Genome sequence of a nicotine-degrading strain of Arthrobacter.
ABSTRACT: We announce a 4.63-Mb genome assembly of an isolated bacterium that is the first sequenced nicotine-degrading Arthrobacter strain. Nicotine catabolism genes of the nicotine-degrading plasmid pAO1 were predicted, but plasmid function genes were not found. These results will help to better illustrate the molecular mechanism of nicotine degradation by Arthrobacter.
Project description:Arthrobacter is one of the most prevalent genera of nicotine-degrading bacteria; however, studies of nicotine degradation in Arthrobacter species remain at the plasmid level (plasmid pAO1). Here, we report the bioinformatic analysis of a nicotine-degrading Arthrobacter aurescens M2012083, and show that the moeB and mogA genes that are essential for nicotine degradation in Arthrobacter are absent from plasmid pAO1. Homologues of all the nicotine degradation-related genes of plasmid pAO1 were found to be located on a 68,622-bp DNA segment (nic segment-1) in the M2012083 genome, showing 98.1% nucleotide acid sequence identity to the 69,252-bp nic segment of plasmid pAO1. However, the rest sequence of plasmid pAO1 other than the nic segment shows no significant similarity to the genome sequence of strain M2012083. Taken together, our data suggest that the nicotine degradation-related genes of strain M2012083 are located on the chromosome or a plasmid other than pAO1. Based on the genomic sequence comparison of strain M2012083 and six other Arthrobacter strains, we have identified 17 ?(70) transcription factors reported to be involved in stress responses and 109 genes involved in environmental adaptability of strain M2012083. These results reveal the molecular basis of nicotine degradation and survival capacities of Arthrobacter species.
Project description:The 165-kb catabolic plasmid pAO1 enables the gram-positive soil bacterium Arthrobacter nicotinovorans to grow on the tobacco alkaloid L-nicotine. The 165,137-nucleotide sequence, with an overall G+C content of 59.7%, revealed, besides genes and open reading frames (ORFs) for nicotine degradation, a complete set of ORFs for enzymes essential for the biosynthesis of the molybdenum dinucleotide cofactor, as well as ORFs related to uptake and utilization of carbohydrates, sarcosine, and amino acids. Of the 165 ORFs, approximately 50% were related to metabolic functions. pAO1 conferred to A. nicotinovorans the ability to take up L-[(14)C]nicotine from the medium, with an K(m) of 5.6 +/- 2.2 micro M. ORFs of putative nicotine transporters formed a cluster with the gene of the D-nicotine-specific 6-hydroxy-D-nicotine oxidase. ORFs related to replication, chromosome partitioning, and natural transformation functions (dprA) were identified on pAO1. Few ORFs showed similarity to known conjugation-promoting proteins, but pAO1 could be transferred by conjugation to a pAO1-negative strain at a rate of 10(-2) to 10(-3) per donor. ORFs with no known function represented approximately 35% of the pAO1 sequence. The positions of insertion sequence elements and composite transposons, corroborated by the G+C content of the pAO1 sequence, suggest a modular composition of the plasmid.
Project description:A 27,690-bp gene cluster involved in the degradation of the plant alkaloid nicotine was characterized from the plasmid pAO1 of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans. The genes of the heterotrimeric, molybdopterin cofactor (MoCo)-, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-, and [Fe-S] cluster-dependent 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine (ketone) dehydrogenase (KDH) were identified within this cluster. The gene of the large MoCo subunit of KDH was located 4,266 bp from the FAD and [Fe-S] cluster subunit genes. Deduced functions of proteins encoded by open reading frames (ORFs) of the cluster were correlated to individual steps in nicotine degradation. The gene for 2,6-dihydroxypyridine 3-hydroxylase was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified homodimeric enzyme of 90 kDa contained 2 mol of tightly bound FAD per mol of dimer. Enzyme activity was strictly NADH-dependent and specific for 2,6-dihydroxypyridine. 2,3-Dihydroxypyridine and 2,6-dimethoxypyridine acted as irreversible inhibitors. Additional ORFs were shown to encode hypothetical proteins presumably required for holoenzyme assembly, interaction with the cell membrane, and transcriptional regulation, including a MobA homologue predicted to be specific for the synthesis of the molybdopterin cytidine dinucleotide cofactor.
Project description:Nicotine catabolism by Arthrobacter nicotinovorans is linked to the presence of the megaplasmid pAO1. Genes involved in this catabolic pathway are arranged on the plasmid into gene modules according to function. During nicotine degradation gamma-N-methylaminobutyrate is formed from the pyrrolidine ring of nicotine. Analysis of the pAO1 open reading frames (ORF) resulted in identification of the gene encoding a demethylating gamma-N-methylaminobutyrate oxidase (mabO). This gene was shown to form an operon with purU- and folD-like genes. Only in bacteria grown in the presence of nicotine could transcripts of the purU-mabO-folD operon be detected, demonstrating that this operon constitutes part of the pAO1 nicotine regulon. Its transcriptional start site was determined by primer extension analysis. Transcription of the operon was shown to be controlled by a new transcriptional regulator, PmfR, the product of a gene that is transcribed divergently from the purU, mabO, and folD genes. PmfR was purified, and electromobility shift assays and DNase I-nuclease digestion experiments were used to determine that its DNA binding site is located between -48 and -88 nucleotides upstream of the transcriptional start site of the operon. Disruption of pmfR by homologous recombination with a chloramphenicol resistance cassette demonstrated that PmfR acts in vivo as a transcriptional activator. Mutagenesis of the PmfR target DNA suggested that the sequence GTTT-14 bp-AAAC is the core binding site of the regulator upstream of the -35 promoter region of the purU-mabO-folD operon.
Project description:The first inducible Arthrobacter overexpression system, based on the promoter/operator and the repressor of the 6-D-hydroxynicotine oxidase gene of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans, is described here. Nicotine-dependent overproduction and affinity purification of recombinant proteins are presented. The system will allow the production of complex enzymes and genetic complementation studies in Arthrobacter species.
Project description:Management of solid wastes with high nicotine content, such as those accumulated during tobacco manufacturing, poses a major challenge, which can be addressed by using bacteria such as Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter. In this study, a new species of Pseudomonas geniculata, namely strain N1, which is capable of efficiently degrading nicotine, was isolated and identified. The optimal growth conditions for strain N1 are a temperature of 30°C, and a pH 6.5, at a rotation rate of 120 rpm min(-1) with 1 g l(-1) nicotine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Myosmine, cotinine, 6-hydroxynicotine, 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine, and 6-hydroxy-pseudooxynicotine were detected as the five intermediates through gas chromatography-mass and liquid chromatography-mass analyses. The identified metabolites were different from those generated by Pseudomonas putida strains. The analysis also highlighted the bacterial metabolic diversity in relation to nicotine degradation by different Pseudomonas strains.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bacteria of the genus Arthrobacter are ubiquitous in soil environments and can be considered as true survivalists. Arthrobacter sp. strain Rue61a is an isolate from sewage sludge able to utilize quinaldine (2-methylquinoline) as sole carbon and energy source. The genome provides insight into the molecular basis of the versatility and robustness of this environmental Arthrobacter strain. RESULTS: The genome of Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a consists of a single circular chromosome of 4,736,495?bp with an average G + C content of 62.32%, the circular 231,551-bp plasmid pARUE232, and the linear 112,992-bp plasmid pARUE113 that was already published. Plasmid pARUE232 is proposed to contribute to the resistance of Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a to arsenate and Pb2+, whereas the linear plasmid confers the ability to convert quinaldine to anthranilate. Remarkably, degradation of anthranilate exclusively proceeds via a CoA-thioester pathway. Apart from quinaldine utilization, strain Rue61a has a limited set of aromatic degradation pathways, enabling the utilization of 4-hydroxy-substituted aromatic carboxylic acids, which are characteristic products of lignin depolymerization, via ortho cleavage of protocatechuate. However, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate degradation likely proceeds via meta cleavage of homoprotocatechuate. The genome of strain Rue61a contains numerous genes associated with osmoprotection, and a high number of genes coding for transporters. It encodes a broad spectrum of enzymes for the uptake and utilization of various sugars and organic nitrogen compounds. A. aurescens TC-1 is the closest sequenced relative of strain Rue61a. CONCLUSIONS: The genome of Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a reflects the saprophytic lifestyle and nutritional versatility of the organism and a strong adaptive potential to environmental stress. The circular plasmid pARUE232 and the linear plasmid pARUE113 contribute to heavy metal resistance and to the ability to degrade quinaldine, respectively.
Project description:An NAD(P)H-nicotine blue (quinone) oxidoreductase was discovered as a member of the nicotine catabolic pathway of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans. Transcriptional analysis and electromobility shift assays showed that the enzyme gene was expressed in a nicotine-dependent manner under the control of the transcriptional activator PmfR and thus was part of the nicotine regulon of A. nicotinovorans. The flavin mononucleotide-containing enzyme uses NADH and, with lower efficiency, NADPH to reduce, by a two-electron transfer, nicotine blue to the nicotine blue leuco form (hydroquinone). Besides nicotine blue, several other quinones were reduced by the enzyme. The NAD(P)H-nicotine blue oxidoreductase may prevent intracellular one-electron reductions of nicotine blue which may lead to semiquinone radicals and potentially toxic reactive oxygen species.
Project description:Pseudomonas putida J5 is an efficient nicotine-degrading bacterial strain that catabolizes nicotine through the pyrrolidine pathway. In our previous study, we used Tn5 transposon mutagenesis to investigate nicotine metabolism-associated genes, and 18 nicotine degradation-deficient mutants were isolated from 16,324 Tn5-transformants. Three of the mutants were Tn5 inserts into the modABC gene cluster that encoded an ABC-type, high-affinity, molybdate transporter. In-frame deletion of the modABC genes abolished the nicotine-degrading ability of strain J5, and complementation with modABC either from P. putida or Arthrobacter oxidans restored the degrading activity of the mutant to wild-type level. Nicotine degradation of J5 was inhibited markedly by addition of tungstate, a specific antagonist of molybdate. Molybdate at a non-physiologically high concentration (100 ?M) fully restored nicotine-degrading activity and recovered growth of the modABC mutant in a nicotine minimal medium. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of modABC was up-regulated at low molybdate concentrations and down-regulated at high moybdate concentrations, which indicated that at least one other system was able to transport molybdate, but with lower affinity. These results suggested that the molybdate transport system was essential to nicotine metabolism in P. putida J5.
Project description:Here, we report the genome sequences of two Arthrobacter sp. strains isolated from potato and capable of degrading the toxic potato-derived glycoalkaloids (GAs) ?-chaconine and ?-solanine. Information from the genome sequences will provide insight into the genetic mechanism of GA degradation by these isolates.