Nubp1 is required for lung branching morphogenesis and distal progenitor cell survival in mice.
ABSTRACT: The lung is a complex system in biology and medicine alike. Whereas there is a good understanding of the anatomy and histology of the embryonic and adult lung, less is known about the molecular details and the cellular pathways that ultimately orchestrate lung formation and affect its health. From a forward genetic approach to identify novel genes involved in lung formation, we identified a mutated Nubp1 gene, which leads to syndactyly, eye cataract and lung hypoplasia. In the lung, Nubp1 is expressed in progenitor cells of the distal epithelium. Nubp1(m1Nisw) mutants show increased apoptosis accompanied by a loss of the distal progenitor markers Sftpc, Sox9 and Foxp2. In addition, Nubp1 mutation disrupts localization of the polarity protein Par3 and the mitosis relevant protein Numb. Using knock-down studies in lung epithelial cells, we also demonstrate a function of Nubp1 in regulating centrosome dynamics and microtubule organization. Together, Nubp1 represents an essential protein for lung progenitor survival by coordinating vital cellular processes including cell polarity and centrosomal dynamics.
Project description:Cell polarity, mitotic spindle orientation and asymmetric division play a crucial role in the self-renewal/differentiation of epithelial cells, yet little is known about these processes and the molecular programs that control them in embryonic lung distal epithelium. Herein, we provide the first evidence that embryonic lung distal epithelium is polarized with characteristic perpendicular cell divisions. Consistent with these findings, spindle orientation-regulatory proteins Insc, LGN (Gpsm2) and NuMA, and the cell fate determinant Numb are asymmetrically localized in embryonic lung distal epithelium. Interfering with the function of these proteins in vitro randomizes spindle orientation and changes cell fate. We further show that Eya1 protein regulates cell polarity, spindle orientation and the localization of Numb, which inhibits Notch signaling. Hence, Eya1 promotes both perpendicular division as well as Numb asymmetric segregation to one daughter in mitotic distal lung epithelium, probably by controlling aPKC? phosphorylation. Thus, epithelial cell polarity and mitotic spindle orientation are defective after interfering with Eya1 function in vivo or in vitro. In addition, in Eya1(-/-) lungs, perpendicular division is not maintained and Numb is segregated to both daughter cells in mitotic epithelial cells, leading to inactivation of Notch signaling. As Notch signaling promotes progenitor cell identity at the expense of differentiated cell phenotypes, we test whether genetic activation of Notch could rescue the Eya1(-/-) lung phenotype, which is characterized by loss of epithelial progenitors, increased epithelial differentiation but reduced branching. Indeed, genetic activation of Notch partially rescues Eya1(-/-) lung epithelial defects. These findings uncover novel functions for Eya1 as a crucial regulator of the complex behavior of distal embryonic lung epithelium.
Project description:A proper balance between self-renewal and differentiation of lung-specific progenitors at the distal epithelial tips is absolutely required for normal lung morphogenesis. Cell polarity and mitotic spindle orientation play a critical role in the self-renewal/differentiation of epithelial cells and can impact normal physiological processes, including epithelial tissue branching and differentiation. Therefore, understanding the behavior of lung distal epithelial progenitors could identify innovative solutions to restoring normal lung morphogenesis. Yet little is known about cell polarity, spindle orientation, and segregation of cell fate determinant in the embryonic lung epithelium, which contains progenitor cells. Herein, we provide the first evidence that embryonic lung distal epithelium is polarized and highly mitotic with characteristic perpendicular cell divisions. Consistent with these findings, mInsc, LGN, and NuMA polarity proteins, which control spindle orientation, are asymmetrically localized in mitotic distal epithelial progenitors of embryonic lungs. Furthermore, the cell fate determinant Numb is asymmetrically distributed at the apical side of distal epithelial progenitors and segregated to one daughter cell in most mitotic cells. These findings provide evidence for polarity in distal epithelial progenitors of embryonic lungs and provide a framework for future translationally oriented studies in this area.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which can be caused by aberrant tyrosine kinase signalling, marks epithelial tumour progression and metastasis, yet the underlying molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we report that Numb interacts with E-cadherin (E-cad) through its phosphotyrosine-binding domain (PTB) and thereby regulates the localization of E-cad to the lateral domain of epithelial cell-cell junction. Moreover, Numb engages the polarity complex Par3-aPKC-Par6 by binding to Par3 in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Intriguingly, after Src activation or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) treatment, Numb decouples from E-cad and Par3 and associates preferably with aPKC-Par6. Binding of Numb to aPKC is necessary for sequestering the latter in the cytosol during HGF-induced EMT. Knockdown of Numb by small hairpin RNA caused a basolateral-to-apicolateral translocation of E-cad and beta-catenin accompanied by elevated actin polymerization, accumulation of Par3 and aPKC in the nucleus, an enhanced sensitivity to HGF-induced cell scattering, a decrease in cell-cell adhesion, and an increase in cell migration. Our work identifies Numb as an important regulator of epithelial polarity and cell-cell adhesion and a sensor of HGF signalling or Src activity during EMT.
Project description:The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into ?-amyloid peptide (A?) is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and trafficking dysregulations of APP and its secretases contribute significantly to altered APP processing. Here we show that the cell polarity protein Par3 plays an important role in APP processing and trafficking. We found that the expression of full length Par3 is significantly decreased in AD patients. Overexpression of Par3 promotes non-amyloidogenic APP processing, while depletion of Par3 induces intracellular accumulation of A?. We further show that Par3 functions by regulating APP trafficking. Loss of Par3 decreases surface expression of APP by targeting APP to the late endosome/lysosome pathway. Finally, we show that the effects of Par3 are mediated through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb, and Par3 functions by interfering with the interaction between Numb and APP. Together, our studies show a novel role for Par3 in regulating APP processing and trafficking.
Project description:The Aurora kinases are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that perform important functions during the cell cycle. Recently, it was shown that Drosophila Aurora A also regulates the asymmetric localization of Numb to the basal and the partitioning-defective (Par) complex to the apical cortex of neuroblasts by phosphorylating Par6. Here, we show that Aurora A is required for neuronal polarity. Suppression of Aurora A by RNA interference results in the loss of neuronal polarity. Aurora A interacts directly with the atypical protein kinase C binding domain of Par3 and phosphorylates it at serine 962. The phosphorylation of Par3 at serine 962 contributes to its function in the establishment of neuronal polarity.
Project description:Collectively, lung diseases are one of the largest causes of premature death worldwide and represent a major focus in the field of regenerative medicine. Despite significant progress, only few stem cell platforms are currently available for cell-based therapy, disease modeling, and drug screening in the context of pulmonary disorders. Human foregut stem cells (hFSCs) represent an advantageous progenitor cell type that can be used to amplify large quantities of cells for regenerative medicine applications and can be derived from any human pluripotent stem cell line. Here, we further demonstrate the application of hFSCs by generating a near homogeneous population of early pulmonary endoderm cells coexpressing NKX2.1 and FOXP2. These progenitors are then able to form cells that are representative of distal airway epithelium that express NKX2.1, GATA6, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and secrete SFTPC. This culture system can be applied to hFSCs carrying the CFTR mutation ?f508, enabling the development of an in vitro model for cystic fibrosis. This platform is compatible with drug screening and functional validations of small molecules, which can reverse the phenotype associated with CFTR mutation. This is the first demonstration that multipotent endoderm stem cells can differentiate not only into both liver and pancreatic cells but also into lung endoderm. Furthermore, our study establishes a new approach for the generation of functional lung cells that can be used for disease modeling as well as for drug screening and the study of lung development.
Project description:par3 is a multiple-PDZ-containing scaffold protein that is central to the organization of an evolutionarily conserved cell polarity complex consisting of par3, par6, and aPKC. The ability of par3 PDZ domains to target various adhesion molecules and enzymes at the plasma membrane leads to the controlled localization of par6 and aPKC, which has firmly established its role in epithelial cell polarity. Of the numerous PDZ ligands associated with par3, interaction of its third PDZ domain with the class II ligand found within the C-terminal tail of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-Cad) suggests a role in endothelial cell polarity as well, but the molecular details of the interaction are unknown. Previously determined structures of par3-PDZ3 bound to the class I ligand found within the C-terminal tail of the phosphoinositide phosphatase PTEN revealed two discrete binding sites: a canonical PDZ-ligand interaction site and a distal site involving charge-charge complements. Currently, it is unclear if par3-PDZ3 employs both canonical and distal binding modes in its association with VE-Cad or if these modes are unique to the PTEN interaction, suggesting a possible mechanism for ligand specificity within the polarity network. The structure of par3-PDZ3 bound to the C-terminal tail of VE-Cad presented in this work shows that both canonical and distal interactions are utilized in binding. Biophysical measurements using fluorescence polarization and two-dimensional NMR implicate the intermolecular charge pairing of aspartic acid 777 (VE-Cad) and arginine 609 (par3-PDZ3) as a crucial modulator of complex formation. Phosphorylation of VE-Cad at serine 776 increases its affinity for par3, demonstrating that post-translational modifications outside of the canonical carboxylate binding site can enhance PDZ-ligand interactions. Comparison of the VE-Cad and PTEN complexes highlights how the unique molecular architecture of par3-PDZ3 can accommodate both canonical and distal interaction modes that allow dual-class specificity for these two ligand types.
Project description:Numb functions in progenitor cell fate determination and early development, but it is also expressed in postdevelopmental tissues and cancers where its role is unclear. In this study, we report that a targeted knockdown of Numb expression causes a G(2)-M arrest and reduced cell growth in human melanoma cells. Co-immunoprecipitation and colocalization studies showed that Numb interacts with the serine/threonine polo-like kinase Plk1 and Numb cycles in a cell-cycle-dependent fashion along with this mitotic regulator. Interestingly, Numb expression was required for Plk1 protein stability and localization to the spindle poles during mitosis. Reduction in Numb expression resulted in mislocalization of Plk1 at both metaphase and anaphase, leading to disorganized ?-tubulin recruitment in centrosomes. Together, our findings present a novel function for Numb during symmetric cell division. We suggest that dysregulation of Numb expression results in mislocalized Plk1 and poor centrosomal ?-tubulin recruitment, potentially contributing to mitotic errors, aneuploidy, and cancer development.
Project description:The centrosome contains two centrioles that differ in age, protein composition and function. This non-membrane bound organelle is known to regulate microtubule organization in dividing cells and ciliogenesis in quiescent cells. These specific roles depend on protein appendages at the older, or mother, centriole. In this study, we identified the polarity protein partitioning defective 6 homolog gamma (Par6γ) as a novel component of the mother centriole. This specific localization required the Par6γ C-terminus, but was independent of intact microtubules, the dynein/dynactin complex and the components of the PAR polarity complex. Par6γ depletion resulted in altered centrosomal protein composition, with the loss of a large number of proteins, including Par6α and p150(Glued), from the centrosome. As a consequence, there were defects in ciliogenesis, microtubule organization and centrosome reorientation during migration. Par6γ interacted with Par3 and aPKC, but these proteins were not required for the regulation of centrosomal protein composition. Par6γ also associated with Par6α, which controls protein recruitment to the centrosome through p150(Glued). Our study is the first to identify Par6γ as a component of the mother centriole and to report a role of a mother centriole protein in the regulation of centrosomal protein composition.
Project description:During asymmetric stem cell division, polarization of the cell cortex targets fate determinants unequally into the sibling daughters, leading to regeneration of a stem cell and production of a progenitor cell with restricted developmental potential. In mitotic neural stem cells (neuroblasts) in fly larval brains, the antagonistic interaction between the polarity proteins Lethal (2) giant larvae (Lgl) and atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC) ensures self-renewal of a daughter neuroblast and generation of a progenitor cell by regulating asymmetric segregation of fate determinants. In the absence of lgl function, elevated cortical aPKC kinase activity perturbs unequal partitioning of the fate determinants including Numb and induces supernumerary neuroblasts in larval brains. However, whether increased aPKC function triggers formation of excess neuroblasts by inactivating Numb remains controversial. To investigate how increased cortical aPKC function induces formation of excess neuroblasts, we analyzed the fate of cells in neuroblast lineage clones in lgl mutant brains. Surprisingly, our analyses revealed that neuroblasts in lgl mutant brains undergo asymmetric division to produce progenitor cells, which then revert back into neuroblasts. In lgl mutant brains, Numb remained localized in the cortex of mitotic neuroblasts and failed to segregate exclusively into the progenitor cell following completion of asymmetric division. These results led us to propose that elevated aPKC function in the cortex of mitotic neuroblasts reduces the function of Numb in the future progenitor cells. We identified that the acyl-CoA binding domain containing 3 protein (ACBD3) binding region is essential for asymmetric segregation of Numb in mitotic neuroblasts and suppression of the supernumerary neuroblast phenotype induced by increased aPKC function. The ACBD3 binding region of Numb harbors two aPKC phosphorylation sites, serines 48 and 52. Surprisingly, while the phosphorylation status at these two sites directly impinged on asymmetric segregation of Numb in mitotic neuroblasts, both the phosphomimetic and non-phosphorylatable forms of Numb suppressed formation of excess neuroblasts triggered by increased cortical aPKC function. Thus, we propose that precise regulation of cortical aPKC kinase activity distinguishes the sibling cell identity in part by ensuring asymmetric partitioning of Numb into the future progenitor cell where Numb maintains restricted potential independently of regulation by aPKC.