Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase: transition state stabilization from remote protein-phosphodianion interactions.
ABSTRACT: Mutants of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase containing all possible single (Q215A, Y217F, and R235A), double, and triple substitutions of the side chains that interact with the phosphodianion group of the substrate orotidine 5'-monophosphate have been prepared. Essentially the entire effect of these mutations on the decarboxylation of the truncated neutral substrate 1-(?-d-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid that lacks a phosphodianion group is expressed as a decrease in the third-order rate constant for activation by phosphite dianion. The results are consistent with a model in which phosphodianion binding interactions are utilized to stabilize a rare closed enzyme form that exhibits a high catalytic activity for decarboxylation.
Project description:The mechanism for activation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) by interactions of side chains from Gln215 and Try217 at a gripper loop and R235, adjacent to this loop, with the phosphodianion of OMP was probed by determining the kinetic parameters k(cat) and K(m) for all combinations of single, double, and triple Q215A, Y217F, and R235A mutations. The 12 kcal/mol intrinsic binding energy of the phosphodianion is shown to be equal to the sum of the binding energies of the side chains of R235 (6 kcal/mol), Q215 (2 kcal/mol), Y217 (2 kcal/mol), and hydrogen bonds to the G234 and R235 backbone amides (2 kcal/mol). Analysis of a triple mutant cube shows small (ca. 1 kcal/mol) interactions between phosphodianion gripper side chains, which are consistent with steric crowding of the side chains around the phosphodianion at wild-type OMPDC. These mutations result in the same change in the activation barrier to the OMPDC-catalyzed reactions of the whole substrate OMP and the substrate pieces (1-?-D-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid (EO) and phosphite dianion. This shows that the transition states for these reactions are stabilized by similar interactions with the protein catalyst. The 12 kcal/mol intrinsic phosphodianion binding energy of OMP is divided between the 8 kcal/mol of binding energy, which is utilized to drive a thermodynamically unfavorable conformational change of the free enzyme, resulting in an increase in (k(cat))(obs) for OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP, and the 4 kcal/mol of binding energy, which is utilized to stabilize the Michaelis complex, resulting in a decrease in (K(m))(obs).
Project description:The caged complex between orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ScOMPDC) and 5-fluoroorotidine 5'-monophosphate (FOMP) undergoes decarboxylation ?300 times faster than the caged complex between ScOMPDC and the physiological substrate, orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP). Consequently, the enzyme conformational changes required to lock FOMP at a protein cage and release product 5-fluorouridine 5'-monophosphate (FUMP) are kinetically significant steps. The caged form of ScOMPDC is stabilized by interactions between the side chains from Gln215, Tyr217, and Arg235 and the substrate phosphodianion. The control of these interactions over the barrier to the binding of FOMP and the release of FUMP was probed by determining the effect of all combinations of single, double, and triple Q215A, Y217F, and R235A mutations on kcat/Km and kcat for turnover of FOMP by wild-type ScOMPDC; its values are limited by the rates of substrate binding and product release, respectively. The Q215A and Y217F mutations each result in an increase in kcat and a decrease in kcat/Km, due to a weakening of the protein-phosphodianion interactions that favor fast product release and slow substrate binding. The Q215A/R235A mutation causes a large decrease in the kinetic parameters for ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP, which are limited by the rate of the decarboxylation step, but much smaller decreases in the kinetic parameters for ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of FOMP, which are limited by the rate of enzyme conformational changes. By contrast, the Y217A mutation results in large decreases in kcat/Km for ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of both OMP and FOMP, because of the comparable effects of this mutation on rate-determining decarboxylation of enzyme-bound OMP and on the rate-determining enzyme conformational change for decarboxylation of FOMP. We propose that kcat = 8.2 s(-1) for decarboxylation of FOMP by the Y217A mutant is equal to the rate constant for cage formation from the complex between FOMP and the open enzyme, that the tyrosyl phenol group stabilizes the closed form of ScOMPDC by hydrogen bonding to the substrate phosphodianion, and that the phenyl group of Y217 and F217 facilitates formation of the transition state for the rate-limiting conformational change. An analysis of kinetic data for mutant enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP and FOMP provides estimates for the rate and equilibrium constants for the conformational change that traps FOMP at the enzyme active site.
Project description:The side chain cation of Arg235 provides a 5.6 and 2.6 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition states for orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) decarboxylase (OMPDC) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyzed reactions of OMP and 5-fluoroorotidine 5'-monophosphate (FOMP), respectively, a 7.2 kcal/mol stabilization of the vinyl carbanion-like transition state for enzyme-catalyzed exchange of the C-6 proton of 5-fluorouridine 5'-monophosphate (FUMP), but no stabilization of the transition states for enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation of truncated substrates 1-(?-d-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid and 1-(?-d-erythrofuranosyl) 5-fluorouracil. These observations show that the transition state stabilization results from formation of a protein cation-phosphodianion pair, and that there is no detectable stabilization from an interaction between the side chain and the pyrimidine ring of substrate. The 5.6 kcal/mol side chain interaction with the transition state for the decarboxylation reaction is 50% of the total 11.2 kcal/mol transition state stabilization by interactions with the phosphodianion of OMP, whereas the 7.2 kcal/mol side chain interaction with the transition state for the deuterium exchange reaction is a larger 78% of the total 9.2 kcal/mol transition state stabilization by interactions with the phosphodianion of FUMP. The effect of the R235A mutation on the enzyme-catalyzed deuterium exchange is expressed predominantly as a change in the turnover number kex, whereas the effect on the enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP is expressed predominantly as a change in the Michaelis constant Km. These results are rationalized by a mechanism in which the binding of OMP, compared with that for FUMP, provides a larger driving force for conversion of OMPDC from an inactive open conformation to a productive, active, closed conformation.
Project description:We report the results of a study of the catalytic role of a network of four interacting amino acid side chains at yeast orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase ( ScOMPDC), by the stepwise replacement of all four side chains. The H-bond, which links the -CH2OH side chain of S154 from the pyrimidine umbrella loop of ScOMPDC to the amide side chain of Q215 in the phosphodianion gripper loop, creates a protein cage for the substrate OMP. The role of this interaction in optimizing transition state stabilization from the dianion gripper side chains Q215, Y217, and R235 was probed by determining the kinetic parameter kcat/ Km for 16 enzyme variants, which include all combinations of single, double, triple, and quadruple S154A, Q215A, Y217F, and R235A mutations. The effects of consecutive Q215A, Y217F, and R235A mutations on ? G? for wild-type enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation sum to 11.6 kcal/mol, but to only 7.6 kcal/mol when starting from S154A mutant. This shows that the S154A mutation results in a (11.6-7.6) = 4.0 kcal/mol decrease in transition state stabilization from interactions with Q215, Y217, and R235. Mutant cycles show that ca. 2 kcal/mol of this 4 kcal/mol effect is from the direct interaction between the S154 and Q215 side chains and that ca. 2 kcal/mol is from a tightening in the stabilizing interactions of the Y217 and R235 side chains. The sum of the effects of individual A154S, A215Q, F217Y and A235R substitutions at the quadruple mutant of ScOMPDC to give the corresponding triple mutants, 5.6 kcal/mol, is much smaller than 16.0 kcal/mol, the sum of the effects of the related four substitutions in wild-type ScOMPDC to give the respective single mutants. The small effect of substitutions at the quadruple mutant is consistent with a large entropic cost to holding the flexible loops of ScOMPDC in the active closed conformation.
Project description:Kinetic analysis of decarboxylation catalyzed by S154A, Q215A, and S154A/Q215A mutant yeast orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylases with orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) and with a truncated nucleoside substrate (EO) activated by phosphite dianion shows (1) the side chain of Ser-154 stabilizes the transition state through interactions with the pyrimidine rings of OMP or EO, (2) the side chain of Gln-215 interacts with the phosphodianion group of OMP or with phosphite dianion, and (3) the interloop hydrogen bond between the side chains of Ser-154 and Gln-215 orients the amide side chain of Gln-215 to interact with the phosphodianion group of OMP or with phosphite dianion.
Project description:Kinetic parameters kex (s-1) and kex/Kd (M-1 s-1) are reported for exchange for deuterium in D2O of the C-6 hydrogen of 5-fluororotidine 5'-monophosphate (FUMP) catalyzed by the Q215A, Y217F, and Q215A/Y217F variants of yeast orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ScOMPDC) at pD 8.1, and by the Q215A variant at pD 7.1-9.3. The pD rate profiles for wildtype ScOMPDC and the Q215A variant are identical, except for a 2.5 log unit downward displacement in the profile for the Q215A variant. The Q215A, Y217F and Q215A/Y217F substitutions cause 1.3-2.0 kcal/mol larger increases in the activation barrier for wildtype ScOMPDC-catalyzed deuterium exchange compared with decarboxylation, because of the stronger apparent side chain interaction with the transition state for the deuterium exchange reaction. The stabilization of the transition state for the OMPDC-catalyzed deuterium exchange reaction of FUMP is ca. 19 kcal/mol smaller than the transition state for decarboxylation of OMP, and ca. 8 kcal/mol smaller than for OMPDC-catalyzed deprotonation of FUMP to form the vinyl carbanion intermediate common to OMPDC-catalyzed reactions OMP/FOMP and UMP/FUMP. We propose that ScOMPDC shows similar stabilizing interactions with the common portions of decarboxylation and deprotonation transition states that lead to formation of this vinyl carbanion intermediate, and that there is a large ca. (19-8) = 11 kcal/mol stabilization of the former transition state from interactions with the nascent CO2 of product. The effects of Q215A and Y217F substitutions on kcat/Km for decarboxylation of OMP are expressed mainly as an increase in Km for the reactions catalyzed by the variant enzymes, while the effects on kex/Kd for deuterium exchange are expressed mainly as an increase in kex. This shows that the Q215 and Y217 side chains stabilize the Michaelis complex to OMP for the decarboxylation reaction, compared with the complex to FUMP for the deuterium exchange reaction. These results provide strong support for the conclusion that interactions which stabilize the transition state for ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation at a nonpolar enzyme active site dominate over interactions that destabilize the ground-state Michaelis complex.
Project description:A product deuterium isotope effect (PIE) of 1.0 was determined as the ratio of the yields of [6-(1)H]-uridine 5'-monophosphate (50%) and [6-(2)H]-uridine 5'-monophosphate (50%) from the decarboxylation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) in 50/50 (v/v) HOH/DOD catalyzed by orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, and Escherichia coli. This unitary PIE eliminates a proposed mechanism for enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation in which proton transfer from Lys-93 to C-6 of OMP provides electrophilic push to the loss of CO(2) in a concerted reaction. We propose that the complete lack of selectivity for the reaction of solvent H and D, which is implied by the value of PIE = 1.0, is enforced by restricted C-N bond rotation of the -CH(2)-NL(3)(+) group of the side chain of Lys-93. A smaller PIE of 0.93 was determined as the ratio of the product yields for OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of 5-fluoroorotidine 5'-monophosphate (5-FOMP) in 50/50 (v/v) HOH/DOD. Mutations on the following important active-site residues of OMPDC from S. cerevisiae have no effect on the PIE on OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP or decarboxylation of 5-FOMP: R235A, Y217A, Q215A, S124A, and S154A/Q215A.
Project description:Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) catalyzes the exchange for deuterium from solvent D(2)O of the C-6 proton of 1-(?-d-erythrofuranosyl)-5-fluorouracil (FEU), a phosphodianion truncated product analog. The deuterium exchange reaction of FEU is accelerated 1.8 × 10(4)-fold by 1 M phosphite dianion (HPO(3)(2-)). This corresponds to a 5.8 kcal/mol stabilization of the vinyl carbanion-like transition state, which is similar to the 7.8 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition state for OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of a truncated substrate analog by bound HPO(3)(2-). These results show that the intrinsic binding energy of phosphite dianion is used in the stabilization of the vinyl carbanion-like transition state common to the decarboxylation and deuterium exchange reactions.
Project description:Closure of the active site phosphate gripper loop of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScOMPDC) over the bound substrate orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) activates the bound substrate for decarboxylation by at least 10(4)-fold [Amyes, T. L., Richard, J. P., and Tait, J. J. (2005) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 15708-15709]. The 19-residue phosphate gripper loop of the mesophilic ScOMPDC is much larger than the nine-residue loop at the ortholog from the thermophile Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (MtOMPDC). This difference in loop size results in a small decrease in the total intrinsic phosphate binding energy of the phosphodianion group of OMP from 11.9 to 11.6 kcal/mol, along with a modest decrease in the extent of activation by phosphite dianion of decarboxylation of the truncated substrate 1-(beta-D-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid. The activation parameters DeltaH(double dagger) and DeltaS(double dagger) for k(cat) for decarboxylation of OMP are 3.6 kcal/mol and 10 cal K(-1) mol(-1) more positive, respectively, for MtOMPDC than for ScOMPDC. We suggest that these differences are related to the difference in the size of the active site loops at the mesophilic ScOMPDC and the thermophilic MtOMPDC. The greater enthalpic transition state stabilization available from the more extensive loop-substrate interactions for the ScOMPDC-catalyzed reaction is largely balanced by a larger entropic requirement for immobilization of the larger loop at this enzyme.
Project description:Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase catalyzes the decarboxylation of truncated substrate (1-?-D-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid to form (1-?-D-erythrofuranosyl)uracil. This enzyme-catalyzed reaction is activated by tetrahedral oxydianions, which bind weakly to unliganded OMPDC and tightly to the enzyme-transition state complex, with the following intrinsic oxydianion binding energies (kcal/mol): SO3(2-), -8.3; HPO3(2-), -7.7; S2O3(2-), -4.6; SO4(2-), -4.5; HOPO3(2-), -3.0; HOAsO3(2-), no activation detected. We propose that the oxydianion and orotate binding domains of OMPDC perform complementary functions in catalysis of decarboxylation reactions: (1) The orotate binding domain carries out decarboxylation of the orotate ring. (2) The activating oxydianion binding domain has the cryptic function of utilizing binding interactions with tetrahedral inorganic oxydianions to drive an enzyme conformational change that results in the stabilization of transition states at the distant orotate domain.