Stereoselective synthesis of morpholines via copper-promoted oxyamination of alkenes.
ABSTRACT: A new copper(II) 2-ethylhexanoate-promoted addition of an alcohol and an amine across an alkene (oxyamination) is reported. The alcohol addition is intramolecular, while coupling with the amine occurs intermolecularly. Several 2-aminomethyl morpholines were synthesized in good to excellent yields and diastereoselectivities.
Project description:This paper reports a novel approach for the direct and facile synthesis of 1,2-oxyamino moieties via an intermolecular copper-catalyzed oxyamination of olefins. This strategy utilizes O-benzoylhydroxylamines as an electrophilic amine source and carboxylic acids as a nucleophilic oxygen source to achieve a modular difunctionalization of olefins. The reaction proceeded in a regioselective manner with moderate to good yields, exhibiting a broad scope of carboxylic acid, amine, and olefin substrates.
Project description:The metal-free synthesis of 2-substituted and 2,3-disubstituted morpholines through a one-pot strategy is described. A simple and inexpensive ammonium persulfate salt enables the reaction of aziridines with halogenated alcohols to proceed via an SN2-type ring opening followed by cyclization of the resulting haloalkoxy amine.
Project description:A four-step synthesis of cis-3,5-disubstituted morpholines from enantiomerically pure amino alcohols is described. The key step in the synthesis is a Pd-catalyzed carboamination reaction between a substituted ethanolamine derivative and an aryl or alkenyl bromide. The morpholine products are generated as single stereoisomers in moderate to good yield. This strategy also provides access to fused bicyclic morpholines as well as 2,3- and 2,5-disubstituted products.
Project description:The regioselective and enantioselective oxyamination of alkenes with N-sulfonyl oxaziridines is catalyzed by a novel iron(II) bis(oxazoline) complex. This process affords oxazolidine products that can be easily manipulated to yield highly enantioenriched free amino alcohols. The regioselectivity of this process is complementary to that obtained from the analogous copper(II)-catalyzed reaction. Thus, both regioisomers of enantioenriched 1,2-aminoalcohols can be obtained using oxaziridine-mediated oxyamination reactions, and the overall sense of regiochemistry can be controlled using the appropriate choice of inexpensive first-row transition metal catalyst.
Project description:An intramolecular Ir(III)-catalyzed regiodivergent oxyamination of unactivated alkenes provides valuable ?-lactams, ?-lactones and ?-lactams. The regioselectivity is controlled by the electronically tunable cyclopentadienyl Ir(III)-complexes enabling oxyamination via either 5-exo or 6-endo pathways. With respect to the mechanism, we propose a highly reactive [3.1.0] bicycle intermediate derived from Ir(V) nitrene-mediated aziridination to be a key intermediate toward the synthesis of ?-lactams.
Project description:The mechanism of a recently reported aldehyde alpha-oxyamination reaction has been studied using a combination of kinetic, spectrometric, and spectrophotometric techniques. Most crucially, the use of a validated cyclopropane-based radical-clock substrate has demonstrated that carbon-oxygen bond formation occurs predominantly through an enamine activation manifold. The mechanistic details reported herein indicate that, as has been proposed for previously studied alcohol oxidations, complexation between TEMPO and a simple metal salt leads to electrophilic ionic reactivity.
Project description:A short, high yielding protocol has been developed for the enantioselective and general synthesis of C2-functionalized, benzyl protected morpholines and orthogonally N,N'-protected piperazines from a common intermediate.
Project description:Malonoyl peroxide 6 is an effective reagent for the syn- or anti-oxyamination of alkenes. Reaction of 6 and an alkene in the presence of O-tert-butyl-N-tosylcarbamate (R3 = CO2tBu) leads to the anti-oxyaminated product in up to 99% yield. Use of O-methyl-N-tosyl carbamate (R3 = CO2Me) as the nitrogen nucleophile followed by treatment of the product with trifluoroacetic acid leads to the syn-oxyaminated product in up to 77% yield. Mechanisms consistent with the observed selectivities are proposed.
Project description:A palladium-catalyzed dearomative syn-1,4-oxyamination protocol using non-activated arenes has been developed. This one-pot procedure utilizes arenophile chemistry, and the corresponding para-cycloadducts are treated with oxygen nucleophiles via formal allylic substitution, providing direct access to syn-1,4-oxyaminated products. The reaction conditions permit a range of arenes, as well as different O-nucleophiles, such as oximes and benzyl alcohols. Moreover, this process was established in an asymmetric fashion, delivering products with high enantioselectivity. The dearomatized products are amenable to a multitude of further derivatizations ranging from olefin chemistry to C-H activation, giving rise to a diverse set of new functionalities. Overall, this dearomative functionalization offers rapid and controlled formation of molecular complexity, enabling straightforward access to functionalized small molecules from simple and readily available arenes.
Project description:A new method for the synthesis of 2-aminomethyl functionalized 1,4-benzodiazepin-5-ones is presented. The benzodiazepine core is well-known to interact with biological receptors and many pharmaceutical drugs are derived from this structure. The alkene diamination strategy is employed for the first time for the synthesis of 1,4-benzodiazepinones. In this reaction, copper(2-ethylhexanoate)2 serves as promoter and a range of external amines can be coupled with 2-sulfonamido-N-allyl benzamides to generate the 1,4-benzodiazepinones in good yields.