The bicyclic intermediate structure provides insights into the desuccinylation mechanism of human sirtuin 5 (SIRT5).
ABSTRACT: Sirtuins are pivotal regulators in various cellular processes, including transcription, DNA repair, genome stability, and energy metabolism. Their functions have been generally attributed to NAD-dependent deacetylase activity. However, human SIRT5 (sirtuin 5), which has been reported to exhibit little deacetylase activity, was recently identified as an NAD-dependent demalonylase and desuccinylase. Biochemical studies suggested that the mechanism of SIRT5-catalyzed demalonylation and desuccinylation is similar to that of deacetylation catalyzed by other sirtuins. Previously, we solved the crystal structure of a SIRT5-succinyl-lysine peptide-NAD complex. Here, we present two more structures: a binary complex of SIRT5 with an H3K9 succinyl peptide and a binary complex of SIRT5 with a bicyclic intermediate obtained by incubating SIRT5-H3K9 thiosuccinyl peptide co-crystals with NAD. To our knowledge, this represents the first bicyclic intermediate for a sirtuin-catalyzed deacylation reaction that has been captured in a crystal structure, thus providing unique insights into the reaction mechanism. The structural information should benefit the design of specific inhibitors for SIRT5 and help in exploring the therapeutic potential of targeting sirtuins for treating human diseases.
Project description:Sirtuins are protein deacylases regulating metabolism and aging processes, and the seven human isoforms are considered attractive therapeutic targets. Sirtuins transfer acyl groups from lysine sidechains to ADP-ribose, formed from the cosubstrate NAD(+) by release of nicotinamide, which in turn is assumed to be a general Sirtuin inhibitor. Studies on Sirtuin regulation have been hampered, however, by shortcomings of available assays. Here, we describe a mass spectrometry-based, quantitative deacylation assay not requiring any substrate labeling. Using this assay, we show that the deacetylation activity of human Sirt5 features an unusual insensitivity to nicotinamide inhibition. In contrast, we find similar values for Sirt5 and Sirt3 for the intrinsic NAD(+) affinity as well as the apparent NAD(+) affinity in presence of peptide. Structure comparison and mutagenesis identify an Arg neighboring to the Sirt5 nicotinamide binding pocket as a mediator of nicotinamide resistance, and statistical sequence analyses along with testing further Sirtuins reveal a network of coevolved residues likely defining a nicotinamide-insensitive Sirtuin deacetylase family. The same Arg was recently reported to render Sirt5 a preferential desuccinylase, and we find that this Sirt5 activity is highly sensitive to nicotinamide inhibition. Analysis of Sirt5 structures and activity data suggest that an Arg/succinate interaction is the molecular basis of the differential nicotinamide sensitivities of the two Sirt5 activities. Our results thus indicate a Sirtuin subfamily with nicotinamide-insensitive deacetylase activity and suggest that the molecular features determining nicotinamide sensitivity overlap with those dominating deacylation specificity, possibly suggesting that other subfamily members might also prefer other acylations than acetylations.
Project description:Sirtuins, a class of enzymes known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases, have been shown to regulate a variety of biological processes, including aging, transcription, and metabolism. Sirtuins are considered promising targets for treating several human diseases. There are seven sirtuins in humans (Sirt1-7). Small molecules that can target a particular human sirtuin are important for drug development and fundamental studies of sirtuin biology. Here we demonstrate that thiosuccinyl peptides are potent and selective Sirt5 inhibitors. The design of these inhibitors is based on our recent discovery that Sirt5 prefers to catalyze the hydrolysis of malonyl and succinyl groups, rather than an acetyl group, from lysine residues. Furthermore, among the seven human sirtuins, Sirt5 is the only one that has this unique acyl group preference. This study demonstrates that the different acyl group preferences of different sirtuins can be conveniently utilized to develop small molecules that selectively target different sirtuins.
Project description:Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent protein deacylases/ADP-ribosyltransferases that have emerged as candidate targets for new therapeutics to treat metabolic disorders and other diseases, including cancer. The sirtuin SIRT5 resides primarily in the mitochondrial matrix and catalyzes the removal of negatively charged lysine acyl modifications; succinyl, malonyl, and glutaryl groups. Evidence has now accumulated to document the roles of SIRT5 as a significant regulator of cellular homeostasis, in a context- and cell-type specific manner, as has been observed previously for other sirtuin family members. SIRT5 regulates protein substrates involved in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, fatty acid oxidation, electron transport chain, ketone body formation, nitrogenous waste management, and ROS detoxification, among other processes. SIRT5 plays pivotal roles in cardiac physiology and stress responses and is involved in the regulation of numerous aspects of myocardial energy metabolism. SIRT5 is implicated in neoplasia, as both a tumor promoter and suppressor in a context-specific manner, and may serve a protective function in the setting of neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we review the current understanding of functional impacts of SIRT5 on its metabolic targets, and its molecular functions in both normal and pathological conditions. Finally, we will discuss the potential utility of SIRT5 as a drug target and also summarize the current status, progress, and challenges in developing small molecule compounds to modulate SIRT5 activity with high potency and specificity.
Project description:Sirtuins are NAD-dependent deacylases. Previous studies have established two important enzymatic intermediates in sirtuin-catalyzed deacylation, an alkylamidate intermediate I, which is then converted to a bicyclic intermediate II. However, how intermediate II is converted to products is unknown. Based on potent SIRT2-specific inhibitors we developed, here we report crystal structures of SIRT2 in complexes with a thiomyristoyl lysine peptide-based inhibitor and carba-NAD or NAD. Interestingly, by soaking crystals with NAD, we capture a distinct covalent catalytic intermediate (III) that is different from the previously established intermediates I and II. In this intermediate, the covalent bond between the S and the myristoyl carbonyl carbon is broken, and we believe this intermediate III to be the decomposition product of II en route to form the end products. MALDI-TOF data further support the intermediate III formation. This is the first time such an intermediate has been captured by X-ray crystallography and provides more mechanistic insights into sirtuin-catalyzed reactions.
Project description:Protein function is regulated by diverse posttranslational modifications. The mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT5 removes malonyl and succinyl moieties from target lysines. The spectrum of protein substrates subject to these modifications is unknown. We report systematic profiling of the mammalian succinylome, identifying 2,565 succinylation sites on 779 proteins. Most of these do not overlap with acetylation sites, suggesting differential regulation of succinylation and acetylation. Our analysis reveals potential impacts of lysine succinylation on enzymes involved in mitochondrial metabolism; e.g., amino acid degradation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle, and fatty acid metabolism. Lysine succinylation is also present on cytosolic and nuclear proteins; indeed, we show that a substantial fraction of SIRT5 is extramitochondrial. SIRT5 represses biochemical activity of, and cellular respiration through, two protein complexes identified in our analysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and succinate dehydrogenase. Our data reveal widespread roles for lysine succinylation in regulating metabolism and potentially other cellular functions.
Project description:Sirtuins were originally shown to regulate a wide array of biological processes such as transcription, genomic stability, and metabolism by catalyzing the NAD(+) -dependent deacetylation of lysine residues. Recent proteomic studies have revealed a much wider array of lysine acyl modifications in vivo than was previously known, which has prompted a reevaluation of sirtuin substrate specificity. Several sirtuins have now been shown to preferentially remove propionyl, succinyl, and long-chain fatty acyl groups from lysines, which has changed our understanding of sirtuin biology. In light of these developments, we revisited the acyl specificity of several well-studied archaeal and bacterial sirtuins. We find that the Archaeoglobus fulgidus sirtuins, Sir2Af1 and Sir2Af2, preferentially remove succinyl and myristoyl groups, respectively. Crystal structures of Sir2Af1 bound to a succinylated peptide and Sir2Af2 bound to a myristoylated peptide show how the active site of each enzyme accommodates a noncanonical acyl chain. As compared to its structure in complex with an acetylated peptide, Sir2Af2 undergoes a conformational change that expands the active site to accommodate the myristoyl group. These findings point to both structural and biochemical plasticity in sirtuin active sites and provide further evidence that sirtuins from all three domains of life catalyze noncanonical deacylation.
Project description:Maintenance of metabolic homeostasis is critical for cellular and organismal health. Proper regulation of mitochondrial functions represents a crucial element of overall metabolic homeostasis. Mitochondrial sirtuins (SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5) play pivotal roles in promoting this homeostasis by regulating numerous aspects of mitochondrial metabolism in response to environmental stressors.New work has illuminated multiple links between mitochondrial sirtuins and cancer. SIRT5 has been shown to regulate the recently described post-translational modifications succinyl-lysine, malonyl-lysine, and glutaryl-lysine. An understanding of these modifications is still in its infancy. Enumeration of SIRT3 and SIRT5 targets via advanced proteomic techniques promises to dramatically enhance insight into functions of these proteins.In this review, we highlight the roles of mitochondrial sirtuins and their targets in cellular and organismal metabolic homeostasis. Furthermore, we discuss emerging roles for mitochondrial sirtuins in suppressing and/or promoting tumorigenesis, depending on the cellular and molecular context.Currently, hundreds of potential SIRT3 and SIRT5 molecular targets have been identified in proteomic experiments. Future studies will need to validate the major targets of these enzymes, and elucidate how acetylation and/or acylation modulate their functionality. A great deal of interest exists in targeting sirtuins pharmacologically; this endeavor will require development of sirtuin-specific modulators (activators and inhibitors) as potential treatments for cancer and metabolic disease.
Project description:Sirtuins are protein deacetylases regulating metabolism, stress responses, and aging processes, and they were suggested to mediate the lifespan extending effect of a low calorie diet. Sirtuin activation by the polyphenol resveratrol can mimic such lifespan extending effects and alleviate metabolic diseases. The mechanism of Sirtuin stimulation is unknown, hindering the development of improved activators. Here we show that resveratrol inhibits human Sirt3 and stimulates Sirt5, in addition to Sirt1, against fluorophore-labeled peptide substrates but also against peptides and proteins lacking the non-physiological fluorophore modification. We further present crystal structures of Sirt3 and Sirt5 in complex with fluorogenic substrate peptide and modulator. The compound acts as a top cover, closing the Sirtuin's polypeptide binding pocket and influencing details of peptide binding by directly interacting with this substrate. Our results provide a mechanism for the direct activation of Sirtuins by small molecules and suggest that activators have to be tailored to a specific Sirtuin/substrate pair.
Project description:NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylases (sirtuins) play important roles in epigenetic regulation but also through nonhistone substrates for other key cellular events and have been linked to the pathogenesis of cancer, neurodegeneration, and metabolic diseases. The subtype Sirt5 has been shown recently to act as a desuccinylating and demalonylating enzyme. We have established an assay for biochemical testing of Sirt5 using a small labeled succinylated lysine derivative. We present a comparative study on the profiling of several established sirtuin inhibitors on Sirt1-3 as well as Sirt5 and also present initial results on a screening for new compounds that block Sirt5. Thiobarbiturates were identified as new Sirt5 inhibitors in the low micromolar range, which are selective over Sirt3 that can be found in the same cell compartment as Sirt5.
Project description:Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) proteins (sirtuins) are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases that regulate important biological processes. Mammals have seven sirtuins, Sirt1 to Sirt7. Four of them (Sirt4 to Sirt7) have no detectable or very weak deacetylase activity. We found that Sirt5 is an efficient protein lysine desuccinylase and demalonylase in vitro. The preference for succinyl and malonyl groups was explained by the presence of an arginine residue (Arg(105)) and tyrosine residue (Tyr(102)) in the acyl pocket of Sirt5. Several mammalian proteins were identified with mass spectrometry to have succinyl or malonyl lysine modifications. Deletion of Sirt5 in mice appeared to increase the level of succinylation on carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1, which is a known target of Sirt5. Thus, protein lysine succinylation may represent a posttranslational modification that can be reversed by Sirt5 in vivo.