Adapted Tembusu-like virus in chickens and geese in China.
ABSTRACT: An outbreak of egg drop disease occurred in many chicken and goose farms in China in 2011. By using an NS5-specific reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), we found that 56% of chicken and 38% of goose samples were positive for Tembusu-like virus (TMUV). Isolates showed high sequence homology to duck TMUVs, and chickens and geese showed signs of egg drop disease after experimental infection with duck TMUV. Our data suggest TMUV has adapted in domestic birds.
Project description:Avian tembusu virus (TMUV), which was first identified in eastern China, is an emerging virus causing serious economic losses in the Chinese poultry industry. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of goose tembusu virus strain JS804, isolated from Jiangnan white geese with severe neurological signs. The genome of JS804 is 10,990 nucleotides (nt) in length and contains a single open reading frame encoding a putative polyprotein of 3,425 amino acids. Research of the whole sequence of tembusu virus will help us to understand further the molecular and evolutionary characteristics and pathogenesis of this virus.
Project description:Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a contagious pathogen from fowl that mainly infects ducks and geese, causing symptoms of high fever, loss of appetite, retarded growth, neurological symptoms, severe duck-drop syndrome, and even death. During an epidemiological investigation of TMUV in Northern China, we isolated 11 TMUV strains from ducks, chickens, geese, sparrows, and mosquitoes (2011?2017). Phylogenetic analysis of the open-reading frames of genes revealed that these strains clustered into Chinese strains II. The nucleotide and amino acid homologies of NS1 of the strains ranged between 85.8?99.8% and 92.5?99.68%, respectively, which were lower than those of E (86.7?99.9% and 96.5?99.9%, respectively), NS3 (87.6?99.9% and 98.2?99.8%, respectively), and NS5 (86.5?99.9% and 97.8?99.9%, respectively). Predictions of the tertiary structure of the viral proteins indicated that NS1 in 4 of 11 strains had a protein structure mutation at 180TAV182 that changed a random crimp into an alpha helix. The protein of 6 of 11 strains had a glycosylation site mutation from NTTD to NITD. Furthermore, epidemiological data suggested that TMUV has been circulating in half of China's provinces (17 of 34). Our findings, for the first time, have identified the NS1 protein as a potential hypervariable region for genetic evolution. Additionally, the territorial scope of the virus has expanded, requiring strict bio-security measures or a multivalent vaccine to control its spread.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus. Outbreak of this virus infection in duck flocks was first observed in China in April 2010, causing severe egg drop and neurological signs in laying ducks. Recently reported duck infections in southeastern Asia highlighted the need for well-validated diagnostic methods of TMUV surveillance to understand its epidemiological characteristics and maintenance in nature. Several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of TMUV infection have been reported, but none have been applied to high-throughput diagnostics. RESULTS:In this study, a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against TMUV was generated and characterized. MAb 9E4 was shown to bind specifically to a disulfide bond-dependent epitope on the domain I/II of TMUV E protein, and a blocking ELISA was established based on this MAb. The cut-off percentage inhibition value for negative sera was set at 30%. By comparison with the virus neutralization test, the specificity and sensitivity of the blocking ELISA were 96.37% and 100%, respectively, and the kappa value was 0.966, based on 416 serum samples collected from both experimentally and clinically infected ducks, geese and chickens. A good correlation (r2?=?07998, P?<?0.001) was observed between the blocking ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) titers. Using archived duck serum samples collected between 2009 and 2015, the seroprevalence in duck flocks raised in Northern China was estimated by blocking ELISA. CONCLUSIONS:Our MAb-based blocking ELISA provides a reliable and rapid diagnostic tool for serological monitoring of TMUV infection and evaluation of immune status following TMUV vaccination in multiple poultry species.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tembusu virus (TMUV) usually affects adult ducks, causing a severe drop of egg production. It has also been shown to be pathogenic in commercial Pekin ducklings below 7?weeks of age. Here, we report a TMUV-caused neurological disease in young egg-type ducklings and the pathogenicity of the egg-type duck-origin TMUV isolates in meat-type Pekin ducklings. RESULTS:The disease occurred in 25 to 40-day-old Jinding ducklings in China, and was characterized by paralysis. Gross lesions were lacking and microscopic lesions appeared chiefly in brain and spleen. Inoculation in embryonated duck eggs resulted in isolation of TMUV Y and GL. The clinical signs and microscopic lesions observed in the spontaneously infected egg-type ducks were repeated in Pekin ducklings by experimental infection. Notably, both Y and GL strains caused 100% mortality in the case of 2-day-old inoculation by intracerebral route. High mortalities (80 and 70%) also occurred following infection of the Y virus at 2?days of age by intramuscular route and at 9?days of age by intracerebral route. CONCLUSIONS:These findings demonstrate that the egg-type duck-origin TMUVs exhibit high pathogenicity in Pekin ducklings, and that the severity of the disease in ducklings is dependent on the infection route and the age of birds at the time of infection. The availability of the highly pathogenic TMUV strains provides a useful material with which to begin investigations into the molecular basis of TMUV pathogenicity in ducks.
Project description:As interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins 1 and 3 (IFITM1 and IFITM3) can effectively inhibit the replication of multiple viruses. Here, goose IFITM1 and IFITM3 were cloned and identified for the first time. The two proteins share the same topological structure and several important sites critical for the antiviral functions in other species are conserved in the goose. Goose IFITM1 and IFITM3 are most closely related to their respective orthologs in ducks; these proteins exhibited high mRNA transcript levels in immune-related tissues, including the thymus, bursa of Fabricius, and Harderian gland, compared to other tissues. Moreover, goose IFITM1 was highly constitutively expressed in gastrointestinal tract tissues, while goose IFITM3 was expressed in respiratory organs. Furthermore, goose IFITM3 was activated in goose peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected with Tembusu virus (TMUV) or treated with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) agonists, while only the R848 and Poly (I:C) agonists induced significant upregulation of goose IFITM1. Furthermore, goose IFITM1 and IFITM3 were upregulated in the sampled tissues, to some extent, after TMUV infection. Notably, significant upregulation of goose IFITM1 and IFITM3 was detected in the cecum and cecal tonsil, where TMUV was primarily distributed. These data provide new insights into the immune effectors in geese and promote our understanding of the role of IFITM1 and IFITM3 in the defense against TMUV.
Project description:We report here the complete genome sequence of a duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) strain, GX2013H, isolated from a duck from Cheery Valley in the Guangxi Province of southern China in 2013. We obtained the strain GX2013H from a Cheery Valley duck with severely decreased egg production and neurological signs. The genome of GX2013H is 10,990 nucleotides (nt) in length and contains a single open reading frame encoding a putative polyprotein of 3,425 amino acids (aa). A comparison of the complete sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence of GX2013H with published sequences of 15 other chicken anemia viruses from China showed that the homologies of the nucleotides are approximately 96.5% to 97.5% and the homologies of the deduced amino acid sequences are approximately 98.9% to 99.3%. This report will help to understand the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of TMUV in Guangxi.
Project description:Duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) is an emerging agent that causes a severe disease in ducks. We report herein the first complete genome sequences of duck tembusu virus strains YY5, ZJ-407, and GH-2, isolated from Shaoxing ducks, breeder ducks, and geese, respectively, in China. The genomes of YY5, ZJ-407, and GH-2 are all 10,990 nucleotides (nt) in length and encode a putative polyprotein of 3,426 amino acids. It is flanked by a 5' and a 3' noncoding region (NCR) of 94 and 618 nt, respectively. Knowledge of the whole sequence of DTMUV will be useful for further studies of the mechanisms of virus replication and pathogenesis.
Project description:A duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) was isolated from the brain of a Cherry Valley duckling that showed neurological signs by using a specific-pathogen-free chicken embryo. The isolate was named GX2013G (GenBank accession no. KM275941). The strain GX2013G was identified with reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and the amplicon was sequenced. The genome that was obtained is 10,990 nucleotides in length and contains a single open reading frame encoding a putative polyprotein of 3,425 amino acids. This study will advance the understanding of the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of tembusu virus (TMUV) in Guangxi and further studies of the mechanisms of virus replication and pathogenesis.
Project description:Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus), with 87-91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope) proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.
Project description:The lower egg production of geese (20~60 eggs per year) compared with chicken and duck limits the development of the industry, while the yolk weight and fatty liver susceptibility of geese was higher than that of other poultry. Therefore, the relationship between lipid metabolism and the laying performance of geese remains to be explored. Phenotypically, we observed that the liver fat content of the high-, low-, and no-egg production groups decreased in turn, while the abdominal fat weight increased in turn. For transcriptional regulation, the KEGG pathways related to lipid metabolism were enriched in all pairwise comparisons of abdominal fat and liver through functional analysis. However, some KEGG pathways related to inflammation and the circadian rhythm pathway were enriched by DEGs only in abdominal fat and the liver, respectively. The DEGs in ovarian stroma among different groups enriched some KEGG pathways related to ovarian steroidogenesis and cell adhesion. Our research reveals that lipid metabolism regulated by the circadian rhythm of the liver may directly or indirectly affect ovarian function through the inflammation and hormone secretion of abdominal fat. These results offer new insights into the regulation mechanisms of goose reproductive traits.