Conjugated linoleic acid isomers modulate protein expression profile in rat hepatocytes.
ABSTRACT: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid, which has been recently proven to be effective in reducing body fat mass, but brings as a side effect, the liver enlargement due to an increased lipid content. The in vivo lipogenic activity has been suggested to be due to the reduction in fat mass and to the consequent metabolism of blood glucose to fatty acid in the liver rather than in the adipose tissue. We investigated the ability of CLA to directly induce steatosis by modulating the expression pattern of hepatic proteins involved in lipid metabolism. To avoid interferences derived from CLA metabolism by other tissues, we used the in vitro model of freshly isolated rat hepatocytes incubated in the presence of different CLA isomers. The direct effect of CLA on lipid accumulation in hepatocytes was demonstrated by the altered expression pattern of several proteins involved in lipid metabolism, as assessed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and confirmed by Western blotting analysis. The CLA isomer c9,t11 was most effective in modulating the protein expression profile.
Project description:Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are dietary fatty acids. Whereas cis-9,trans-11-(c9,t11)-CLA can be found in meat and dairy products, trans-9,trans-11-(t9,t11)-CLA is a constituent of vegetable oils. Previous studies showed that these two isomers activate different nuclear receptors and, thus, expression of genes related to lipid metabolism. Here we show that these CLA isomers are differentially elongated and desaturated in primary monocyte-derived macrophages isolated from healthy volunteers by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We further demonstrate that c9,t11-CLA incorporates in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) species and activates de novo glycerophospholipid synthesis by quantitative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). c9,t11-CLA leads to strong shifts of the species profiles to PC 18:2/18:2 and PE 18:2/18:2, which are due to de novo synthesis and fatty acid remodeling. In contrast, t9,t11-CLA is preferentially bound to neutral lipids, including triglycerides and cholesterol esters. Taken together our results show that c9,t11-CLA and t9,t11-CLA have differential effects on PC and PE metabolism. Moreover, these data demonstrate that the structure of fatty acids not only determines their incorporation into lipid classes but also modulates the kinetics of lipid metabolism, particularly PC synthesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in general, and in particular the trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12-CLA) isomer are potent modulators of milk fat synthesis in dairy cows. Studies in rodents, such as mice, have revealed that t10,c12-CLA is responsible for hepatic lipodystrophy and decreased adipose tissue with subsequent changes in the fatty acid distribution. The present study aimed to investigate the fatty acid distribution of lipids in several body tissues compared to their distribution in milk fat in early lactating cows in response to CLA treatment. Effects in mammary gland are further analyzed at gene expression level. METHODS: Twenty-five Holstein heifers were fed a diet supplemented with (CLA groups) or without (CON groups) a rumen-protected CLA supplement that provided 6 g/d of c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA. Five groups of randomly assigned cows were analyzed according to experimental design based on feeding and time of slaughter. Cows in the first group received no CLA supplement and were slaughtered one day postpartum (CON0). Milk samples were taken from the remaining cows in CON and CLA groups until slaughter at 42 (period 1) and 105 (period 2) days in milk (DIM). Immediately after slaughter, tissue samples from liver, retroperitoneal fat, mammary gland and M. longissimus (13th rib) were obtained and analyzed for fatty acid distribution. Relevant genes involved in lipid metabolism of the mammary gland were analyzed using a custom-made microarray platform. RESULTS: Both supplemented CLA isomers increased significantly in milk fat. Furthermore, preformed fatty acids increased at the expense of de novo-synthesized fatty acids. Total and single trans-octadecenoic acids (e.g., t10-18:1 and t11-18:1) also significantly increased. Fatty acid distribution of the mammary gland showed similar changes to those in milk fat, due mainly to residual milk but without affecting gene expression. Liver fatty acids were not altered except for trans-octadecenoic acids, which were increased. Adipose tissue and M. longissimus were only marginally affected by CLA supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: Daily supplementation with CLA led to typical alterations usually observed in milk fat depression (reduction of de novo-synthesized fatty acids) but only marginally affected tissue lipids. Gene expression of the mammary gland was not influenced by CLA supplementation.
Project description:The individual genetic variations, as a response to diet, have recently caught the attention of several researchers. In addition, there is also a trend to assume food containing beneficial substances, or to supplement food with specific compounds. Among these, there is the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which has been demonstrated to reduce fat mass and to increase lean mass, even though its mechanism of action is still not known. We investigated the effect of CLA isomers (CLA c9,t11 and CLA t10,c12) on the proteomic profile of liver, adipose tissue, and muscle of mouse, with the aim of verifying the presence of a modification in fat and lean mass, and to explore the mechanism of action.C57/BL6 mice were fed for 2 months with different diets: (1) standard chow, (2) CLA c9,t11 diet, (3) CLA t10,c11 diet, (4) CLA isomers mixture diet, and (5) linoleic acid diet. The proteomic profile of liver, white adipose tissue, and muscle was investigated. Statistical significance of the spots with an intensity higher than twofold in expression compared to the control was tested using student's t test (two-tail).We found that both isomers modulate the proteomic profiles of liver, adipose tissue, and muscle by different mechanisms of action. Liver steatosis is mostly due to the isomer CLA t10,c12, since it alters the expression of lipogenetic proteins; it acts also reducing the adipose tissue and increasing fatty acid oxidation in muscle. Conversely, CLA c9,t11 has no relevant effects on liver and adipose tissue, but acts mostly on muscle, where it enhances muscular cell differentiation.Administration of CLA in humans has to be carefully personalized, since even considering the presence of a species-specific effect, adverse effects might occur on long-term supplementation. Here we demonstrated that, in mouse, CLA is effective in reducing fat mass, but it also induces liver steatosis. The increase of lean mass is linked to an induction of cell proliferation, which, on long-term supplementation, might also lead to adverse effects.
Project description:Conjugated linoleic acid was detected in rabbit caecotrophs, due to the presence of microbial lipid activity in rabbit cecum. However, the effect of CLA as a functional food in growing rabbit is not well established. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of CLA on production, meat quality, and its nutrigenomic effect on edible parts of rabbit carcass including skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Therefore, seventy five weaned V-Line male rabbits, 30 days old, were randomly allocated into three dietary treatments receiving either basal control diet, diet supplemented with 0.5% (CLAL), or 1% CLA (CLAH). Total experimental period (63 d) was segmented into 7 days adaptation and 56 days experimental period. Dietary supplementation of CLA did not alter growth performance, however, the fat percentage of longissimus lumborum muscle was decreased, with an increase in protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) and mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were not increased in CLA treated groups. There was tissue specific sensing of CLA, since subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression of PPARA was downregulated, however, CPT1A tended to be upregulated in liver of CLAL group only (P = 0.09). In skeletal muscle, FASN and PPARG were upregulated in CLAH group only (P ?0.01). Marked cytoplasmic vacuolation was noticed in liver of CLAH group without altering hepatocyte structure. Adipocyte size was decreased in CLA fed groups, in a dose dependent manner (P <0.01). Cell proliferation determined by PCNA was lower (P <0.01) in adipose tissue of CLA groups. Our data indicate that dietary supplementation of CLA (c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12- CLA) at a dose of 0.5% in growing rabbit diet produce rabbit meat rich in PUFA and lower fat % without altering growth performance and hepatocyte structure.
Project description:Background:trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12-CLA) is a dietary supplement that promotes weight loss by increasing fat oxidation and energy expenditure. We previously reported that in the absence of t10,c12-CLA, mice forced to lose equivalent body weight by food restriction (FR) do not exhibit increases in fat oxidation or energy expenditure but have improved glucose metabolism, consistent with FR as a metabolically healthy weight-loss method. Objective:Because diet is a primary determinant of gut bacterial populations, we hypothesized that the disparate metabolic effects accompanying weight loss from t10,c12-CLA or FR could be related to altered intestinal microbiota. Methods:Ten-week-old male LDL receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/-) mice were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHS; 36% lard fat, 36.2% sucrose + 0.15% cholesterol) for 12 wk (baseline), then switched to the HFHS diet alone (obese control), HFHS + 1% c9,t11-CLA (obese fatty acid control), HFHS + 1% t10,c12-CLA (weight-loss-inducing fatty acid), or HFHS + FR (weight-loss control group with 75-85% ad libitum HFHS food intake) for a further 8 wk. Fecal microbial content, short-chain fatty acids (butyrate, acetate), tissue CLA concentrations, and intestinal nutrient transporter expression were quantified. Results:Mice fed t10,c12-CLA or assigned to FR lost 14.5% of baseline body weight. t10,c12-CLA-fed mice had elevated concentrations of fecal butyrate (2-fold) and plasma acetate (1.5-fold) compared with HFHS-fed controls. Fecal ? diversity decreased by 7.6-14% in all groups. Butyrivibrio and Roseburia, butyrate-producing microbes, were enriched over time by t10,c12-CLA. By comparing with each control group, we also identified bacterial genera significantly enriched in the t10,c12-CLA recipients, including Lactobacillus, Actinobacteria, and the newly identified Ileibacterium valens of the Allobaculum genus, whereas other taxa were enriched by FR, including Clostridiales and Bacteroides. Conclusion:Modalities resulting in equivalent weight loss but with divergent metabolic effects are associated with compositional differences in the mouse intestinal microbiota.
Project description:Results from different trails have provided evidence of protective effects of cis-9,trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on cardiovascular diseases. But the inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase 1 (PHD1) associated with induction of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) by CLA in these protective effects has never been reported before. The objective of this study was to evaluate if the two predominant cis-9,trans-11 (c9, t11), trans-10,cis-12 (t10, c12) CLA isomers and mixture of these two isomers can inhibit PHD1 with induction of HIFs in myocardium in mice and subsequent effects on myocardium metabolism.CLA mixture and c9, t11 CLA inhibited PHD1 protein expression and increased the levels of protein and mRNA in HIF-2? in myocardium in mice. Meanwhile, CLA mixture and c9, t11 CLA also elevated the expression of HIF related transcriptional factors like PDK4 and PPAR?. The reprogramming of basal metabolism in myocardium in mice was shown on increasing of GLUT4 gene expression by c9, t11 CLA supplemented group. UCP2 was increased by CLA mixture and c9, t11 CLA for attenuating production of ROS.CLA mixture and c9, t11 CLA could inhibit PHD1 and induce HIF-2? in myocardium in mice, which is associated with upregulation of PDK4 by activation of PPAR?. This process also implies a reprogramming of basal metabolism and oxidative damage protection in myocardium in mice. All the effects shown in hearts of mice are due to c9, t11 CLA but not t10, c12 CLA.
Project description:Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid obtained from ruminant products. Previous studies in rats and pigs showed that a dietary equimolar mixture of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers induces changes in serum and tissue levels of retinoids (vitamin A derivatives). However, the mechanism(s) responsible for these actions remain(s) unexplored. Given the numerous crucial biological functions regulated by retinoids, it is key to establish whether the perturbations in retinoid metabolism induced by dietary CLA mediate some of the beneficial effects associated with intake of this fatty acid or, rather, have adverse consequences on health. To address this important biological question, we began to explore the mechanisms through which dietary CLA alters retinoid metabolism. By using enriched preparations of CLA c9,t11 or CLA t10,c12, we uncoupled the effects of these two CLA isomers on retinoid metabolism. Specifically, we show that both isomers induce hepatic retinyl ester accumulation. However, only CLA t10,c12 enhances hepatic retinol secretion, resulting in increased serum levels of retinol and its specific carrier, retinol-binding protein (RBP). Dietary CLA t10,c12 also redistributes retinoids from the hepatic stores toward the adipose tissue and possibly stimulates hepatic retinoid oxidation. Using mice lacking RBP, we also demonstrate that this key protein in retinoid metabolism mediates hepatic retinol secretion and its redistribution toward fat tissue induced by CLA t10,c12 supplementation.
Project description:To assess strains of lactobacilli for their capacity to produce functional fatty acid-conjugated linoleic acid. To assess the linoleate isomerase for CLA production in the most efficient CLA producer.In this study, strains of food-derived lactobacilli were cultured in media with linoleic acid and CLA production was assessed. Most of the selected strains produced CLA at different levels, with Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 being the most efficient CLA producer converting over 50% of linoleic acid to c9, t11-CLA and t9, t11-CLA. Some intermediates 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid, 10-oxo-cis-12-octadecenoic acid and 10-oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid were determined via GC-MS. The genes coding the multicomponent linoleate isomerase containing myosin-cross-reactive antigen, short-chain dehydrogenase/oxidoreductase and acetoacetate decarboxylase for CLA production in Lact. plantarum ZS2058 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. With the mixture of recombinant E. coli, c9, t11-CLA and three kinds of intermediates were produced from linoleic acid, which were in line with those in the lactobacilli.The ability for CLA production by lactobacilli exhibited variation. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lact. bulgaricus were the most efficient producers in the selected strains. Lact. plantarum ZS2058 converted linoleic acid to CLAs with 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid, 10-oxo-cis-12-octadecenoic acid and 10-oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid as intermediates. The multiple-step reactions for CLA production catalysed by multicomponent linoleate isomerase in Lact. plantarum ZS2058 were confirmed successfully.Multicomponent linoleate isomerase provides important results for the illustration of the mechanism for CLA production in lactic acid bacteria. Food-derived lactobacilli with CLA production ability offers novel opportunities for functional foods development.
Project description:Goat fat is one of the best sources of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid which has health benefits. However, though CLA is generated in ruminants, CLA consumption is limited to meats and milk products. This study aimed to replace vegetable fat with goat milk fat enriched with CLA. From differing fat sources, four cookie recipes were developed: CVF-vegetable fat cookies; CB-butter cookies; CG-goat milk fat cookies without CLA; CGCLA-goat milk fat cookies with CLA. The cookies were evaluated using physical (color and texture), physical-chemical parameters (lipids, proteins, total sugars, fiber, ash, moisture and Aw), consumer testing (n = 123), and lipid profiles. The CGCLA presented higher values in the color parameters. The highest and the lowest scores obtained for hardness were respectively 5.54 (CB) and 2.21 (CVF). Lipids and total sugars varied inversely; the highest percentages of lipids were in the CVF and CG samples which obtained lower total sugar content. There were no differences in acceptance or preference for the four formulations. The goat cream formulations (CG and CGCLA) were as well accepted as the CFV formulation. For lipid profiles, CFV presented the highest percentage of trans-fatty acids (TFA) at 16.76%. CGCLA presented 70% more CLA than either CB or CG, certifying that CGCLA presents CLA in relevant quantities, even after cooking. The CGCLA presented higher levels of CLA, and in this study it was verified that goat milk cream enriched with CLA can be used in producing cookies, adding functional and nutritional properties, and offering another alternative(s) to produce food from goat milk fat.
Project description:The effects of maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on embryonic development and hepatic lipid metabolism were investigated in chick embryos. A total of 180 Arbor Acres female broiler breeders (36 wk old) were randomly divided into the following 3 dietary treatment groups: a basic diet (control), a basic diet containing 0.5% CLA (CLA1), and a basic diet containing 1.0% CLA (CLA2). The females were fed for 8 wk, and the eggs from each group were collected and hatched during the last 2 wk. The results showed that the addition of dietary CLA increased the broken egg rate and reduced the fertilization rate and the egg hatchability (P < 0.05). CLA enrichment decreased the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and increased the saturated fatty acids in the yolk sac (P < 0.05). The yolk sac weight, body weight, and body length had a linear decrease with CLA supplementation (P < 0.05). In the developing chick embryo (at E14) and newly hatched chick (D0), the serum triglyceride concentration decreased with maternal CLA supplementation and was accompanied by a reduction in subcutaneous adipose tissue deposition. In addition, maternal CLA supplementation mediated the hepatic lipid metabolism by decreasing the mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins-1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and increasing the mRNA expression of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase ? (AMPK?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR?), liver fatty acid-binding protein, adipose triglyceride lipase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase in embryonic chick livers (P < 0.05). A drop in SREBP-1c protein expression and an increase in the protein expression of p-AMPK? and PPAR? were also observed in the liver of chick embryo (P < 0.05). In conclusion, maternal CLA supplementation regulated the fatty acid composition in the yolk sac, and mediated embryonic chick development and hepatic lipometabolism, and these effects may be related to the AMPK pathway. These findings suggest the potential ability of maternal CLA supplementation to reduce fat deposition in chick embryos.