Gene-gene interaction and functional impact of polymorphisms on innate immune genes in controlling Plasmodium falciparum blood infection level.
ABSTRACT: Genetic variations in toll-like receptors and cytokine genes of the innate immune pathways have been implicated in controlling parasite growth and the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum mediated malaria. We previously published genetic association of TLR4 non-synonymous and TNF-? promoter polymorphisms with P.falciparum blood infection level and here we extend the study considerably by (i) investigating genetic dependence of parasite-load on interleukin-12B polymorphisms, (ii) reconstructing gene-gene interactions among candidate TLRs and cytokine loci, (iii) exploring genetic and functional impact of epistatic models and (iv) providing mechanistic insights into functionality of disease-associated regulatory polymorphisms. Our data revealed that carriage of AA (P = 0.0001) and AC (P = 0.01) genotypes of IL12B 3'UTR polymorphism was associated with a significant increase of mean log-parasitemia relative to rare homozygous genotype CC. Presence of IL12B+1188 polymorphism in five of six multifactor models reinforced its strong genetic impact on malaria phenotype. Elevation of genetic risk in two-component models compared to the corresponding single locus and reduction of IL12B (2.2 fold) and lymphotoxin-? (1.7 fold) expressions in patients'peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells under TLR4Thr399Ile risk genotype background substantiated the role of Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction derived models. Marked reduction of promoter activity of TNF-? risk haplotype (C-C-G-G) compared to wild-type haplotype (T-C-G-G) with (84%) and without (78%) LPS stimulation and the loss of binding of transcription factors detected in-silico supported a causal role of TNF-1031. Significantly lower expression of IL12B+1188 AA (5 fold) and AC (9 fold) genotypes compared to CC and under-representation (P = 0.0048) of allele A in transcripts of patients' PBMCs suggested an Allele-Expression-Imbalance. Allele (A+1188C) dependent differential stability (2 fold) of IL12B-transcripts upon actinomycin-D treatment and observed structural modulation (P = 0.013) of RNA-ensemble were the plausible explanations for AEI. In conclusion, our data provides functional support to the hypothesis that de-regulated receptor-cytokine axis of innate immune pathway influences blood infection level in P. falciparum malaria.
Project description:Cytokines play an essential role during active tuberculosis disease and cytokine genes have been described in association with altered cytokine levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify if IFNG, IL12B, TNF, IL17A, IL10, and TGFB1 gene polymorphisms influence the immune response of Brazilian patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) at different time points of antituberculosis treatment (T1, T2, and T3). Our results showed the following associations: IFNG +874 T allele and IFNG +2109 A allele with higher IFN- γ levels; IL12B +1188 C allele with higher IL-12 levels; TNF -308 A allele with higher TNF- α plasma levels in controls and mRNA levels in PTB patients at T1; IL17A A allele at rs7747909 with higher IL-17 levels; IL10 -819 T allele with higher IL-10 levels; and TGFB1 +29 CC genotype higher TGF- β plasma levels in PTB patients at T2. The present study suggests that IFNG +874T/A, IFNG +2109A/G, IL12B +1188A/C, IL10 -819C/T, and TGFB1 +21C/T are associated with differential cytokine levels in pulmonary tuberculosis patients and may play a role in the initiation and maintenance of acquired cellular immunity to tuberculosis and in the outcome of the active disease while on antituberculosis treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease with a strong genetic basis. Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukins (ILs) such are IL-12 and IL-23, and interferon gamma (IFN-?) are released from various inflammatory and resident cells, and have been implicated in the initiation/maintenance of inflammation. Certain alleles of the aforementioned cytokines may be associated with disease susceptibility/severity. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the association of three common functional gene polymorphisms, namely TNF -308 G/A (rs1800629), IL12B (encoding the p40 subunit of IL-12/23) +1188 A/C (rs3212227), and IFNG +874 T/A (rs2430561) with psoriasis development and severity in Serbian patients. METHODS:We genotyped 130 patients with psoriasis (26 of whom also had psoriatic arthritis) and 259 controls; rs1800629 and rs3212227, and rs2430561, by real-time PCR assay. RESULTS:The TNF GG genotype was detected at a higher frequency in patients with psoriasis compared to control subjects (OR, 1.420; 95% CI, 0.870~2.403) without statistical significance (p=0.191). Lack of the TNF G allele was associated with lower psoriasis severity (p=0.007). The IL12B AC genotype was underrepresented in the patients with psoriatic arthritis compared to healthy subjects (OR, 0.308; 95% CI, 0.090~1.057; p=0.049). The distribution of the rs2430561 allele and genotype frequencies was similar between patients with psoriasis and controls. CONCLUSION:Our study demonstrates an effect of the rs1800629 on psoriasis severity, and a marginal impact of the rs3212227 on susceptibility to psoriatic arthritis. Collectively, our results obtained in a Serbian cohort expand current knowledge regarding individual predisposition to psoriatic disease.
Project description:Only a small percentage of individuals living in endemic areas develop severe malaria suggesting that host genetic factors may play a key role. This study has determined the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in some pro and anti-inflammatory cytokine gene sequences: IL6 (-174; rs1800795), IL12p40 (+1188; rs3212227), IL4 (+33; rs2070874), IL10 (-3575; rs1800890) and TGFb1 (+869; rs1800470), by means of PCR-RFLP. Blood samples were collected from 104 symptomatic and 37 asymptomatic subjects. Laboratory diagnosis was assessed by the thick blood smear test and nested-PCR. No association was found between IL6 (-174), IL12p40 (+1188), IL4 (+33), IL10 (- 3575), TGFb1 (+869) SNPs and malaria symptoms. However, regarding the IL10 -3575 T/A SNP, there were significantly more AA and AT subjects, carrying the polymorphic allele A, in the symptomatic group (c2 = 4.54, p = 0.01, OR = 0.40 [95% CI - 0.17- 0.94]). When the analysis was performed by allele, the frequency of the polymorphic allele A was also significantly higher in the symptomatic group (c2 = 4.50, p = 0.01, OR = 0.45 [95% CI - 0.21-0.95]). In conclusion, this study has suggested the possibility that the IL10 - 3575 T/A SNP might be associated with the presence and maintenance of malaria symptoms in individuals living in endemic areas. Taking into account that this polymorphism is related to decreased IL10 production, a possible role of this SNP in the pathophysiology of malaria is also suggested, but replication studies with a higher number of patients and evaluation of IL10 levels are needed for confirmation.
Project description:Background:Cytokines are important factors determining the outcome of transplantation. The host ability in cytokine production may be affected by cytokine genes polymorphisms. Objective:To investigate the effect of IL-12 and TNF-? gene polymorphisms on outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods:90 bone marrow transplant recipients were included in this study. 30 (33%) of 90 recipients experienced graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). IL-12 and TNF-? gene polymorphisms were evaluated by PCR-RFLP and ARMS-PCR method, respectively. Results:No significant difference in the distribution of IL-12 (rs3212227 +1188 A/C) and TNF-? (rs 1800629 -308 G/A) genotypes and alleles was observed between those with and without GVHD. There was no significant association between the distribution of genotypes and the recipient sex. Conclusion:IL-12 (rs3212227 +1188 A/C) and TNF-? (rs 1800629-308 G/A) genotypes and alleles were not risk factors for development of GVHD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Interleukin-12 (IL-12), a heterodimeric cytokine composed of p35 and p40 subunits, has been thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of malaria. The IL-12p40 subunit is encoded by the IL12B gene. An IL12B promoter allele, CTCTAA, at rs17860508 has been reported to be associated with susceptibility to cerebral malaria in African populations. However, this association has not so far been replicated in non-African populations. METHODS: To examine whether the CTCTAA allele is associated with susceptibility to cerebral malaria in Asian populations, 303 Thai patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria (109 cerebral malaria and 194 mild malaria patients) were genotyped for rs17860508 by PCR-direct sequencing. RESULTS: The CTCTAA allele showed a significant association with susceptibility to cerebral malaria in the Thai population (allelic OR = 1.37; one sided P-value = 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: The existence of a significant association between the CTCTAA allele and susceptibility to cerebral malaria was confirmed in Southeast Asian population, which was previously reported in African populations.
Project description:Polymorphic variability in immune response genes, such as IL12B, encoding the IL-12p40 subunit is associated with susceptibility to severe malaria in African populations. Since the role of genetic variation in conditioning severe malaria in Thai adults is largely unexplored, the functional association between IL12B polymorphisms [i.e. IL12Bpro (rs17860508) and IL12B 3' UTR T/G (rs3212227)], severe malaria and cytokine production was examined in patients with Plasmodium falciparum infections (n = 355) recruited from malaria endemic areas along the Thai-Myanmar border in northwest Thailand. Circulating IL-12p40 (p = 0.049) and IFN-gamma (p = 0.051) were elevated in patients with severe malaria, while only IL-12p40 was significantly higher in severe malaria patients with hyperparasitaemia (p = 0.046). Carriage of the IL12Bpro1.1 genotype was associated with enhanced severity of malaria (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 0.94-5.81; p = 0.066) and hyperparasitaemia (OR, 3.42; 95% CI, 1.17-9.87; p = 0.025) relative to the IL12Bpro2.2 genotype (wild type). Individuals with the IL12Bpro1.1 genotype also had the lowest IL-12p40 (p = 0.002) and the highest IFN-gamma (p = 0.004) levels. Construction of haplotypes revealed that carriage of the IL12Bpro-2/3' UTR-T haplotype was associated with protection against severe malaria (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29-0.90; p = 0.020) and reduced circulating IFN-gamma (p = 0.06). Thus, genotypic and haplotypic variation at IL12Bpro and IL12B 3' UTR in this population influences susceptibility to severe malaria and functional changes in circulating IL-12p40 and IFN-gamma levels. Results presented here suggest that protection against severe malaria in Thai adults is associated with genotypic variants that condition enhanced IL-12p40 and reduced IFN-gamma levels.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Malaria is among the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide. In Brazil, malaria is concentrated in the northern region, where Plasmodium vivax accounts for 85% disease incidence. The role of genetic factors in host immune system conferring resistance/susceptibility against P. vivax infections is still poorly understood. METHODS: The present study investigates the influence of polymorphisms in 18 genes related to the immune system in patients with malaria caused by P. vivax. A total of 263 healthy individuals (control group) and 216 individuals infected by P. vivax (malaria group) were genotyped for 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL1B, IL2, IL4, IL4R, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12A, IL12B, IL12RB1, SP110, TNF, TNFRSF1A, IFNG, IFNGR1, VDR, PTPN22 and P2X7 genes. All subjects were genotyped with 48 ancestry informative insertion-deletion polymorphisms to determine the proportion of African, European and Amerindian ancestry. Only 13 SNPs in 10 genes with differences lower than 20% between cases and controls in a Poisson Regression model with age as covariate were further investigated with a structured population association test. RESULTS: The IL1B gene -5839C > T and IL4R 1902A > G polymorphisms and IL12RB1 -1094A/-641C and TNF -1031 T/-863A/-857 T/-308 G/-238 G haplotypes were associated with malaria susceptibility after population structure correction (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, p = 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSION: Plasmodium vivax malaria pathophysiology is still poorly understood. The present findings reinforce and increase our understanding about the role of the immune system in malaria susceptibility.
Project description:The IL12B gene on chromosome 5q31-33 encodes the p40 subunit of interleukin 12, an immunomodulatory cytokine. To test the hypothesis that the IL12B gene contains polymorphisms associated with asthma, we genotyped six haplotype-tagging polymorphisms in the IL12B gene, both in 708 children enrolled in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) and in their parents. Using the family-based association test (FBAT) program and its haplotype (HBAT) and phenotype (PBAT) options, we tested each polymorphism and haplotype for association with asthma and asthma-related phenotypes. We tested positive associations for replication in a case-control study comparing 177 adult moderate-to-severe asthmatics with 177 nonasthmatic controls. In whites in the CAMP cohort, the A allele of the IL12B G4237A polymorphism was undertransmitted to asthmatic children (P=.0008, recessive model), the global test for haplotypes for affection status was positive (P=.009, multiallelic chi (2)), and two polymorphisms were associated with different atopy phenotypes. In addition, we found a strong association between the IL12B_4237 and IL12B_6402 polymorphisms and an asthma-severity phenotype in whites, which we also found in the independent population of white adult asthmatics. IL12B may be an important asthma gene.
Project description:Toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms have been associated with disease severity in malaria infection, but mechanisms for this association have not been characterized. The TLR2, 4, and 9 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies and serum interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were assessed in Ugandan children with cerebral malaria (CM, N = 65) and uncomplicated malaria (UM, N = 52). The TLR9 C allele at -1237 and G allele at 1174 were strongly linked, and among children with CM, those with the C allele at -1237 or the G allele at 1174 had higher levels of IFN-gamma than those without these alleles (P = 0.03 and 0.008, respectively). The TLR9 SNPs were not associated with altered IFN-gamma levels in children with UM or altered TNF-alpha levels in either group. We present the first human data that TLR SNPs are associated with altered cytokine production in parasitic infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Malarial anaemia is characterized by destruction of malaria infected red blood cells and suppression of erythropoiesis. Interleukin 12 (IL12) significantly boosts erythropoietic responses in murine models of malarial anaemia and decreased IL12 levels are associated with severe malarial anaemia (SMA) in children. Based on the biological relevance of IL12 in malaria anaemia, the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of IL12 and its receptors and SMA was examined. METHODS: Fifty-five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms covering genes encoding two IL12 subunits, IL12A and IL12B, and its receptors, IL12RB1 and IL12RB2, were examined in a cohort of 913 children residing in Asembo Bay region of western Kenya. RESULTS: An increasing copy number of minor variant (C) in IL12A (rs2243140) was significantly associated with a decreased risk of SMA (P = 0.006; risk ratio, 0.52 for carrying one copy of allele C and 0.28 for two copies). Individuals possessing two copies of a rare variant (C) in IL12RB1 (rs429774) also appeared to be strongly protective against SMA (P = 0.00005; risk ratio, 0.18). In addition, children homozygous for another rare allele (T) in IL12A (rs22431348) were associated with reduced risk of severe anaemia (SA) (P = 0.004; risk ratio, 0.69) and of severe anaemia with any parasitaemia (SAP) (P = 0.004; risk ratio, 0.66). In contrast, AG genotype for another variant in IL12RB1 (rs383483) was associated with susceptibility to high-density parasitaemia (HDP) (P = 0.003; risk ratio, 1.21). CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown strong associations between polymorphisms in the genes of IL12A and IL12RB1 and protection from SMA in Kenyan children, suggesting that human genetic variants of IL12 related genes may significantly contribute to the development of anaemia in malaria patients.