Human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells cultured as spheroids are self-activated to produce prostaglandin E2 that directs stimulated macrophages into an anti-inflammatory phenotype.
ABSTRACT: Culturing cells in three dimension (3D) provides an insight into their characteristics in vivo. We previously reported that human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) cultured as 3D spheroids acquire enhanced anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we explored the effects of hMSC spheroids on macrophages that are critical cells in the regulation of inflammation. Conditioned medium (CM) from hMSC spheroids inhibited lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages from secreting proinflammatory cytokines TNF?, CXCL2, IL6, IL12p40, and IL23. CM also increased the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL10 and IL1ra by the stimulated macrophages, and augmented expression of CD206, a marker of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. The principal anti-inflammatory activity in CM had a small molecular weight, and microarray data suggested that it was prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). This was confirmed by the observations that PGE2 levels were markedly elevated in hMSC spheroid-CM, and that the anti-inflammatory activity was abolished by an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a silencing RNA for COX-2, and an antibody to PGE2. The anti-inflammatory effects of the PGE2 on stimulated macrophages were mediated by the EP4 receptor. Spheroids formed by human adult dermal fibroblasts produced low levels of PGE2 and displayed negligible anti-inflammatory effects on stimulated macrophages, suggesting the features as unique to hMSCs. Moreover, production of PGE2 by hMSC spheroids was dependent on the activity of caspases and NF?B activation in the hMSCs. The results indicated that hMSCs in 3D-spheroid cultures are self-activated, in part by intracellular stress responses, to produce PGE2 that can change stimulated macrophages from a primarily proinflammatory M1 phenotype to a more anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype.
Project description:Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are widely used in clinical research because of their multipotential, immunomodulatory, and reparative properties. Previous studies determined that hMSC spheroids from a three-dimensional (3D) culture possess higher therapeutic efficacy than conventional hMSCs from a monolayer (2D) culture. To date, various 3D culture methods have been developed to form hMSC spheroids but most of them used culture medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS), which is not suitable for further clinical use. Here, we demonstrate that dissociated single MSCs seeded in induced pluripotent stem medium (MiPS) adhere loosely to the dish and spontaneously migrate to form spheroids during day 3 to day 6. Through component deletion screening and complementation experiments, the knockout serum replacement (KSR) was identified as necessary and sufficient for hMSC spheroid formation. Transcriptome analysis showed that the overall expression profiles were highly similar between 2D culture with FBS and KSR-derived spheroids. Interestingly, genes related to inflammatory response, immune response, and angiogenesis were upregulated in spheroids at day 6 and qPCR results further validated the increased expression level of related genes, including STC1, CCL7, HGF, IL24, and TGFB3. When spheroids were replated in normal FBS medium, cells formed a typical spindle-shaped morphology and FACS results showed that the recovered cells retained MSC-specific surface markers, such as CD73, CD90, and CD105. In summary, we developed a practical and convenient method to generate hMSC spheroids for clinical research and therapy.
Project description:Culture-expanded human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are increasingly used in a variety of preclinical and clinical studies. However, these cells have a low rate of engraftment to bone marrow or damaged tissues. Several laboratories have shown that during isolation and subculturing mesenchymal stem cells quickly lose the expression of CXCR4, the key receptor responsible for lymphocytes and hematopoietic stem cell homing. Here we show that culturing of hMSCs as three-dimensional aggregates (hMSC spheroids) restores CXCR4 functional expression. Expression of CXCR4 inversely correlates with the secretion of SDF-1 by hMSCs. Cells from hMSC spheroids up-regulate expression of CD49b, the alpha2 integrin subunit, and suppress the expression of CD49d, the alpha4 integrin subunit. Transfer of cells from the spheroids back to a monolayer suppresses the expression of CXCR4 and CD49b and restores the expression of CD49d. Treatment of cells from the spheroids with SDF-1 leads to CXCR4 internalization and activation of ERK-1,2. Adhesion of hMSCs to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. SDF-1, AMD-3100, or exposure of HUVECs to hypoxia did not affect adhesion of hMSCs from a monolayer to HUVECs. Adhesion of cells from hMSC spheroids to HUVECs was stimulated by SDF-1, AMD-3100, or by exposure of HUVECs to hypoxia. Stimulatory effects of hypoxia and addition of SDF-1 or AMD-3100 were not additive. Overall, our data indicate that the expression of CXCR4 by hMSCs regulates hMSC adhesion to endothelial cells.
Project description:: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are being increasingly pursued as potential therapies for immune-mediated conditions, including multiple sclerosis. Although they can suppress human Th1 responses, they reportedly can reciprocally enhance human Th17 responses. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the capacity of hMSCs to modulate human Th1 and Th17 responses. Human adult bone marrow-derived MSCs were isolated, and their purity and differentiation capacity were confirmed. Human venous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were activated, alone, together with hMSC, or in the presence of hMSC-derived supernatants (sups). Cytokine expression by CD4+ T-cell subsets (intracellular staining by fluorescence-activated cell sorting) and secreted cytokines (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were then quantified. The contribution of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as well as of myeloid cells to the hMSC-mediated regulation of T-cell responses was investigated by selective depletion of PGE2 from the hMSC sups (anti-PGE2 beads) and by the selective removal of CD14+ cells from the PBMC (magnetic-activated cell sorting separation). Human MSC-secreted products could reciprocally induce interleukin-17 expression while decreasing interferon-? expression by human CD4+ T cells, both in coculture and through soluble products. Pre-exposure of hMSCs to IL-1? accentuated their capacity to reciprocally regulate Th1 and Th17 responses. Human MSCs secreted high levels of PGE2, which correlated with their capacity to regulate the T-cell responses. Selective removal of PGE2 from the hMSC supernatants abrogated the impact of hMSC on the T cells. Selective removal of CD14+ cells from the PBMCs also limited the capacity of hMSC-secreted PGE2 to affect T-cell responses. Our discovery of a novel PGE2-dependent and myeloid cell-mediated mechanism by which human MSCs can reciprocally induce human Th17 while suppressing Th1 responses has implications for the use of, as well as monitoring of, MSCs as a potential therapeutic for patients with multiple sclerosis and other immune-mediated diseases.Although animal studies have generated a growing interest in the anti-inflammatory potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, MSCs possess the capacity to both limit and promote immune responses. Yet relatively little is known about human-MSC modulation of human disease-implicated T-cell responses, or the mechanisms underlying such modulation. The current study reveals a novel prostaglandin E2-dependent and myeloid cell-mediated mechanism by which human MSCs can reciprocally regulate human Th17 and Th1 responses, with implications for the use of MSCs as a potential therapeutic for patients with multiple sclerosis and other immune-mediated diseases.
Project description:Exposure to high levels of oxygen (hyperoxia) after birth leads to lung injury. Our aims were to investigate the modulation of myeloid cell sub-populations and the reduction of fibrosis in the lungs following administration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) to neonatal mice exposed to hyperoxia.Newborn mice were exposed to 90% O2 (hyperoxia) or 21% O2 (normoxia) from postnatal days 0-4. A sub-group of hyperoxia mice were injected intratracheally with 2.5X105 hMSCs. Using flow cytometry we assessed pulmonary immune cells at postnatal days 0, 4, 7 and 14. The following markers were chosen to identify these cells: CD45+ (leukocytes), Ly6C+Ly6G+ (granulocytes), CD11b+CD11c+ (macrophages); macrophage polarisation was assessed by F4/80 and CD206 expression. hMSCs expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and firefly luciferase (fluc) were administered via the trachea at day 4. Lung macrophages in all groups were profiled using next generation sequencing (NGS) to assess alterations in macrophage phenotype. Pulmonary collagen deposition and morphometry were assessed at days 14 and 56 respectively.At day 4, hyperoxia increased the number of pulmonary Ly6C+Ly6G+ granulocytes and F4/80lowCD206low macrophages but decreased F4/80highCD206high macrophages. At days 7 and 14, hyperoxia increased numbers of CD45+ leukocytes, CD11b+CD11c+ alveolar macrophages and F4/80lowCD206low macrophages but decreased F4/80highCD206high macrophages. hMSCs administration ameliorated these effects of hyperoxia, notably reducing numbers of CD11b+CD11c+ and F4/80lowCD206low macrophages; in contrast, F4/80highCD206high macrophages were increased. Genes characteristic of anti-inflammatory 'M2' macrophages (Arg1, Stat6, Retnla, Mrc1, Il27ra, Chil3, and Il12b) were up-regulated, and pro-inflammatory 'M1' macrophages (Cd86, Stat1, Socs3, Slamf1, Tnf, Fcgr1, Il12b, Il6, Il1b, and Il27ra) were downregulated in isolated lung macrophages from hyperoxia-exposed mice administered hMSCs, compared to mice without hMSCs. Hydroxyproline assay at day 14 showed that the 2-fold increase in lung collagen following hyperoxia was reduced to control levels in mice administered hMSCs. By day 56 (early adulthood), hMSC administration had attenuated structural changes in hyperoxia-exposed lungs.Our findings suggest that hMSCs reduce neonatal lung injury caused by hyperoxia by modulation of macrophage phenotype. Not only did our cell-based therapy using hMSC induce structural repair, it limited the progression of pulmonary fibrosis.
Project description:Previous reports suggested that culture as 3D aggregates or as spheroids can increase the therapeutic potential of the adult stem/progenitor cells referred to as mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Here we used a hanging drop protocol to prepare human MSCs (hMSCs) as spheroids that maximally expressed TNFalpha stimulated gene/protein 6 (TSG-6), the antiinflammatory protein that was expressed at high levels by hMSCs trapped in the lung after i.v. infusion and that largely explained the beneficial effects of hMSCs in mice with myocardial infarcts. The properties of spheroid hMSCs were found to depend critically on the culture conditions. Under optimal conditions for expression of TSG-6, the hMSCs also expressed high levels of stanniocalcin-1, a protein with both antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. In addition, they expressed high levels of three anticancer proteins: IL-24, TNFalpha-related apoptosis inducing ligand, and CD82. The spheroid hMSCs were more effective than hMSCs from adherent monolayer cultures in suppressing inflammatory responses in a coculture system with LPS-activated macrophages and in a mouse model for peritonitis. In addition, the spheroid hMSCs were about one-fourth the volume of hMSCs from adherent cultures. Apparently as a result, larger numbers of the cells trafficked through the lung after i.v. infusion and were recovered in spleen, liver, kidney, and heart. The data suggest that spheroid hMSCs may be more effective than hMSCs from adherent cultures in therapies for diseases characterized by sterile tissue injury and unresolved inflammation and for some cancers that are sensitive to antiinflammatory agents.
Project description:Because human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) have profound immunomodulatory effects, many attempts have been made to use hMSCs in preclinical and clinical trials. For hMSCs to be used in therapy, a large population of hMSCs must be generated by in vitro expansion. However, the immunomodulatory changes following the in vitro expansion of hMSCs have not been elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of replicative senescence on the immunomodulatory ability of hMSCs in vitro and in vivo. Late-passage hMSCs showed impaired suppressive effect on mitogen-induced mononuclear cell proliferation. Strikingly, late-passage hMSCs had a significantly compromised protective effect against mouse experimental colitis, which was confirmed by gross and histologic examination. Among the anti-inflammatory cytokines, the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the expression of its primary enzyme, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), were profoundly increased by pre-stimulation with interferon gamma (IFN-?) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and this response was significantly decreased with consecutive passages. We demonstrated that the impaired phosphorylation activity of p38 MAP kinase (p38 MAPK) in late-passage hMSCs led to a compromised immunomodulatory ability through the regulation of COX-2. In conclusion, our data indicate that the immunomodulatory ability of hMSCs gradually declines with consecutive passages via a p38-mediated alteration of COX-2 and PGE2 levels.
Project description:The long-term goal of this work is to develop a potassium (K+)-based intra-articular (IA) injection for osteoarthritis treatment. Within this context, the objectives of this study were to (1) demonstrate that hyperosmolar K+ solutions can suppress proinflammatory macrophage activation and (2) evaluate the therapeutic potential of a hyperosmolar K+ solution relative to a clinically utilized drug-based (methylprednisolone acetate [MPA]-a corticosteroid) or cell-based (human mesenchymal stem cell [hMSC]) IA injectable. A 3D in vitro model with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels encapsulated with proinflammatory interferon-gamma (IFN)-stimulated macrophages (M(IFN)s) was utilized. Long-term changes in cell phenotype in response to short-term stimulation (i.e., mimicking an IA injection) were assessed following treatment with 80 mM K+ gluconate, hMSCs, or MPA. Addition of 80 mM K+ gluconate to culture media significantly reduced iNOS and TNF protein levels in M(IFN)s. Furthermore, short-term stimulation with K+ gluconate elicited a significant increase in the anti/proinflammatory cytokine profile in M(IFN)s, a response that is not noticed with either clinically utilized MPA or an hMSC injectable. Hyperosmolar K+ solutions are capable of attenuating proinflammatory macrophage activation. Moreover, when evaluated in an in vitro setting mimicking an IA injection, K+ performed significantly better than hMSCs or the corticosteroid MPA. Cumulatively, these results support further development and application of a K+-based IA injection toward osteoarthritis research.
Project description:Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a promising tool for cartilage regeneration in arthritic joints. hMSC labeling with iron oxide nanoparticles enables non-invasive in vivo monitoring of transplanted cells in cartilage defects with MR imaging. Since graft failure leads to macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo whether nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs show distinct MR signal characteristics before and after phagocytosis by macrophages. We found that apoptotic nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs were phagocytosed by macrophages while viable nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs were not. Serial MRI scans of hMSC transplants in arthritic joints of recipient rats showed that the iron signal of apoptotic, nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs engulfed by macrophages disappeared faster compared to viable hMSCs. This corresponded to poor cartilage repair outcomes of the apoptotic hMSC transplants. Therefore, rapid decline of iron MRI signal at the transplant site can indicate cell death and predict incomplete defect repair weeks later. Currently, hMSC graft failure can be only diagnosed by lack of cartilage defect repair several months after cell transplantation. The described imaging signs can diagnose hMSC transplant failure more readily, which could enable timely re-interventions and avoid unnecessary follow up studies of lost transplants.
Project description:Periodontal disease (PD) is the result of an infection and chronic inflammation of the gingiva that may lead to its destruction and, in severe cases, alveolar bone and tooth loss. The ultimate goal of periodontal treatment is to achieve periodontal soft and hard tissues regeneration. We previously selected quercitrin, a catechol-containing flavonoid, as a potential agent for periodontal applications. In this study, we tested the ability of quercitrin to alter biomarker production involved in periodontal regeneration on primary human gingival fibroblasts (hGF) and primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) cultured under basal and inflammatory conditions. To mimic PD inflammatory status, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) was used. The expression of different genes related to inflammation and extracellular matrix were evaluated and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was quantified in hGFs; alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium content were analysed in hMSCs. Quercitrin decreased the release of the inflammatory mediator PGE2 and partially re-established the impaired collagen metabolism induced by IL-1β treatment in hGFs. Quercitrin also increased ALP activity and mineralization in hMSCs, thus, it increased hMSCs differentiation towards the osteoblastic lineage. These findings suggest quercitrin as a novel bioactive molecule with application to enhance both soft and hard tissue regeneration of the periodontium.
Project description:Organoids, the condensed three-dimensional (3D) tissues emerged at the early stage of organogenesis, are a promising approach to regenerate functional and vascularized organ mimics. While incorporation of heterotypic cell types, such as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-derived neural progenitors aid neural organ development, the interactions of secreted factors during neurogenesis have not been well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of the composition and structure of 3D hybrid spheroids of hiPSCs and hMSCs on dorsal cortical differentiation and the secretion of extracellular matrices and trophic factors in vitro. The hybrid spheroids were formed at different hiPSC:hMSC ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100) using direct mixing or pre-hiPSC aggregation method, which generated dynamic spheroid structure. The cellular organization, proliferation, neural marker expression, and the secretion of extracellular matrix proteins and the cytokines were characterized. The incorporation of MSCs upregulated Nestin and β-tubulin III expression (the dorsal cortical identity was shown by Pax6 and TBR1 expression), matrix remodeling proteins, and the secretion of transforming growth factor-β1 and prostaglandin E2. This study indicates that the appropriate composition and structure of hiPSC-MSC spheroids promote neural differentiation and trophic factor and matrix secretion due to the heterotypic cell-cell interactions.