Whole-genome gene expression profiling reveals the major role of nitric oxide in mediating the cellular transcriptional response to ionizing radiation in normal human fibroblasts.
ABSTRACT: The indirect biological effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are thought to be mediated largely by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). However, no data are available on how nitric oxide (NO) modulates the response of normal human cells to IR exposures at the level of the whole transcriptome. Here, we examined the effects of NO and ROS scavengers, carboxy-PTIO and DMSO, on changes in global gene expression in cultured normal human fibroblasts after exposures to gamma-rays, aiming to elucidate the involvement of ROS and RNS in transcriptional response to IR. We found that NO depletion dramatically affects the gene expression in normal human cells following irradiation with gamma-rays. We observed striking (more than seven-fold) reduction of the number of upregulated genes upon NO scavenging compared to reference irradiated cell cultures. NO scavenging in irradiated IMR-90 cells results in induction of p53 signaling, DNA damage and DNA repair pathways.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are byproducts of normal metabolic processes. They are necessary for normal cellular function and are kept in balance by antioxidant mechanisms. Alterations in levels of ROS and RNS can lead to nitroso-redox imbalance that in turn can negatively affect male reproduction. Strategies to decrease ROS/RNS involve evasion of exposures (smoking, meat intake, pollution, calorie-dense diet), managing lifestyle, and increasing the consumption of antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, alpha-lipoic acid, taurine, quercetin). Targeted therapies focusing on nitroso-redox imbalance can be critical for treatment of male reproductive dysfunction. This review outlines endogenous and exogenous sources of ROS/RNS, adverse effect on male reproduction, and strategies to control nitroso-redox imbalance.
Project description:DMSO, glycerol, and ascorbic acid (AA) are used in pharmaceuticals and known to display radioprotective effects. The present study investigates radioprotective properties of novel glyceryl glucoside, ascorbic acid 2-glucoside, glyceryl ascorbate, and palmitoyl ascorbic acid 2-glucoside (PA). Gamma-rays or high-LET carbon-ions were irradiated in the presence of tested chemicals. Lambda DNA damage, cell survival, and micronuclei formation of CHO cells were analyzed to evaluate radioprotective properties. Radiation-induced Lambda DNA damage was reduced with chemical pre-treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. This confirmed tested chemicals were radical scavengers. For gamma-irradiation, enhanced cell survival and reduction of micronuclei formation were observed for all chemicals. For carbon-ion irradiation, DMSO, glycerol, and PA displayed radioprotection for cell survival. Based on cell survival curves, protection levels by PA were confirmed and comparable between gamma-rays and high-LET carbon-ions. Micronuclei formation was only decreased with AA and a high concentration of glycerol treatment, and not decreased with PA treatment. This suggests that mechanisms of protection against high-LET carbon-ions by PA can differ from normal radical scavenging effects that protect DNA from damage.
Project description:Meiosis generates haploid cells or spores for sexual reproduction. As a prelude to haploidization, homologous chromosomes pair and recombine to undergo segregation during the first meiotic division. During the entire meiotic prophase of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, chromosomes perform rapid movements that are suspected to contribute to the regulation of recombination. Here, we investigated the impact of ionizing radiation (IR) on movements of GFP-tagged bivalents in live pachytene cells. We find that exposure of sporulating cultures with >40 Gy (4-krad) X-rays stalls pachytene chromosome movements. This identifies a previously undescribed acute radiation response in yeast meiosis, which contrasts with its reported radioresistance of up to 1,000 Gy in survival assays. A modified 3'-end labeling assay disclosed IR-induced dsDNA breaks (DSBs) in pachytene cells at a linear dose relationship of one IR-induced DSB per cell per 5 Gy. Dihydroethidium staining revealed formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in irradiated cells. Immobility of fuzzy-appearing irradiated bivalents was rescued by addition of radical scavengers. Hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS did reduce bivalent mobility similar to 40 Gy X IR, while they failed to induce DSBs. IR- and H2O2-induced ROS were found to decompose actin cables that are driving meiotic chromosome mobility, an effect that could be rescued by antioxidant treatment. Hence, it appears that the meiotic actin cytoskeleton is a radical-sensitive system that inhibits bivalent movements in response to IR- and oxidant-induced ROS. This may be important to prevent motility-driven unfavorable chromosome interactions when meiotic recombination has to proceed in genotoxic environments.
Project description:Background: Radiation induced bystander effects (RIBEs) occurs in unirradiated cells exhibiting indirect biological effect as a consequence of signals from other irradiated cells in the population.Objective: In this study, bystander effects in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and hFOB 1.19 normal osteoblast cells irradiated with gamma emitting HDR Brachytherapy Ir-192 source were investigated.Material and Methods: In this in-vitro study, bystander effect stimulation was conducted using medium transfer technique of irradiated cells to the non-irradiated bystander cells. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and colony forming assay was employed to evaluate the effect.Results: Results indicate that the exposure to the medium irradiated MCF-7 induced significant bystander killing and decreased the survival fraction of bystander MCF-7 and hFOB from 1.19 to 81.70 % and 65.44 %, respectively. A significant decrease in survival fraction was observed for hFOB 1.19 bystander cells (p < 0.05). We found that the rate of hFOB 1.19 cell growth significantly decreases to 85.5% when added with media from irradiated cells. The ROS levels of bystander cells for both cell lines were observed to have an increase even after 4 h of treatment. Our results suggest the presence of bystander effects in unirradiated cells exposed to the irradiated medium. Conclusion: These data provide evidence that irradiated MCF-7 breast cancer cells can induce bystander death in unirradiated MCF-7 and hFOB 1.19 bystander cells. Increase in cell death could also be mediated by the ROS generation during the irradiation with HDR brachytherapy.
Project description:Nitric oxide and NO-derived species (RNS) are defense molecules with broad antimicrobial activity. Micro-organisms have developed strategies to sense RNS and counteract their damaging effects. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae, harbouring a deletion of YHB1 that encodes the main NO scavenger enzyme, to study consequences of RNS exposure on whole genome transcriptional response. The expression of >700 genes was altered on RNS treatment. No major role for ROS-scavenging enzymes was found, and the respiratory chain, the main site of ROS production, had only minor involvement in the RNS-induced stress. The changes were generally transient and also found after treatment with the respiratory inhibitor myxothiazol. 117 genes however showed a persistent response which was not observed after myxothiazol treatment. Of these, genes of the glutathione and DNA repair systems, iron homeostasis and transport were found up-regulated. Severe repression of genes of respiratory chain enzymes was observed. Many of these genes are known to be regulated by the transcription factor Hap1p suggesting that RNS might interfere with Hap1p activity. We showed also that Msn2/4p and Yap1p, key regulators of the response to, respectively, general stress and oxidative stress, played a role in mediating the RNS-induced response.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The radiation-induced "bystander effect" (RIBE) was shown to occur in a number of experimental systems both in vitro and in vivo as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). RIBE manifests itself by intercellular communication from irradiated cells to non-irradiated cells which may cause DNA damage and eventual death in these bystander cells. It is known that human stem cells (hSC) are ultimately involved in numerous crucial biological processes such as embryologic development; maintenance of normal homeostasis; aging; and aging-related pathologies such as cancerogenesis and other diseases. However, very little is known about radiation-induced bystander effect in hSC. To mechanistically interrogate RIBE responses and to gain novel insights into RIBE specifically in hSC compartment, both medium transfer and cell co-culture bystander protocols were employed.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and embryonic stem cells (hESC) were irradiated with doses 0.2 Gy, 2 Gy and 10 Gy of X-rays, allowed to recover either for 1 hr or 24 hr. Then conditioned medium was collected and transferred to non-irradiated hSC for time course studies. In addition, irradiated hMSC were labeled with a vital CMRA dye and co-cultured with non-irradiated bystander hMSC. The medium transfer data showed no evidence for RIBE either in hMSC and hESC by the criteria of induction of DNA damage and for apoptotic cell death compared to non-irradiated cells (p>0.05). A lack of robust RIBE was also demonstrated in hMSC co-cultured with irradiated cells (p>0.05).<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>These data indicate that hSC might not be susceptible to damaging effects of RIBE signaling compared to differentiated adult human somatic cells as shown previously. This finding could have profound implications in a field of radiation biology/oncology, in evaluating radiation risk of IR exposures, and for the safety and efficacy of hSC regenerative-based therapies.
Project description:The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially superoxide anions (O2 (·-)), is enhanced in many normal and tumor cell types in response to ionizing radiation. The influence of ionizing radiation on the regulation of ROS production is considered as an important factor in the long-term effects of irradiation (such as genomic instability) that might contribute to the development of secondary cancers. In view of the increasing application of carbon ions in radiation therapy, we aimed to study the potential impact of ionizing density on the intracellular production of ROS, comparing photons (X-rays) with carbon ions. For this purpose, we used normal human cells as a model for irradiated tissue surrounding a tumor. By quantifying the oxidization of Dihydroethidium (DHE), a fluorescent probe sensitive to superoxide anions, we assessed the intracellular ROS status after radiation exposure in normal human fibroblasts, which do not show radiation-induced chromosomal instability. After 3-5 days post exposure to X-rays and carbon ions, the level of ROS increased to a maximum that was dose dependent. The maximum ROS level reached after irradiation was specific for the fibroblast type. However, carbon ions induced this maximum level at a lower dose compared with X-rays. Within ?1 week, ROS decreased to control levels. The time-course of decreasing ROS coincides with an increase in cell number and decreasing p21 protein levels, indicating a release from radiation-induced growth arrest. Interestingly, radiation did not act as a trigger for chronically enhanced levels of ROS months after radiation exposure.
Project description:PURPOSE:Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) production and the NF-?B activation are critically involved in inflammatory responses, but knowledge about the temporal dynamics during acute and chronic inflammation is limited. Here, we present a comparative longitudinal in vivo study of both parameters in an experimental model of acute and chronic T cell-driven delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR) using noninvasive optical imaging. PROCEDURES:Trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB)-sensitized NF-?B-luciferase-reporter and wild-type mice were TNCB challenged on the right ear to elicit acute DTHR and then repetitively challenged (up to five times) to induce chronic DTHR. Mice were treated with the ROS-scavenging and NF-?B inhibiting molecule N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or underwent sham treatment. ROS/RNS production was noninvasively analyzed in vivo using the ROS-/RNS-sensitive chemiluminescent probe L-012, and NF-?B activation was measured using NF-?B-luciferase-reporter mice. H&E staining, CD3 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) immunohistochemistry (IHC), and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses were employed to investigate immune cell infiltration and expression of NF-?B- and ROS-/RNS-driven genes. RESULTS:In acute DTHR, we found strongly elevated ROS/RNS production and NF-?B activation 12 h after the 1st TNCB ear challenge, peaking at 24 h after the challenge. In chronic DTHR, ROS production peaked as early as 4 h after the 5th TNCB challenge, whereas NF-?B activity peaked after 12 h. The increase in ROS/RNS production in acute DTHR was higher than the increase in NF-?B activity but the relationship was inverse in chronic DTHR. Treatment with the ROS scavenger NAC had differential effects on ROS/RNS production and NF-?B activation during acute and chronic DTHR. Ex vivo cross-validation by histopathology and qPCR analysis correlated closely with the in vivo imaging results. CONCLUSIONS:Noninvasive in vivo imaging is capable of assessing the temporal dynamics of ROS/RNS production and NF-?B activation during progression from acute to chronic DTHR and enables monitoring of anti-inflammatory treatment responses.
Project description:Macrophages (M?) with the M2b phenotype (Pheno2b-M?) in bacterial translocation sites have been described as cells responsible for the increased susceptibility of mice with gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome to sepsis caused by gut bacteria. In this study, we tried to reduce the mortality of mice exposed to 7-10 Gy of gamma rays by controlling Pheno2b-M? polarization in bacterial translocation sites. MicroRNA-222 was induced in association with gamma irradiation. Pheno2b-M? polarization was promoted and maintained in gamma-irradiated mice through the reduction of a long noncoding RNA growth arrest-specific transcript 5 (a CCL1 gene silencer) influenced by this microRNA. Therefore, the host resistance of 7-9-Gy gamma-irradiated mice to sepsis caused by bacterial translocation was improved after treatment with CCL1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide. However, the mortality of 10-Gy gamma-irradiated mice was not alleviated by this treatment. The crypts and villi in the ileum of 10-Gy gamma-irradiated mice were severely damaged, but these were markedly improved after transplantation of intestinal lineage cells differentiated from murine embryonic stem cells. All 10-Gy gamma-irradiated mice given both of the oligodeoxynucleotide and intestinal lineage cells survived, whereas all of the same mice given either of them died. These results indicate that high mortality rates of mice irradiated with 7-10 Gy of gamma rays are reducible by depleting CCL1 in combination with the intestinal lineage cell transplantation. These findings support the novel therapeutic possibility of victims who have gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome for the reduction of their high mortality rates.
Project description:Our previous study proved that TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) abrogation is able to radiosensitize glioma cells. Whether TIGAR over-expression has radio-protective effect in human parotid gland cells is still unknown. In this study human parotid gland fibroblast Hs 917.T cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-TIGAR, and clonogenic assay was performed to investigate the radiosensitivity of Hs 917.T cells over-expressing pcDNA3.1 or pcDNA3.1-TIGAR. Western blot was carried out to demonstrate the autophagy activity of cells being irradiated, and immunofluorescence assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage repair process of irradiated Hs 917.T cells. It was revealed that TIGAR over-expression could diminish the radiosensitivity of Hs 917.T cells, and the autophagy level induced by ionizing radiation (IR) was also decreased by TIGAR transfection. The mechanism might rely on TIGAR over-expression induced ROS scavenging and NADPH increasing. Using autophagy inhibitor, it was also elaborated that IR-induced autophagy in Hs 917.T cells was protective autophagy but not traumatic autophagy.