Vascular morphogenesis of adipose-derived stem cells is mediated by heterotypic cell-cell interactions.
ABSTRACT: Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are a promising cell source for vascular-based approaches to clinical therapeutics, as they have been shown to give rise to both endothelial and perivascular cells. While it is well known that ASCs can present a heterogeneous phenotypic profile, spontaneous interactions among these subpopulations that result in the formation of complex tissue structures have not been rigorously demonstrated. Our study reports the novel finding that ASCs grown in monolayers in the presence of angiogenic cues are capable of self-assembling into complex, three-dimensional vascular structures. This phenomenon is only apparent when the ASCs are seeded at a high density (20,000 cells/cm(2)) and occur through orchestrated interactions among three distinct subpopulations: CD31-positive cells (CD31+), ?-smooth muscle actin-positive cells (?SMA+), and cells that are unstained for both these markers (CD31-/?SMA-). Investigations into the kinetics of the process revealed that endothelial vessel-like structures initially arose from individual CD31+ cells through proliferation and their interactions with CD31-/?SMA- cells. During this period, ?SMA+ cells proliferated and appeared to migrate toward the vessel structures, eventually engaging in cell-cell contact with them after 1 week. By 2 weeks, the lumen-containing CD31+ vessels grew greater than a millimeter in length, were lined with vascular basement membrane proteins, and were encased within a dense, three-dimensional cluster of ?SMA+ and CD31-/?SMA- cells. The recruitment of ?SMA+ cells was largely due to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling, as the inhibition of PDGF receptors substantially reduced ?SMA+ cell growth and vessel coverage. Additionally, we found that while hypoxia increased endothelial gene expression and vessel width, it also inhibited the growth of the ?SMA+ population. Together, these findings underscore the potential use of ASCs in forming mature vessels in vitro as well as the need for a further understanding of the heterotypic interactions among ASC subpopulations.
Project description:The in vivo progenitor of culture-expanded mesenchymal-like adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) remains elusive, owing in part to the complex organization of stromal cells surrounding the small vessels, and the rapidity with which adipose stromal vascular cells adopt a mesenchymal phenotype in vitro. Immunohistostaining of intact adipose tissue was used to identify three markers (CD31, CD34, and CD146), which together unambiguously discriminate histologically distinct inner and outer rings of vessel-associated stromal cells, as well as capillary and small vessel endothelial cells. These markers were used in multiparameter flow cytometry in conjunction with stem/progenitor markers (CD90 and CD117) to further characterize stromal vascular fraction (SVF) subpopulations. Two mesenchymal and two endothelial populations were isolated by high speed flow cytometric sorting, expanded in short term culture, and tested for adipogenesis. The inner layer of stromal cells in contact with small vessel endothelium (pericytes) was CD146+/alpha-SMA+/CD90+/-/CD34-/CD31-; the outer adventitial stromal ring (designated supra adventitial-adipose stromal cells, SA-ASC) was CD146-/alpha-SMA-/CD90+/CD34+/CD31-. Capillary endothelial cells were CD31+/CD34+/CD90+ (endothelial progenitor), whereas small vessel endothelium was CD31+/CD34-/CD90- (endothelial mature). Flow cytometry confirmed these expression patterns and revealed a CD146+/CD90+/CD34+/CD31- pericyte subset that may be transitional between pericytes and SA-ASC. Pericytes had the most potent adipogenic potential, followed by the more numerous SA-ASC. Endothelial populations had significantly reduced adipogenic potential compared with unsorted expanded SVF cells. In adipose tissue, perivascular stromal cells are organized in two discrete layers, the innermost consisting of CD146+/CD34- pericytes, and the outermost of CD146-/CD34+ SA-ASC, both of which have adipogenic potential in culture. A CD146+/CD34+ subset detected by flow cytometry at low frequency suggests a population transitional between pericytes and SA-ASC.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Several studies demonstrate the role of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) in angiogenesis. The angiogenic mechanism has been ascribed to paracrine factors since these cells secrete a plenty of signal molecules and growth factors. Recently it has been suggested that besides soluble factors, extracellular vesicles (EVs) that include exosomes and microvesicles may play a major role in cell-to-cell communication. It has been shown that EVs are implicated in the angiogenic process. RESULTS: Herein we studied whether EVs released by ASCs may mediate the angiogenic activity of these cells. Our results demonstrated that ASC-derived EVs induced in vitro vessel-like structure formation by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC). EV-stimulated HMEC when injected subcutaneously within Matrigel in SCID mice formed vessels. Treatment of ASCs with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulated the secretion of EVs, changed their protein composition and enhanced the angiogenic potential. At variance of EVs released in basal conditions, PDGF-EVs carried c-kit and SCF that played a role in angiogenesis as specific blocking antibodies inhibited in vitro vessel-like structure formation. The enhanced content of matrix metalloproteinases in PDGF-EVs may also account for their angiogenic activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that EVs released by ASCs may contribute to the ASC-induced angiogenesis and suggest that PDGF may trigger the release of EVs with an enhanced angiogenic potential.
Project description:In contrast to blood capillaries, lymphatic capillaries in peripheral tissues are composed of a single-cell layer of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) without a covering of mural cells. However, in lymphatic malformations, the enlarged lymphatic vessels were covered with mural cells. This study aimed to understand the molecular mechanism of differences between human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to determine the changes of LECs in the pathological condition of lymphatic malformation. Results showed that HDLECs exhibited lower expression of endothelial proteins, including VE-cadherin and CD31, than HUVECs; HDLECs also showed higher expression of mesenchymal proteins, including ?-SMA, SM22?, calponin, and epithelial mesenchymal transition-related transcription factor Slug, than HUVECs. Likewise, HDLECs displayed higher permeability and weaker recruitment of SMCs than HUVECs; HDLECs also exhibited low PDGF-BB expression. TGF-?2 treatment and FGF2 depletion enhanced mesenchymal marker expression with increased permeability and reduced SMC recruitment. By contrast, Slug depletion in HDLECs enhanced VE-cadherin expression, inhibited ?-SMA expression, decreased permeability, and enhanced PDGF-BB expression. These results suggested that HDLECs were in a mesenchymal status, which contributed to their functions and might determine their identities. Our data also revealed that miR143/145 was implicated in the mesenchymal status of HDLECs. In lymphatic malformations (LMs) treated with OK-432 sclerotherapy, immunohistochemistry results showed that Prox1 expression was reduced and mural cell investment was increased; these results indicated that LECs lost their mesenchymal status after OK-432 treatment was administered. The decreased mesenchymal status of LECs in LMs may induce dilated vessel constriction, which could be the mechanism of OK-432 sclerotherapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) therapy is emerging as a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of a variety of diseases including diabetes and diabetic wound healing. Multiple studies indicate that ASCs could promote wound healing and reverse diabetes. However, whether ASCs from diabetic donors retain their therapeutic functions and the mechanisms of how ASCs contribute to wound healing remain largely unknown. In this study, we explored the cutaneous wound healing ability of ASCs collected from C57BL/6 mice that had been rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ). METHODS:ASCs were harvested from adipose tissues of type 1 diabetic (T1D) or normal C57BL/6 mice. Cell phenotypes were evaluated by flow cytometry analysis, and cell differentiation into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes was compared. Secretions of transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by ASCs were assessed by ELISA. Migration and proliferation of fibroblasts co-cultured with T1D ASCs or control ASCs were also compared. The therapeutic effects of T1D and control ASCs in promoting wound closure were measured in vivo in a T1D wound mouse model. Granulation tissues were collected and stained with H&E at 14th day. CD34 and collagen I were detected by immunohistochemistry. Expressions of IL-6, ?-SMA, CD31, collagen I, and collagen III were quantified by real-time PCR. GFP-expressing ASCs were used to trace in vivo cell differentiation. RESULTS:T1D ASCs and control ASCs showed similar expression of cell surface markers (CD29, CD34, CD105) and proliferation pattern. They can both differentiate into different cell types. T1D ASCs secreted similar amounts of VEGF and bFGF, but less TGF-? compared with control ASCs. Like control ASCs, T1D ASCs promoted the proliferation and migration of skin fibroblast cells. When injected in cutaneous wound of T1D mice, T1D ASCs increased wound closure and hair follicle regeneration at a comparable extent as ASCs. Mice receiving T1D ASCs or ASCs exhibited significantly higher expressions of collagen I, collagen III, and CD31 and reduced expression of IL-6 in wound tissues. Immunohistochemistry staining showed increased angiogenesis in mice receiving ASCs as was evident by increased CD34+ cells and collagen I staining. GFP+ ASCs injection showed that ASCs differentiated into fibroblasts and endothelial cells in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that T1D ASCs could accelerate cutaneous wound healing. Mechanisms may include increasing fibroblast growth and migration, skin angiogenesis, and differentiation into fibroblasts and endothelial cells. This study provides evidence that diabetic ASCs may be used as a therapeutic option in cutaneous wound healing in diabetic recipients.
Project description:Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and progenitor cells are currently evaluated as potential biomarkers of antiangiogenic therapy. CD146 is considered a panendothelial-specific marker, but its utility as a CEC marker in cancer patients remains unclear.We analyzed the expression of CD146 on mononuclear blood cells, primary tissue endothelial cells, and malignant and normal tissues by flow cytometric and immunohistochemical analyses. Furthermore, we measured the circulation kinetics of CD146+ cells before, and then 3 and 12 days after vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody blockade by bevacizumab infusion in rectal cancer patients enrolled in a phase I trial.In the peripheral blood of these cancer patients, over 90% of the CD146+ cells were CD45+ hematopoietic cells. CD146 expression was primarily detected on a subset of CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes, and was undetectable on CD34+CD133+CD45(dim) progenitor cells or CD31(bright)CD45- viable CECs. In contradistinction, CD146 was detectable in tissues on both cellular components of tumor vessel wall: CD31(bright)CD45- endothelial cells and alpha-SMA+ pericytes. Unlike viable CECs and progenitor cells, CD146+ cell concentration in the peripheral blood of cancer patients did not decrease during VEGF blockade.CD146 is fairly homogeneously expressed on vascular endothelium but not on viable CECs or progenitor cells. The vast majority of CD146+ blood cells are lymphocytes, and VEGF blockade by bevacizumab did not significantly change their number in rectal cancer patients. These results underscore the need for further characterization and identification of new markers for CEC subpopulations for their development as biomarkers of antiangiogenic therapy.
Project description:Dental pulp is a highly vascularized tissue requiring adequate blood supply for successful regeneration. In this study, we investigated the functional role of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) as a perivascular source for in vivo formation of vessel-like structures. Primarily isolated SHEDs showed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics including the expression of surface antigens and in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials. Moreover, SHEDs were positive for NG2, ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFR?), and CD146 as pericyte markers. To prove feasibility of SHEDs as perivascular source, SHEDs were transplanted into immunodeficient mouse using Matrigel with or without human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Transplantation of SHEDs alone or HUVECs alone resulted in no formation of vessel-like structures with enough red blood cells. However, when SHEDs and HUVECs were transplanted together, extensive vessel-like structures were formed. The presence of murine erythrocytes within lumens suggested the formation of anastomoses between newly formed vessel-like structures in Matrigel plug and the host circulatory system. To understand underlying mechanisms of in vivo angiogenesis, the expression of angiogenic cytokine and chemokine, their receptors, and MMPs was compared between SHEDs and HUVECs. SHEDs showed higher expression of VEGF, SDF-1?, and PDGFR? than HUVECs. On the contrary, HUVECs showed higher expression of VEGF receptors, CXCR4, and PDGF-BB than SHEDs. This differential expression pattern suggested reciprocal interactions between SHEDs and HUVECs and their involvement during in vivo angiogenesis. In conclusion, SHEDs could be a feasible source of perivascular cells for in vivo angiogenesis.
Project description:Based on the analysis of exudates from injured adipose tissue, we prepared a mixture containing the injury-associated growth factors at the same proportion as the exudates, named adipose injury cocktail (AIC). We hypothesized that AIC induces a series of regenerating and angiogenic processes without actual wounding. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the therapeutic potentials of AIC. AIC preferentially activated adipose-derived stem/progenitor/stromal cells (ASCs) to proliferate, migrate, and form networks compared with vascular endothelial cells, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor did not induce mitogenesis or chemotaxis in human ASCs. Each component growth factor of AIC was differently responsible for the ASC activation. AIC-treated ASCs tended to differentiate into adipocytes or vessel-constituting cells rather than into other cell types. In ischemic adipose tissues of mice, induced by either a surgical intervention or diabetes, AIC administration enhanced proliferation, especially of CD31(-)/CD34(+) ASCs, and mitigated tissue hypoxia by increasing capillary density and reducing fibrogenesis. These results suggest that AIC may have therapeutic potentials for various ischemic/hypoxic conditions by inducing adipose remodeling and neovascularization through activation of ASCs and other cells. Treatment with AIC has many advantages over cell-based therapies regarding morbidity, cost, and physical risks and may be used as an alternative therapy for improving tissue oxygen.
Project description:Osteogenesis during bone modeling and remodeling is coupled with angiogenesis. A recent study showed that a specific vessel subtype, strongly positive for CD31 and endomucin (CD31(hi)Emcn(hi)), couples angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Here, we found that platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) secreted by preosteoclasts induces CD31(hi)Emcn(hi) vessel formation during bone modeling and remodeling. Mice with depletion of PDGF-BB in the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cell lineage show significantly lower trabecular and cortical bone mass, serum and bone marrow PDGF-BB concentrations, and fewer CD31(hi)Emcn(hi) vessels compared to wild-type mice. In the ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporotic mouse model, serum and bone marrow levels of PDGF-BB and numbers of CD31(hi)Emcn(hi) vessels are significantly lower compared to sham-operated controls. Treatment with exogenous PDGF-BB or inhibition of cathepsin K to increase the number of preosteoclasts, and thus the endogenous levels of PDGF-BB, increases CD31(hi)Emcn(hi) vessel number and stimulates bone formation in OVX mice. Thus, pharmacotherapies that increase PDGF-BB secretion from preosteoclasts offer a new therapeutic target for treating osteoporosis by promoting angiogenesis and thus bone formation.
Project description:Infantile hemangioma (IH) is a vascular tumor that begins with rapid vascular proliferation shortly after birth, followed by vascular involution in early childhood. We have found that NOTCH3, a critical regulator of mural cell differentiation and maturation, is expressed in hemangioma stem cells (HemSCs), suggesting that NOTCH3 may function in HemSC-to-mural cell differentiation and pathological vessel stabilization. Here, we demonstrate that NOTCH3 is expressed in NG2+PDGFR?+ perivascular HemSCs and CD31+GLUT1+ hemangioma endothelial cells (HemECs) in proliferating IHs and becomes mostly restricted to the ?SMA+NG2loPDGFR?lo mural cells in involuting IHs. NOTCH3 knockdown in HemSCs inhibited in vitro mural cell differentiation and perturbed ?SMA expression. In a mouse model of IH, NOTCH3 knockdown or systemic expression of the NOTCH3 inhibitor, NOTCH3 Decoy, significantly decreased IH blood flow, vessel caliber, and ?SMA+ perivascular cell coverage. Thus, NOTCH3 is necessary for HemSC-to-mural cell differentiation, and adequate perivascular cell coverage of IH vessels is required for IH vessel stability.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation shows promise for treating transplant arteriosclerosis, at least partly via promoting endothelial regeneration. However, the efficacy and safety are still under investigation especially regarding recent findings that neointimal smooth muscle cells are derived from MSC-like cells. The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)/receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) axis is involved in regulating proliferation, migration, and differentiation of MSCs, and therefore it can be presumably applied to improve the outcome of cell therapy. The aim of the current study was to investigate this hypothesis.Rat MSCs were treated with HMGB1 or modified with HMGB1 vectors to activate the HMGB1/RAGE axis. RAGE was targeted and inhibited by specific short hairpin RNA vectors. We assessed the capacity for cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation after vector transfection in vitro and in a rat model of transplant arteriosclerosis. The expression of CD31 and ?-smooth muscle actin (?SMA) was determined to evaluate the differentiation of MSCs to endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells.Exogenous HMGB1 treatment and transfection with HMGB1 vectors promoted MSC migration and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced differentiation to CD31+ cells while inhibiting their proliferation and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced differentiation to ?SMA+ cells. Such an effect was blocked by RAGE knockdown. HMGB1-modified cells preferably migrated to graft neointima and differentiated to CD31+ cells along with significant relief of transplant arteriosclerosis and inhibition of HMGB1 and RAGE expression in graft vessels. RAGE knockdown inhibited cell migration to graft vessels.HMGB1 stimulated MSCs to migrate and differentiate to endothelial cells via RAGE signaling, which we translated to successful application in cell therapy for transplant arteriosclerosis.