HSPB1 gene polymorphisms predict risk of mortality for US patients after radio(chemo)therapy for non-small cell lung cancer.
ABSTRACT: We investigated potential associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1) gene and overall survival in US patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Using available genomic DNA samples from 224 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy, we genotyped 2 SNPs of HSPB1 (NCBI SNP nos. rs2868370 and rs2868371). We used both Kaplan-Meier cumulative probability and Cox proportional hazards analyses to evaluate the effect of HSPB1 genotypes on survival.Our cohort consisted of 117 men and 107 women, mostly white (79.5%), with a median age of 70 years. The median radiation dose was 66 Gy (range, 63-87.5 Gy), and 183 patients (82%) received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The most common genotype of the rs2868371 SNP was CC (61%). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that this genotype was associated with poorer survival than CG and GG genotypes (univariate hazard ratio [HR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.90; P=.037; multivariate HR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.01-1.92; P=.045).Our results showed that the CC genotype of HSPB1 rs2868371 was associated with poorer overall survival in patients with NSCLC after radio(chemo)therapy, findings that contradict those of a previous study of Chinese patients. Validation of our findings with larger numbers of similar patients is needed, as are mechanical and clinical studies to determine the mechanism underlying these associations.
Project description:In search of reliable biologic markers to predict the risk of normal tissue damage by radio(chemo)therapy before treatment, we investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the transforming growth factor 1 (TGFbeta1) gene and risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Using 164 available genomic DNA samples from patients with NSCLC treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy, we genotyped three SNPs of the TGFbeta1 gene (rs1800469:C-509T, rs1800471:G915C, and rs1982073:T869C) by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. We used Kaplan-Meier cumulative probability to assess the risk of grade > or = 3 RP and Cox proportional hazards analyses to evaluate the effect of TGFbeta1 genotypes on such risk.There were 90 men and 74 women in the study, with median age of 63 years. Radiation doses ranging from 60 to 70 Gy (median = 63 Gy) in 30 to 58 fractions were given to 158 patients (96.3%) and platinum-based chemotherapy to 147 (89.6%). Grade > or = 2 and grade > or = 3 RP were observed in 74 (45.1%) and 36 patients (22.0%), respectively. Multivariate analysis found CT/CC genotypes of TGFbeta1 rs1982073:T869C to be associated with a statistically significantly lower risk of RP grades > or = 2 (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.489; 95% CI, 0.227 to 0.861; P = .013) and grades > or = 3 (HR = 0.390; 95% CI, 0.197 to .774; P = 0.007), respectively, compared with the TT genotype, after adjustment for Karnofsky performance status, smoking status, pulmonary function, and dosimetric parameters.Our results showed that CT/CC genotypes of TGFbeta1 rs1982073:T869C gene were associated with lower risk of RP in patients with NSCLC treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy and thus may serve as a reliable predictor of RP.
Project description:Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is a pathway that repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to maintain genomic stability in response to irradiation. The authors hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NHEJ repair genes may affect clinical outcomes in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who receive definitive radio(chemo)therapy.The authors genotyped 5 potentially functional SNPs-x-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 4 (XRCC4) reference SNP (rs) number rs6869366 (-1394 guanine to thymine [-1394G?T] change) and rs28360071 (intron 3, deletion/insertion), XRCC5 rs3835 (guanine to adenine [G?A] change at nucleotide 2408), XRCC6 rs2267437 (-1310 cytosine to guanine [C?G) change], and DNA ligase IV (LIG4) rs1805388 (threonine-to-isoleucine change at codon 9 [T9I])-and estimated their associations with severe radiation pneumonitis (RP) (grade ?3) in 195 patients with NSCLC.A predictive role in radiation pneumonitis (RP) development was observed for the LIG4 SNP rs1805388 (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-4.12; P = .037 for the CT/TT genotype vs the CC genotype). In addition, men with the TT genotype of the XRCC4 rs6869366 SNP and women with AG + AA genotypes of the XRCC5 rs3835 SNP also were at increased risk of developing severe RP.The current results indicated that NHEJ genetic polymorphisms, particularly LIG4 rs1805388, may modulate the risk of RP in patients with NSCLC who receive definitive radio(chemo)therapy. Large studies will be needed to confirm these findings.
Project description:The repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is the major mechanism to maintain genomic stability in response to irradiation. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in DSB repair genes may affect clinical outcomes among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy. We genotyped six potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (i.e., RAD51 -135G>C/rs1801320 and -172G>T/rs1801321, XRCC2 4234G>C/rs3218384 and R188H/rs3218536 G>A, XRCC3 T241M/rs861539 and NBN E185Q/rs1805794) and estimated their associations with overall survival (OS) and radiation pneumonitis (RP) in 228 NSCLC patients. We found a predictive role of RAD51 -135G>C SNP in RP development (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31-0.86, P?=?0.010 for CG/CC vs. GG). We also found that RAD51 -135G>C and XRCC2 R188H SNPs were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (adjusted HR?=?1.70, 95% CI, 1.14-2.62, P?=?0.009 for CG/CC vs. GG; and adjusted HR?=?1.70; 95% CI, 1.02-2.85, P?=?0.043 for AG vs. GG, respectively) and that the SNP-survival association was most pronounced in the presence of RP. Our study suggests that HR genetic polymorphisms, particularly RAD51 -135G>C, may influence overall survival and radiation pneumonitis in NSCLC patients treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy. Large studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Project description:In early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without affected lymph nodes detected at staging, surgical resection is still the mainstay of treatment. However, in patients with metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes (pN2) or non-radically resected primary tumors (R1/R2), postoperative radiotherapy (possibly combined with chemotherapy) is indicated. So far, investigations about time factors affecting postoperative radiotherapy have only examined the waiting time defined as interval between surgery and start of radiotherapy, but not the overall treatment time (OTT) itself. Conversely, results from trials on primary radio(chemo)therapy in NSCLC show that longer OTT correlates with significantly worse local tumor control and overall survival rates. This time factor of primary radio(chemo)therapy is thought to mainly be based on repopulation of surviving tumor cells between irradiation fractions. It remains to be elucidated if such an effect also occurs when patients with NSCLC are treated with postoperative radiotherapy after surgery (and chemotherapy). Our own retrospective data suggest an advantage of shorter OTT also for postoperative radiotherapy in this patient group.This is a multicenter, prospective randomized trial investigating whether an accelerated course of postoperative radiotherapy with photons or protons (7 fractions per week, 2 Gy fractions) improves locoregional tumor control in NSCLC patients in comparison to conventional fractionation (5 fractions per week, 2 Gy fractions). Target volumes and total radiation doses will be stratified in both treatment arms based on individual risk factors.For the primary endpoint of the study we postulate an increase in local tumor control from 70% to 85% after 36 months. Secondary endpoints are overall survival of patients; local recurrence-free and distant metastases-free survival after 36 months; acute and late toxicity and quality of life for both treatment methods.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02189967 . Registered on 22 May 2014.
Project description:Radio- and chemo-resistance represent major obstacles in the therapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known. In the present study, during induction of radio- or chemo-resistance in NSCLC cells, dynamic analyses revealed that decreased expression of let-7 induced by irradiation or cisplatin resulted in increased expression of its target gene LIN28, and increased expression of LIN28 then contributed to further decreased expression of let-7 by inhibiting its maturation and biogenesis. Moreover, we showed that down-regulation of let-7 and up-regulation of LIN28 expression promoted resistance to irradiation or cisplatin by regulating the single-cell proliferative capability of NSCLC cells. Consequently, in NSCLC cells, let-7 and LIN28 can form a double-negative feedback loop through mutual inhibition, and disturbance of the let-7/LIN28 double-negative feedback loop induced by irradiation or chemotherapeutic drugs can result in radio- and chemo-resistance. In addition, low expression of let-7 and high expression of LIN28 in NSCLC patients was associated significantly with resistance to radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Therefore, our study demonstrated that disturbance of the let-7/LIN28 double-negative feedback loop is involved in the regulation of radio- and chemo-resistance, and that let-7 and LIN28 could be employed as predictive biomarkers of response to radiotherapy or chemotherapy in NSCLC patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy is the reference treatment for non-resectable locally-advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). Increasing radiotherapy total dose in the whole tumour volume has been shown to be deleterious. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET/CT) offers the potential to identify smaller and biologically meaningful target volumes that could be irradiated with larger doses without compromising Organs At Risk (OAR) tolerance. This study investigated four scenarios, based on 18FDG and 18F-miso PET/CT, to delineate the target volumes and derive radiotherapy plans delivering up to 74Gy. METHOD:Twenty-one NSCLC patients, selected from a prospective phase II trial, had 18FDG- and 18F-miso PET/CT before the start of radiotherapy and 18FDG PET/CT during the radiotherapy (42Gy). The plans were based planned on a standard plan delivering 66 Gy (plan 1) and on three different boost strategies to deliver 74Gy total dose in pre-treatment 18FDG hotspot (70% of SUVmax) (plan 2), pre-treatment 18F-miso target (SUVmax?>?1.4) (plan 3) and per-treatment 18FDG residual (40% of SUVmax). (plan 4). RESULTS:The mean target volumes were 4.8 cc (± 1.1) for 18FDG hotspot, 38.9 cc (± 14.5) for 18F-miso and 36.0 cc (± 10.1) for per-treatment 18FDG. In standard plan (66 Gy), the mean dose covering 95% of the PTV (D95%) were 66.5 (± 0.33), 66.1 (± 0.32) and 66.1 (± 0.32) Gy for 18FDG hotspot, 18F-miso and per-treatment 18FDG. In scenario 2, the mean D95% was 72.5 (± 0.25) Gy in 18FDG hotspot versus 67.9 (± 0.49) and 67.9 Gy (± 0.52) in 18F-miso and per-treatment 18FDG, respectively. In scenario 3, the mean D95% was 72.2 (± 0.27) Gy to 18F-miso versus 70.4 (± 0.74) and 69.5Gy (± 0.74) for 18FDG hotspot and per-treatment 18FDG, respectively. In scenario 4, the mean D95% was 73.1 (± 0.3) Gy to 18FDG per-treatment versus 71.9 (± 0.61) and 69.8 (± 0.61) Gy for 18FDG hotspot and 18F-miso, respectively. The dose/volume constraints to OARs were matched in all scenarios. CONCLUSION:Escalated doses can be selectively planned in NSCLC target volumes delineated on 18FDG and 18F-miso PET/CT functional images. The most relevant strategy should be investigated in clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION:(RTEP5, NCT01576796 , registered 15 june 2012).
Project description:Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide due to its high incidence and mortality. As the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a terrible threat to human health. Despite improvements in diagnosis and combined treatments including surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the overall survival for NSCLC patients still remains poor. DNA damage is considered to be the primary cause of lung cancer development and is normally recognized and repaired by the intrinsic DNA damage response machinery. The role of DNA repair pathways in radio(chemo)therapy-resistant cancers has become an area of significant interest in the clinical setting. Meanwhile, some studies have proved that genetic and epigenetic factors can alter the DNA damage response and repair, which results in changes of the radiation and chemotherapy curative effect in NSCLC. In this review, we focus on the effect of genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic factors such as miRNA regulation and lncRNA regulation participating in DNA damage repair in response to radio(chemo)therapy in NSCLC. These may provide novel information on the radio(chemo)therapy of NSCLC based on the individual DNA damage response.
Project description:Highlights: • Concurrent full dose chemoradiotherapy (24x2.75 Gy) is toxic in multiple N2 disease.• Toxicity after platinum doublet chemoradiation (24x2.75 Gy) is mainly esophageal.• Fatal toxicity may be increased in patients with bulky centrally located tumors. <h4>Introduction</h4> Concurrent chemoradiation followed by immunotherapy is the standard of care for patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Prior to the introduction of adjuvant immunotherapy, we treated patients with stage III NSCLC with concurrent platinum doublet chemotherapy and 66 Gy in 24 fractions. We determined the toxicity of this treatment. <h4>Methods</h4> A retrospective observational study was performed in a cohort of patients with stage III NSCLC, <70 years old, and WHO performance score 0–1. Patients were treated with concurrent platinum doublet chemotherapy and 66 Gy in 24 fractions. All patients were staged with a PET-scan and brain MRI-scan. Toxicity was scored using the common criteria for adverse events (CTCAE v4.03). <h4>Results</h4> Between 2012 and 2017, 41 patients were treated with mildly hypofractionated radiotherapy and platinum doublet chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 4.7 years. The median age was 57 and 58% of patients were male. The majority of patients had stage IIIB disease (68%). The median total Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) was 104 cc (range: 15–367 cc). The median lymph node GTV was 59 cc (10–341 cc). Five patients died: four due to an esophagus perforation or fistula, and one due to pulmonary bleeding. Grade ≥ 3 esophageal toxicity occurred in 16 patients. Five patients had late grade ≥ 3 esophageal toxicity (12%). The median overall survival was 19 months. <h4>Conclusion</h4> Toxicity was unexpectedly high in patients with stage III NSCLC (WHO 0–1) after concurrent platinum doublet chemotherapy and 66 Gy in 24 fractions.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) is a well-known therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes as well as is a potential target for effective anti-cancer drug, since PPAR? ligands such as ciglitazone (Cig) frequently cause cell death in many types of cancer cells and suppress tumor growth. However, many cancer patients acquire chemo-resistance or radio-resistance after chemo or radiotherapy, and it is still unclear. In the difficulty of well-known anti-cancer drugs, we developed a novel PPAR? agonist CB13 (1-benzyl-5-(4-methylphenyl) pyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione) and investigated the anti-cancer effect and cell death mechanism on human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. With anti-cancer effect of Cig, CB13 also causes inhibition of cell growth by decreasing cell viability, increasing the release of LDH, and increasing caspase-3, and caspase-9 activities. CB13 generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causes cell death via ER stress in NSCLC and radio-resistant NSCLC cells (A549R and H460R), and a combination of CB13 and radiation induces greater ER stress and cell death when compared to CB13 alone. Taken together, our results suggest that a combination of CB13 and radiation may overcome radio-resistance caused by radiotherapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:LIN28 is an RNA-binding protein that not only plays key roles in multiple cellular developmental processes and tumourigenesis, but also is involved in tissue inflammatory response. However, no published study has investigated associations between genetic variants in LIN28 and radiation-induced pneumonitis (RP) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiation therapy. METHODS:We genotyped eight potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LIN28A (rs11247946 T>C, rs3811464 C>T, rs11581746 T>C, and rs12728900 G>A) and LIN28B (rs314280 G>A, rs12194974 G>A, rs17065417 A>C and rs314276 C>A) in 362 patients with NSCLC, who received definitive radio(chemo)therapy. The associations between RP risk and genotypes were assessed by hazards ratio (HR) in Cox proportional hazards regression analysis with time to event considered with and without adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS:Multivariate analyses found that patients carrying LIN28B rs314280 AG and AA/AG or rs314276 AC and AA/AC genotypes had a higher risk of grade ?3 RP (for rs314280 AG and AA/AG versus GG, adjusted HR=2.97 and 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.32-6.72 and 1.01-4.94, P=0.009 and 0.048, respectively; for rs314276 AC and AA/AC versus CC, adjusted HR=2.30 and 2.00, 95% CI=1.24-4.28 and 1.11-3.62, and P=0.008 and 0.022, respectively). Further stratified analyses showed a more consistent and profound risk in the subgroups of age <65years, males, stage III/IV, ever smokers, having radio-chemotherapy and mean lung dose (MLD) ?19.0Gy. CONCLUSION:Genetic variants of LIN28B, but not LIN28A, may be biomarkers for susceptibility to severe RP in NSCLC patients. Large, prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.