexual dysfunction is a common condition in patients taking antipsychotics, and is the most bothersome symptom and adverse drug effect, resulting in a negative effect on treatment compliance. It is known that hyperprolactinemia is a major cause of sexual dysfunction. Based on the blockade of dopamine D2 receptors, haloperidol, risperidone, and amisulpride are classed as prolactin-elevating antipsychotics, while olanzapine, clozapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole are classed as prolactin-sparing drugs. Risperidone and the other typical antipsychotics are associated with a high rate of sexual dysfunction as compared to olanzapine, clozapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole. With regard to treatment in patients suffering from sexual dysfunction, sildenafil was associated with significantly more erections sufficient for penetration as compared to a placebo. Subsequent studies are needed in order to provide physicians with a better understanding of this problem, thereby leading toward efficacious and safe solutions.
Project description:People with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) often have high levels of obesity and poor cardiometabolic health. Certain types of antipsychotics have been shown to contribute towards weight gain and there is some equivocal evidence that obesity is related to poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in people with SSD. It is also still uncertain if antipsychotic polypharmacy/higher doses of antipsychotics are linked with HRQoL and/or increased risk of obesity/Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Therefore, this study aimed to examine potential relationships between prescribed antipsychotic medication regimens, cardiometabolic health risks and HRQoL in community-based Chinese people with SSD.This cross-sectional study reports the results of baseline measurements of a random sample of patients in an ongoing controlled trial of physical health intervention for people with severe mental illness. Data from these randomly-selected participants (n = 82) were analysed to calculate 10-year CVD relative-risk (using QRISK®2 score), estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and contextualize patients' prescribed antipsychotics (types, combinations and Daily Defined Dose equivalent). Patients self-reported their HRQoL (SF12v2) and their obesity condition was assessed by waist-circumference and Body Mass Index (BMI).Two-thirds of patients had a BMI ≥23 kg/m2, almost half were centrally obese and 29% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. The individual relative-risk of CVD ranged from 0.62 to 15, and 13% had a moderate-to-high 10-year CVD risk score. Regression models showed that lower physical HRQoL was predicted by higher BMI and lower mental HRQoL. Higher Defined Daily Dose, clozapine, younger age and male gender were found to explain 40% of the variance in CVD relative risk.The findings indicate that cardiometabolic health risks in people with SSD may be more common than those reported in the general Hong Kong population. The results also provide further support for the need to consider antipsychotic polypharmacy and higher doses of antipsychotics as factors that may contribute towards cardiometabolic risk in Chinese patients with SSD. Clinicians in Hong Kong should consider using routine CVD risk screening, and be aware that younger male patients who are taking clozapine and prescribed higher Defined Daily Dose seem to have the highest relative-risk of CVD.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02453217 . Prospectively registered on 19th May 2015.