CYP90A1/CPD, a brassinosteroid biosynthetic cytochrome P450 of Arabidopsis, catalyzes C-3 oxidation.
ABSTRACT: Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal phytohormones that regulate plant growth and development. Whereas in Arabidopsis the network-like routes of BR biosynthesis have been elucidated in considerable detail, the roles of some of the biosynthetic enzymes and their participation in the different subpathways remained to be clarified. We investigated the function of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP90A1/CPD, which earlier had been proposed to act as a BR C-23 hydroxylase. Our GC-MS and genetic analyses demonstrated that the cpd mutation arrests BR synthesis upstream of the DET2-mediated 5? reduction step and that overexpression of the C-23 hydroxylase CYP90C1 does not alleviate BR deficiency in the cpd mutant. In line with these results, we found that CYP90A1/CPD heterologously expressed in a baculovirus-insect cell system catalyzes C-3 oxidation of the early BR intermediates (22S)-22-hydroxycampesterol and (22R,23R)-22,23-dihydroxycampesterol, as well as of 6-deoxocathasterone and 6-deoxoteasterone. Enzyme kinetic data of CYP90A1/CPD and DET2, together with those of the earlier studied CYP90B1, CYP90C1, and CYP90D1, suggest that BR biosynthesis proceeds mainly via the campestanol-independent pathway.
Project description:Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential hormones for plant growth and development. Enzymes DET2 and CYP90 family are responsible for BR biosynthesis in seed plants. Yet, their roles in non-seed plants are unknown. Here, we report the first functional study of DET2 and all 4 CYP90 genes isolated from Selaginella moellendorfii. Sm89026 (SmCPD) belonged to a clade with CYP90A1 (CPD) and CYP90B1 (DWF4) while Sm182839, Sm233379 and Sm157387 formed a distinct clade with CYP90C1 (ROT3) and CYP90D1. SmDET2, SmCPD and Sm157387 were highly expressed in both leaves and strobili while Sm233379 was only highly expressed in the leaves but not strobili, implying their differential functions in a tissue-specific manner in S. moellendorfii. We showed that only SmDET2 and SmCPD completely rescued Arabidopsis det2 and cpd mutant phenotypes, respectively, suggestive of their conserved BR biosynthetic functions. However, neither SmCPD nor other CYP90 genes rescued any other cyp90 mutants. Yet overexpression of Sm233379 altered plant fertility and BR response, which means that Sm233379 is not an ortholog of any CYP90 genes in Arabidopsis but appears to have a BR function in the S. moellendorfii leaves. This function is likely turned off during the development of the strobili. Our results suggest a dramatic functional divergence of CYP90 family in the non-seed plants. While some of them are functionally similar to that of seed plants, the others may be functionally distinct from that of seed plants, shedding light for future exploration.
Project description:Brassinosteroids are plant-derived polyhydroxylated derivatives of 5?-cholestane, structurally similar to cholesterol-derived animal steroid hormones and insect ecdysteroids. In this study, we synthesized a set of brassinosteroid analogues of a natural brassinosteroid (22S,23S)-homobrassinolide (HB, 1), including (22S,23S)-homocastasterone (2), (22S,23S)-3?-fluoro-homobrasinolide (3), (22S,23S)-3?-fluoro-homocastasterone (4), (22S,23S)-7-aza-homobrassinolide (5), and (22S,23S)-6-aza-homobrassinolide (6) and studied their anabolic efficacy in the L6 rat skeletal muscle cells in comparison to other synthetic and naturally occurring brassinosteroids (22R,23R)-homobrassinolide (7), (22S,23S)-epibrassinolide (8), and (22R,23R)-epibrassinolide (9). Presence of the 6-keto group in the B ring and stereochemistry of 22?,23?-vicinal hydroxyl groups in the side chain were critical for the anabolic activity, possibly due to higher cytotoxicity of the 22?,23?-hydroxylated brassinosteroids. All anabolic brassinosteroids tested in this study selectively activated PI3K/Akt signaling pathway as evident by increased Akt phosphorylation in vitro. Plant brassinosteroids and their synthetic derivatives may offer a novel therapeutic strategy for promoting growth, repair, and maintenance of skeletal muscles.
Project description:The brassinosteroids (BRs) represent a class of phytohormones, which regulate numerous aspects of growth and development. Here, a det2-9 mutant defective in BR synthesis was identified from an EMS mutant screening for defects in root length, and was used to investigate the role of BR in root development in Arabidopsis. The det2-9 mutant displays a short-root phenotype, which is result from the reduced cell number in root meristem and decreased cell size in root maturation zone. Ethylene synthesis is highly increased in the det2-9 mutant compared with the wild type, resulting in the hyper-accumulation of ethylene and the consequent inhibition of root growth. The short-root phenotype of det2-9 was partially recovered in the det2-9/acs9 double mutant and det2-9/ein3/eil1-1 triple mutant which have defects either in ethylene synthesis or ethylene signaling, respectively. Exogenous application of BR showed that BRs either positively or negatively regulate ethylene biosynthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Different from the BR induced ethylene biosynthesis through stabilizing ACSs stability, we found that the BR signaling transcription factors BES1 and BZR1 directly interacted with the promoters of ACS7, ACS9 and ACS11 to repress their expression, indicating a native regulation mechanism under physiological levels of BR. In addition, the det2-9 mutant displayed over accumulated superoxide anions (O2-) compared with the wild-type control, and the increased O2- level was shown to contribute to the inhibition of root growth. The BR-modulated control over the accumulation of O2- acted via the peroxidase pathway rather than via the NADPH oxidase pathway. This study reveals an important mechanism by which the hormone cross-regulation between BRs and ethylene or/and ROS is involved in controlling root growth and development in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Six new analogues of 1?,25-dihydroxy-19-norvitamin D(3) (3a-4b, 5, and 6) were prepared by a convergent synthesis applying the Wittig-Horner reaction as a key step. The influence of methyl groups at C-22 on their biological activity was examined. It was established that both in vitro and in vivo activity is strongly dependent on the configuration of the stereogenic centers at C-20 and C-22. Introduction of the second methyl group at C-22 (analogues 5 and 6) generates the compounds that are slightly more potent than 1?,25-(OH)(2)D(3) in the in vitro tests but much less potent in vivo. The greatest in vitro and in vivo biological activity was achieved when the C-20 is in the S configuration and the C-22 is in the R configuration. The building blocks for the synthesis, the respective (20R,22R)-, (20R,22S)-, (20S,22R)-, and (20S,22S)-diols, were obtained by fractional crystallization of mixtures of the corresponding diastereomers. Structures and absolute configurations of the diols 21a, 21b, and 22a as well as analogues 3a, 5, and 6 were confirmed by the X-ray crystallography.
Project description:Cytochrome P450scc (P450scc) catalyzes the cleavage of the side chain of both cholesterol and the vitamin D(3) precursor, 7-dehydrocholesterol. The aim of this study was to test the ability of human P450scc to metabolize ergosterol, the vitamin D(2) precursor, and define the structure of the major products. P450scc incorporated into the bilayer of phospholipid vesicles converted ergosterol to two major and four minor products with a k(cat) of 53 mol · min(-1) · mol P450scc(-1) and a K(m) of 0.18 mol ergosterol/mol phospholipid, similar to the values observed for cholesterol metabolism. The reaction of ergosterol with P450scc was scaled up to make enough of the two major products for structural analysis. From mass spectrometry, NMR, and comparison of the NMR data to that for similar molecules, we determined the structures of the two major products as 20-hydroxy-22,23-epoxy-22,23-dihydroergosterol and 22-keto-23-hydroxy-22,23-dihydroergosterol. Molecular modeling and nuclear Overhauser effect (or enhancement) spectroscopy spectra analysis helped to establish the configurations at C20, C22, and C23 and determine the final structures of major products as 22R,23S-epoxyergosta-5,7-diene-3?,20?-diol and 3?,23S-dihydroxyergosta-5,7-dien-22-one. It is likely that the formation of the second product is through a 22,23-epoxy (oxirane) intermediate followed by C22 hydroxylation with the formation of strained 22-hydroxy-22,23-epoxide (oxiranol), which is immediately transformed to the more stable ?-hydroxyketone. Molecular modeling of ergosterol into the P450scc crystal structure positioned the ergosterol side chain consistent with formation of the above products. Thus, we have shown that P450scc efficiently catalyzes epoxide formation with ergosterol giving rise to novel epoxy, hydroxy, and keto derivatives, without causing cleavage of the side chain.
Project description:Repair of DNA lesions must occur within the chromatin landscape and is associated with alterations in histone modifications and nucleosome rearrangement. To directly associate these chromatin features with DNA damage and repair, it is necessary to be able to map DNA adducts. We have developed a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD)-specific immunoprecipitation method and mapped ultraviolet damage hotspots across human chromosomes 1 and 6. CPD hotspots occur almost equally in genic and intergenic regions. However, these hotspots are significantly more prevalent adjacent to repeat elements, especially Alu repeats. Nucleosome mapping studies indicate that nucleosomes are consistently positioned at Alu elements where CPD hotspots form, but by 2 h post-irradiation, these same regions are significantly depleted of nucleosomes. These results indicate that nucleosomes associated with hotspots of CPD formation are readily rearranged, potentially making them accessible to DNA repair machinery. Our results represent the first chromosome scale map of ultraviolet-induced DNA lesions in the human genome, and reveal the sequence features and dynamic chromatin changes associated with CPD hotspots.
Project description:UV-induced DNA lesions are an important contributor to mutagenesis and cancer, but it is not fully understood how the chromosomal landscape influences UV lesion formation and repair. We have used a novel high-throughput sequencing method to precisely map UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) at nucleotide resolution throughout the yeast genome. Analysis of CPD formation reveals that nucleosomal DNA having an inward rotational setting is protected from CPD lesions. In strongly positioned nucleosomes, this nucleosome 'photofootprint' overrides intrinsic dipyrimidine sequence preferences for CPD formation. CPD formation is also inhibited by DNA-bound transcription factors, in effect protecting important DNA elements from UV damage. Analysis of CPD repair revealed a clear signature of efficient transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair. Repair was less efficient at translational positions near a nucleosome dyad and at heterochromatic regions in the yeast genome. These findings define the roles of nucleosomes and transcription factors in UV damage formation and repair. UV mapping data was analyzed for yeast cells irradiated with 125J/m2 and allowed to repair for 0hr (2 samples), 20 minutes, 1 hour, or 2 hours. Data is also included for naked DNA irradiated with UV 60 or 90 J/m2
Project description:Photolyases (PHRs) utilize near UV/blue light to specifically repair the major photoproducts (PPs) of UV-induced damaged DNA. The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD)-PHR binds flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a cofactor and repairs CPD lesions in double-stranded DNA. To understand the activation and repair mechanism of CPD-PHR, we applied light-induced difference Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to CPD-PHR, whose signals were identified by use of isotope-labeling. To further investigate the enzymatic function, here we study the activation and repair mechanism of CPD-PHR with the substrate in single strand DNA, and the obtained FTIR spectra are compared with those in double-stranded DNA, the natural substrate. The difference spectra of photoactivation, the fully-reduced (FADH(-)) minus semiquinone (FADH(•)) spectra, are almost identical in the presence of single strand and double-stranded DNA, except for slight spectral modification in the amide-I region. On the other hand, the difference spectra of photorepair were highly substrate dependent. Strong bands of the C=O stretch (1,720-1,690 cm(-1)) and phosphate vibrations (1,090-1,060 cm(-1)) of double-stranded DNA may have disappeared in the case of single strand DNA. However, an isotope-labeled enzyme study revealed that spectral features upon DNA repair are similar between both substrates, and the main reason for the apparent spectral difference originates from structural flexibility of DNA after repair.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Most continuing professional development (CPD) programmes do not include an educational training module. In our country, educational practice in the areas of CPD and continuing medical education relies traditionally on conventional lectures. This is in sharp contrast to the educational research that clearly demonstrates that educational programmes emphasising adult learning methods have greater potential to change physicians' clinical practice. To investigate whether lecture-oriented educators were prepared to change their educational practice towards principles of adult learning, we decided to combine learning for educators and participants in a paediatric CPD programme. The aim of the study was to investigate educators' reflections on their learning and educational practice after they have undergone an educational skills component integrated in the implementation of a CPD learning module for paediatricians and evaluate the results from the participants' perspective. METHODS:The objectives of the educational skills component of the learning module were developed according to adult learning theories. The learning objectives for the CPD learning module were based on a pre-course needs assessment. Evaluations were made using questionnaires. RESULTS:Seven of 10 participants in the educational skills component of the learning module and all the participants, 13 paediatricians and 14 nurses, who participated in the learning module, answered the questionnaires. The results of this pilot study show that educators whose main experience of teaching was based on lectures were strengthened in their practice; they defined their competence and were prepared to move towards adult learning principles. The participants in the learning module expressed a high degree of satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that it is feasible to combine learning for educators and participants in a paediatric CPD programme and that lecture-oriented educators are prepared to change their educational practice towards principles of adult learning.
Project description:The phytohormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), play important roles in regulating cell elongation and cell size, and BR-related mutants in Arabidopsis display significant dwarf phenotypes. Cellulose is a biopolymer which has a major contribution to cell wall formation during cell expansion and elongation. However, whether BRs regulate cellulose synthesis, and if so, what the underlying mechanism of cell elongation induced by BRs is, is unknown. The content of cellulose and the expression levels of the cellulose synthase genes (CESAs) was measured in BR-related mutants and their wild-type counterpart. The chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) experiments and genetic analysis were used to demonstrate that BRs regulate CESA genes. It was found here that the BR-deficient or BR-perceptional mutants contain less cellulose than the wild type. The expression of CESA genes, especially those related to primary cell wall synthesis, was reduced in det2-1 and bri1-301, and was only inducible by BRs in the BR-deficient mutant det2-1. CHIP experiments show that the BR-activated transcription factor BES1 can associate with upstream elements of most CESA genes particularly those related with the primary cell wall. Furthermore, over-expression of the BR receptor BRI1 in CESA1, 3, and 6 mutants can only partially rescue the dwarf phenotypes. Our findings provide potential insights into the mechanism that BRs regulate cellulose synthesis to accomplish the cell elongation process in plant development.