Distinct properties of Ca2+-calmodulin binding to N- and C-terminal regulatory regions of the TRPV1 channel.
ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a molecular pain receptor belonging to the TRP superfamily of nonselective cation channels. As a polymodal receptor, TRPV1 responds to heat and a wide range of chemical stimuli. The influx of calcium after channel activation serves as a negative feedback mechanism leading to TRPV1 desensitization. The cellular calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) likely participates in the desensitization of TRPV1. Two CaM-binding sites are identified in TRPV1: the N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) and a short distal C-terminal (CT) segment. Here, we present the crystal structure of calcium-bound CaM (Ca(2+)-CaM) in complex with the TRPV1-CT segment, determined to 1.95-Å resolution. The two lobes of Ca(2+)-CaM wrap around a helical TRPV1-CT segment in an antiparallel orientation, and two hydrophobic anchors, W787 and L796, contact the C-lobe and N-lobe of Ca(2+)-CaM, respectively. This structure is similar to canonical Ca(2+)-CaM-peptide complexes, although TRPV1 contains no classical CaM recognition sequence motif. Using structural and mutational studies, we established the TRPV1 C terminus as a high affinity Ca(2+)-CaM-binding site in both the isolated TRPV1 C terminus and in full-length TRPV1. Although a ternary complex of CaM, TRPV1-ARD, and TRPV1-CT had previously been postulated, we found no biochemical evidence of such a complex. In electrophysiology studies, mutation of the Ca(2+)-CaM-binding site on TRPV1-ARD abolished desensitization in response to repeated application of capsaicin, whereas mutation of the Ca(2+)-CaM-binding site in TRPV1-CT led to a more subtle phenotype of slowed and reduced TRPV1 desensitization. In summary, our results show that the TRPV1-ARD is an important mediator of TRPV1 desensitization, whereas TRPV1-CT has higher affinity for CaM and is likely involved in separate regulatory mechanisms.
Project description:The sigma 1 receptor (?1R) and the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) regulate the transient receptor potential (TRP) V1 calcium channel. A series of proteins are involved in the cross-regulation between MORs and calcium channels like the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), including the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1), calmodulin (CaM), and the ?1R. Thus, we assessed whether similar mechanisms also apply to the neural TRP ankyrin member 1 (TRPA1), TRP vanilloid member 1 (TRPV1), and TRP melastatin member 8 (TRPM8). Our results indicate that ?1R and CaM bound directly to cytosolic regions of these TRPs, and this binding increased in the presence of calcium. By contrast, the association of HINT1 with these TRPs was moderately dependent on calcium. The ?1R always competed with CaM for binding to the TRPs, except for its binding to the TRPA1 C-terminal where ?1R binding cooperated with that of CaM. However, ?1R dampened HINT1 binding to the TRPA1 N-terminal. When the effect of ?1R ligands was addressed, the ?1R agonists PRE084 and pregnenolone sulfate enhanced the association of the ?1R with the TRPM8 N-terminal and TRPV1 C-terminal in the presence of physiological calcium, as seen for the ?1R-NMDAR interactions. However, these agonists dampened ?1R binding to the TRPA1 and TRPV1 N-terminal domains, and also to the TRPA1 C-terminal, as seen for ?1R-binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) interactions in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). By contrast, the ?1R antagonists progesterone and S1RA reduced the association of ?1R with TRPA1 and TRPV1 C-terminal regions, as seen for the ?1R-NMDAR interactions. Conversely, they enhanced the ?1R interaction with the TRPA1 N-terminal, as seen for ?1R-BiP interactions, whereas they barely affected the association of ?1R with the TRPV1 N-terminal. Thus, depending on the calcium channel and the cytosolic region examined, the ?1R agonists pregnenolone sulfate and PRE084 opposed or collaborated with the ?1R antagonists progesterone and S1RA to disrupt or promote such interactions. Through the use of cloned cytosolic regions of selected TRP calcium channels, we were able to demonstrate that ?1R ligands exhibit biased activity to regulate particular ?1R interactions with other proteins. Since ?1Rs are implicated in essential physiological processes, exploiting such ligand biases may represent a means to develop more selective and efficacious pharmacological interventions.
Project description:The calcium regulatory protein calmodulin (CaM) binds in a calcium-dependent manner to numerous target proteins. The calmodulin-binding domain (CaMBD) region of Nicotiana tabacum MAPK phosphatase has an amino acid sequence that does not resemble the CaMBD of any other known Ca(2+)-CaM-binding proteins. Using a unique fusion protein strategy, we have been able to obtain a high resolution solution structure of the complex of soybean Ca(2+)-CaM4 (SCaM4) and this CaMBD. Complete isotope labeling of both parts of the complex in the fusion protein greatly facilitated the structure determination by NMR. The 12-residue CaMBD region was found to bind exclusively to the C-lobe of SCaM4. A specific Trp and Leu side chain are utilized to facilitate strong binding through a novel "double anchor" motif. Moreover, the orientation of the helical peptide on the surface of Ca(2+)-SCaM4 is distinct from other known complexes. The N-lobe of Ca(2+)-SCaM4 in the complex remains free for additional interactions and could possibly act as a calcium-dependent adapter protein. Signaling through the MAPK pathway and increases in intracellular Ca(2+) are both hallmarks of the plant stress response, and our data support the notion that coordination of these responses may occur through the formation of a unique CaM-MAPK phosphatase multiprotein complex.
Project description:Calcium influx drives two opposing voltage-activated calcium channel (Ca(V)) self-modulatory processes: calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF). Specific Ca(2+)/calmodulin (Ca(2+)/CaM) lobes produce CDI and CDF through interactions with the Ca(V)alpha(1) subunit IQ domain. Curiously, Ca(2+)/CaM lobe modulation polarity appears inverted between Ca(V)1s and Ca(V)2s. Here, we present crystal structures of Ca(V)2.1, Ca(V)2.2, and Ca(V)2.3 Ca(2+)/CaM-IQ domain complexes. All display binding orientations opposite to Ca(V)1.2 with a physical reversal of the CaM lobe positions relative to the IQ alpha-helix. Titration calorimetry reveals lobe competition for a high-affinity site common to Ca(V)1 and Ca(V)2 IQ domains that is occupied by the CDI lobe in the structures. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrate that the N-terminal Ca(V)2 Ca(2+)/C-lobe anchors affect CDF. Together, the data unveil the remarkable structural plasticity at the heart of Ca(V) feedback modulation and indicate that Ca(V)1 and Ca(V)2 IQ domains bear a dedicated CDF site that exchanges Ca(2+)/CaM lobe occupants.
Project description:The mechanical stability of epithelial cells, which protect organisms from harmful external factors, is maintained by hemidesmosomes via the interaction between plectin 1a (P1a) and integrin ?6?4. Binding of calcium-calmodulin (Ca(2+)-CaM) to P1a together with phosphorylation of integrin ?4 disrupts this complex, resulting in disassembly of hemidesmosomes. We present structures of the P1a actin binding domain either in complex with the N-ter lobe of Ca(2+)-CaM or with the first pair of integrin ?4 fibronectin domains. Ca(2+)-CaM binds to the N-ter isoform-specific tail of P1a in a unique manner, via its N-ter lobe in an extended conformation. Structural, cell biology, and biochemical studies suggest the following model: binding of Ca(2+)-CaM to an intrinsically disordered N-ter segment of plectin converts it to an ? helix, which repositions calmodulin to displace integrin ?4 by steric repulsion. This model could serve as a blueprint for studies aimed at understanding how Ca(2+)-CaM or EF-hand motifs regulate F-actin-based cytoskeleton.
Project description:Changes in activity-dependent calcium flux through voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca(V)s) drive two self-regulatory calcium-dependent feedback processes that require interaction between Ca(2+)/calmodulin (Ca(2+)/CaM) and a Ca(V) channel consensus isoleucine-glutamine (IQ) motif: calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF). Here, we report the high-resolution structure of the Ca(2+)/CaM-Ca(V)1.2 IQ domain complex. The IQ domain engages hydrophobic pockets in the N-terminal and C-terminal Ca(2+)/CaM lobes through sets of conserved 'aromatic anchors.' Ca(2+)/N lobe adopts two conformations that suggest inherent conformational plasticity at the Ca(2+)/N lobe-IQ domain interface. Titration calorimetry experiments reveal competition between the lobes for IQ domain sites. Electrophysiological examination of Ca(2+)/N lobe aromatic anchors uncovers their role in Ca(V)1.2 CDF. Together, our data suggest that Ca(V) subtype differences in CDI and CDF are tuned by changes in IQ domain anchoring positions and establish a framework for understanding CaM lobe-specific regulation of Ca(V)s.
Project description:Polycystic kidney disease 2-like-1 (PKD2L1), also known as polycystin-L or TRPP3, is a non-selective cation channel that regulates intracellular calcium concentration. Calmodulin (CaM) is a calcium binding protein, consisting of N-lobe and C-lobe with two calcium binding EF-hands in each lobe. In previous study, we confirmed that CaM is associated with desensitization of PKD2L1 and that CaM N-lobe and PKD2L1 EF-hand specifically are involved. However, the CaM-binding domain (CaMBD) and its inhibitory mechanism of PKD2L1 have not been identified. In order to identify CaM-binding anchor residue of PKD2L1, single mutants of putative CaMBD and EF-hand deletion mutants were generated. The current changes of the mutants were recorded with whole-cell patch clamp. The calmidazolium (CMZ), a calmodulin inhibitor, was used under different concentrations of intracellular. Among the mutants that showed similar or higher basal currents with that of the PKD2L1 wild type, L593A showed little change in current induced by CMZ. Co-expression of L593A with CaM attenuated the inhibitory effect of PKD2L1 by CaM. In the previous study it was inferred that CaM C-lobe inhibits channels by binding to PKD2L1 at 16 nM calcium concentration and CaM N-lobe at 100 nM. Based on the results at 16 nM calcium concentration condition, this study suggests that CaM C-lobe binds to Leu-593, which can be a CaM C-lobe anchor residue, to regulate channel activity. Taken together, our results provide a model for the regulation of PKD2L1 channel activity by CaM.
Project description:The calmodulin (CaM)-binding domain of isoform 4b of the plasma membrane Ca(2+) -ATPase (PMCA) pump is represented by peptide C28. CaM binds to either PMCA or C28 by a mechanism in which the primary anchor residue Trp-1093 binds to the C-terminal lobe of the extended CaM molecule, followed by collapse of CaM with the N-terminal lobe binding to the secondary anchor Phe-1110 (Juranic, N., Atanasova, E., Filoteo, A. G., Macura, S., Prendergast, F. G., Penniston, J. T., and Strehler, E. E. (2010) J. Biol. Chem. 285, 4015-4024). This is a relatively rapid reaction, with an apparent half-time of ~1 s. The dissociation of CaM from PMCA4b or C28 is much slower, with an overall half-time of ~10 min. Using targeted molecular dynamics, we now show that dissociation of Ca(2+)-CaM from C28 may occur by a pathway in which Trp-1093, although deeply embedded in a pocket in the C-terminal lobe of CaM, leaves first. The dissociation begins by relatively rapid release of Trp-1093, followed by very slow release of Phe-1110, removal of C28, and return of CaM to its conformation in the free state. Fluorescence measurements and molecular dynamics calculations concur in showing that this alternative path of release of the PMCA4b CaM-binding domain is quite different from that of binding. The intermediate of dissociation with exposed Trp-1093 has a long lifetime (minutes) and may keep the PMCA primed for activation.
Project description:Calcium-binding protein 1 (CaBP1), a calmodulin (CaM) homolog, endows certain voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca(V)s) with unusual properties. CaBP1 inhibits Ca(V)1.2 calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and introduces calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF). Here, we show that the ability of CaBP1 to inhibit Ca(V)1.2 CDI and induce CDF arises from interaction between the CaBP1 N-lobe and interlobe linker residue Glu94. Unlike CaM, where functional EF hands are essential for channel modulation, CDI inhibition does not require functional CaBP1 EF hands. Furthermore, CaBP1-mediated CDF has different molecular requirements than CaM-mediated CDF. Overall, the data show that CaBP1 comprises two structural modules having separate functions: similar to CaM, the CaBP1 C-lobe serves as a high-affinity anchor that binds the Ca(V)1.2 IQ domain at a site that overlaps with the Ca²+/CaM C-lobe site, whereas the N-lobe/linker module houses the elements required for channel modulation. Discovery of this division provides the framework for understanding how CaBP1 regulates Ca(V)s.
Project description:It is well-known that the opening of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels can be regulated by calmodulin (CaM). One of the main regulatory mechanisms is calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI), where binding of apo-CaM to the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain of the channel can effectively sense an increase in the local calcium ion concentration. Calcium-bound CaM can bind to the IQ-motif region of the C-terminal region and block the calcium channel, thereby providing a negative feedback mechanism that prevents the rise of cellular calcium concentrations over physiological limits. Recently, an additional Ca(2+)/CaM-binding motif (NSCaTE, N-terminal spatial Ca(2+) transforming element) was identified in the amino terminal cytoplasmic region of Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)1.3. This motif exists only in Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)1.3 channels, and a pronounced N-lobe (Ca(2+)/CaM) CDI effect was found for Ca(v)1.3. To understand the molecular basis of this interaction, the complexes of Ca(2+)/CaM with the biosynthetically produced N-terminal region (residues 1-68) and NSCaTE peptide (residues 48-68) were investigated. We discovered that the NSCaTE motif in the N-terminal cytoplasmic region adopts an ?-helical conformation, most likely due to its high alanine content. Additionally, the complex exhibits an unusual 1:2 protein:peptide stoichiometry when bound to Ca(2+)-CaM, and the N-lobe of CaM has a much stronger affinity for the peptide than the C-lobe. The complex structures of the isolated N- and C-lobe of Ca(2+)/CaM and the NSCaTE peptide were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and data-driven protein-docking methods. Moreover, we also demonstrated that calcium binding protein 1, which competes with CaM for binding to the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain, binds only weakly to the NSCaTE region. The structures provide insights into the possible roles of this motif in the calcium regulatory network. Our study provides structural evidence for the CaM-bridge model proposed in previous studies.
Project description:Multiple TRP channels are regulated by phosphoinositides (PIs). However, it is not known whether PIs bind directly to TRP channels. Furthermore, the mechanisms through which PIs regulate TRP channels are obscure. To analyze the role of PI/TRP interactions, we used a biochemical approach, focusing on TRPC6. TRPC6 bound directly to PIs, and with highest potency to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)). We found that PIP(3) binding disrupted the association of calmodulin (CaM) with TRPC6. We identified the PIP(3)-binding site and found that mutations that increased or decreased the affinity of the PIP(3)/TRPC6 interaction enhanced or reduced the TRPC6-dependent current, respectively. PI-mediated disruption of CaM binding appears to be a theme that applies to other TRP channels, such as TRPV1, as well as to the voltage-gated channels KCNQ1 and Ca(v)1.2. We propose that regulation of CaM binding by PIs provides a mode for integration of channel regulation by Ca(2+) and PIs.