Structure and catalytic mechanism of 3-ketosteroid-Delta4-(5α)-dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 genome.
ABSTRACT: 3-Ketosteroid Δ4-(5α)-dehydrogenases (Δ4-(5α)-KSTDs) are enzymes that introduce a double bond between the C4 and C5 atoms of 3-keto-(5α)-steroids. Here we show that the ro05698 gene from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 codes for a flavoprotein with Δ4-(5α)-KSTD activity. The 1.6 Å resolution crystal structure of the enzyme revealed three conserved residues (Tyr-319, Tyr-466, and Ser-468) in a pocket near the isoalloxazine ring system of the FAD co-factor. Site-directed mutagenesis of these residues confirmed that they are absolutely essential for catalytic activity. A crystal structure with bound product 4-androstene-3,17-dione showed that Ser-468 is in a position in which it can serve as the base abstracting the 4β-proton from the C4 atom of the substrate. Ser-468 is assisted by Tyr-319, which possibly is involved in shuttling the proton to the solvent. Tyr-466 is at hydrogen bonding distance to the C3 oxygen atom of the substrate and can stabilize the keto-enol intermediate occurring during the reaction. Finally, the FAD N5 atom is in a position to be able to abstract the 5α-hydrogen of the substrate as a hydride ion. These features fully explain the reaction catalyzed by Δ4-(5α)-KSTDs.
Project description:3-Ketosteroid ?(1)-dehydrogenases are FAD-dependent enzymes that catalyze the 1,2-desaturation of 3-ketosteroid substrates to initiate degradation of the steroid nucleus. Here we report the 2.0 ? resolution crystal structure of the 56-kDa enzyme from Rhodococcus erythropolis SQ1 (?(1)-KSTD1). The enzyme contains two domains: an FAD-binding domain and a catalytic domain, between which the active site is situated as evidenced by the 2.3 ? resolution structure of ?(1)-KSTD1 in complex with the reaction product 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione. The active site contains four key residues: Tyr(119), Tyr(318), Tyr(487), and Gly(491). Modeling of the substrate 4-androstene-3,17-dione at the position of the product revealed its interactions with these residues and the FAD. The C1 and C2 atoms of the substrate are at reaction distance to the N5 atom of the isoalloxazine ring of FAD and the hydroxyl group of Tyr(318), respectively, whereas the C3 carbonyl group is at hydrogen bonding distance from the hydroxyl group of Tyr(487) and the backbone amide of Gly(491). Site-directed mutagenesis of the tyrosines to phenylalanines confirmed their importance for catalysis. The structural features and the kinetic properties of the mutants suggest a catalytic mechanism in which Tyr(487) and Gly(491) work in tandem to promote keto-enol tautomerization and increase the acidity of the C2 hydrogen atoms of the substrate. With assistance of Tyr(119), the general base Tyr(318) abstracts the axial ?-hydrogen from C2 as a proton, whereas the FAD accepts the axial ?-hydrogen from the C1 atom of the substrate as a hydride ion.
Project description:Protein kinases of the DYRK ('dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase') family are characterized by a conserved Tyr-Xaa-Tyr motif (Tyr-319-Tyr-321) in a position exactly corresponding to the activation motif of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) family (Thr-Xaa-Tyr). In a molecular model of the catalytic domain of DYRK1A, the orientation of phosphorylated Tyr-321 is strikingly similar to that of Tyr-185 in the known structure of the activated MAP kinase, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 2. Consistent with our model, substitution of Tyr-321 but not of Tyr-319 by phenylalanine markedly reduced the enzymic activity of recombinant DYRK1A expressed in either Escherichia coli or mammalian cells. Direct identification of phosphorylated residues by tandem MS confirmed that Tyr-321, but not Tyr-319, was phosphorylated. When expressed in COS-7 cells, DYRK1A was found to be fully phosphorylated on Tyr-321. A catalytically inactive mutant of DYRK1A contained no detectable phosphotyrosine, indicating that Tyr-321 is autophosphorylated by DYRK1A. MS identified Tyr-111 and Ser-97 as additional autophosphorylation sites in the non-catalytic N-terminal domain of bacterially expressed DYRK1A. Enzymic activity was not affected in the DYRK1A-Y111F mutant. The present experimental data and the molecular model indicate that the activity of DYRK1A is dependent on the autophosphorylation of a conserved tyrosine residue in the activation loop.
Project description:Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes have considerable structural similarity within limited regions (X and Y) implicated in catalysis. The role of residues contained within a highly conserved sequence present in the X region was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis of PLC-delta 1 isoenzyme. Seven residues (Ser-308, Ser-309, Ser-310, His-311, Thr-313, Tyr-314, and Gln-319) were individually replaced by alanine or glutamine (His-311). Replacement of two residues, His-311 and Tyr-314, resulted in a dramatic reduction of enzyme activity. The kcat of hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate by H311A and Y314A mutants was reduced 1000- and 10-fold respectively, with little effect on Km. Further analysis of H311A and Y314A mutants, using limited proteolysis and circular dichroism, had shown that no major structural alterations had occurred. Since site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated the importance of histidine residues, their role in enzyme function was also analysed by chemical modification with diethyl pyrocarbonate. This modification of histidine residues resulted in the reduction of enzyme activity and also indicated that more than one residue could be important.
Project description:Aclacinomycin (Acl) oxidoreductase (AknOx) catalyzes the last two steps in the biosynthesis of polyketide antibiotics of the Acl group, the oxidation of the terminal sugar moiety rhodinose to l-aculose. We present the crystal structure of AknOx with bound FAD and the product AclY, refined to 1.65-A resolution. The overall fold of AknOx identifies the enzyme as a member of the p-cresol methylhydroxylase superfamily. The cofactor is bicovalently attached to His-70 and Cys-130 as 8alpha-Ndelta1-histidyl, 6-S-cysteinyl FAD. The polyketide ligand is bound in a deep cleft in the substrate-binding domain, with the tetracyclic ring system close to the enzyme surface and the three-sugar chain extending into the protein interior. The terminal sugar residue packs against the isoalloxazine ring of FAD and positions the carbon atoms that are oxidized close to the N5 atom of FAD. The structure and site-directed mutagenesis data presented here are consistent with a mechanism where the two different reactions of AknOx are catalyzed in the same active site but by different active site residues. Tyr-450 is responsible for proton removal from the C-4 hydroxyl group in the first reaction, the oxidation of rhodinose to cinerulose A. Tyr-378 acts as a catalytic base involved in proton abstraction from C3 of cinerulose A in the second reaction, for formation L-aculose. Replacement of this residue, however, does not impair the conversion of rhodinose to cinerulose A.
Project description:Pig aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 (AKR1C1) belongs to AKR superfamily which catalyzes the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of various substrates including steroid hormones. Previously we have reported two paralogous pig AKR1C1s, wild-type AKR1C1 (C-type) and C-terminal-truncated AKR1C1 (T-type). Also, the C-terminal region significantly contributes to the NADPH-dependent reductase activity for 5α-DHT reduction. Molecular modeling studies combined with kinetic experiments were performed to investigate structural and enzymatic differences between wild-type AKR1C1 C-type and T-type.The results of the enzyme kinetics revealed that Vmax and kcat values of the T-type were 2.9 and 1.6 folds higher than those of the C-type. Moreover, catalytic efficiency was also 1.9 fold higher in T-type compared to C-type. Since x-ray crystal structures of pig AKR1C1 were not available, three dimensional structures of the both types of the protein were predicted using homology modeling methodology and they were used for molecular dynamics simulations. The structural comparisons between C-type and T-type showed that 5α-DHT formed strong hydrogen bonds with catalytic residues such as Tyr55 and His117 in T-type. In particular, C3 ketone group of the substrate was close to Tyr55 and NADPH in T-type.Our results showed that 5α-DHT binding in T-type was more favorable for catalytic reaction to facilitate hydride transfer from the cofactor, and were consistent with experimental results. We believe that our study provides valuable information to understand important role of C-terminal region that affects enzymatic properties for 5α-DHT, and further molecular mechanism for the enzyme kinetics of AKR1C1 proteins.
Project description:Serial activation of the tyrosine kinases Lck and ZAP-70 initiates signaling downstream of the T cell receptor. We previously reported the structure of an autoinhibited ZAP-70 variant in which two regulatory tyrosine residues (315 and 319) in the SH2-kinase linker were replaced by phenylalanine. We now present a crystal structure of ZAP-70 in which Tyr 315 and Tyr 319 are not mutated, leading to the recognition of a five-residue sequence register error in the SH2-kinase linker of the original crystallographic model. The revised model identifies distinct roles for these two tyrosines. As seen in a recently reported structure of the related tyrosine kinase Syk, Tyr 315 of ZAP-70 is part of a hydrophobic interface between the regulatory apparatus and the kinase domain, and the integrity of this interface would be lost upon engagement of doubly phosphorylated peptides by the SH2 domains. Tyr 319 is not necessarily dislodged by SH2 engagement, which activates ZAP-70 only ?5-fold in vitro. In contrast, phosphorylation by Lck activates ZAP-70 ?100-fold. This difference is due to the ability of Tyr 319 to suppress ZAP-70 activity even when the SH2 domains are dislodged from the kinase domain, providing stringent control of ZAP-70 activity downstream of Lck.
Project description:Activation of NFkappaB is a fundamental cellular event central to all inflammatory diseases. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) ameliorates both acute and chronic inflammation in a multitude of organ systems through modulating NFkappaB activity; nevertheless, the exact molecular mechanism remains uncertain. Here we report that HGF through inactivation of GSK3beta suppresses NFkappaB p65 phosphorylation specifically at position Ser-468. The Ser-468 of RelA/p65 situates in a GSK3beta consensus motif and could be directly phosphorylated by GSK3beta both in vivo and in vitro, signifying Ser-468 of RelA/p65 as a putative substrate for GSK3beta. In addition, the C terminus of RelA/p65 harbors a highly conserved domain homologue of the consensus docking sequence for GSK3beta. Moreover, this domain was required for efficient phosphorylation of Ser-468 and was indispensable for the physical interaction between RelA/p65 and GSK3beta. HGF substantially intercepted this interaction by inactivating GSK3beta. Functionally, phosphorylation of Ser-468 of RelA/p65 was required for the induced expression of a particular subset of proinflammatory NFkappaB-dependent genes. Diminished phosphorylation at Ser-468 by HGF resulted in a gene-specific inhibition of these genes' expression. The action of HGF on proinflammatory NFkappaB activation was consistently mimicked by a selective GSK3beta inhibitor or GSK3beta knockdown by RNA interference but largely abrogated in cells expressing the mutant uninhibitable GSK3beta. Collectively, our findings suggest that HGF has a potent suppressive effect on NFkappaB activation, which is mediated by GSK3beta, an important signaling transducer controlling RelA/p65 phosphorylation specificity and directing the transcription of selective proinflammatory cytokines implicated in inflammatory kidney disease.
Project description:Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is a dual functional coregulator that facilitates transcription initiation by methylation of Arg(17) and Arg(26) of histone H3 and also dictates the subsequent coactivator complex disassembly by methylation of the steroid receptor coactivator family coactivators and p300/cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein. However, the regulation of CARM1 enzymatic activity and substrate specificity remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that CARM1 function is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser(217), a residue completely conserved in the type I protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family of enzymes. Comparative analysis of the published CARM1 crystal structures reveals that the hydroxyl group of Ser(217) forms a strong hydrogen bond with the carbonyl oxygen atom of Tyr(154) to lock the cofactor S-adenosylmethionine inside the binding cavity. Phosphorylation of Ser(217) disrupts this hydrogen bond and subsequently abolishes S-adenosylmethionine binding and its methyltransferase activity. Importantly, Tyr(154) is also conserved in the type I PRMT family of enzymes, suggesting a general role of this hydrogen bond in maintaining the holo structure of the type I PRMT catalytic domain. Moreover, we found that phosphorylation at Ser(217) also promoted CARM1 cytoplasmic localization and that this translocation occurred mainly during mitosis. We propose that phosphorylation at Ser(217) serves as a molecular switch for controlling CARM1 enzymatic activity during the cell cycle.
Project description:Phosphorylation plays an important role in regulation of protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta). To date, three Ser/Thr residues (Thr 505, Ser 643, and Ser 662) and nine tyrosine residues (Tyr 52, Tyr 64, Tyr 155, Tyr 187, Tyr 311, Tyr 332, Tyr 512, Tyr 523, and Tyr 565) have been defined as regulatory phosphorylation sites for this protein (rat PKCdelta numbering). We combined doxycycline-regulated inducible gene expression technology with a hypothesis-driven mass spectrometry approach to study PKCdelta phosphorylation pattern in colorectal cancer cells. We report identification of five novel Ser/Thr phosphorylation sites: Thr 50, Thr 141, Ser 304, Thr 451, and Ser 506 (human PKCdelta numbering) following overexpression of PKCdelta in HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells grown in standard tissue culture conditions. Identification of potential novel phosphorylation sites will affect further functional studies of this protein, and may introduce additional complexity to PKCdelta signaling.
Project description:BACKGROUND: An important element in homology modeling is the use of rotamers to parameterize the sidechain conformation. Despite the many libraries of sidechain rotamers that have been developed, a number of rotamers have been overlooked, due to the fact that they involve hydrogen atoms. RESULTS: We identify new, well-populated rotamers that involve the hydroxyl-hydrogen atoms of Ser, Thr and Tyr, and the sulfhydryl-hydrogen atom of Cys, using high-resolution crystal structures (<1.2 A). Although there were refinement artifacts in these structures, comparison with the electron-density maps allowed the placement of hydrogen atoms involved in hydrogen bonds. The chi2 rotamers in Ser, Thr and Cys are consistent with tetrahedral bonding, while the chi3 rotamers in Tyr are consistent with trigonal-planar bonding. Similar rotamers are found in hydrogen atoms that were computationally placed with the Reduce program from the Richardson lab. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of these new rotamers will improve the evaluation of hydrogen-bonding networks in protein structures.