Hierarchical modularity in ER? transcriptional network is associated with distinct functions and implicates clinical outcomes.
ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide profiling reveals highly complex regulation networks among ER? and its targets. We integrated estrogen (E2)-stimulated time-series ER? ChIP-seq and gene expression data to identify the ER?-centered transcription factor (TF) hubs and their target genes, and inferred the time-variant hierarchical network structures using a Bayesian multivariate modeling approach. With its recurrent motif patterns, we determined three embedded regulatory modules from the ER? core transcriptional network. The GO analyses revealed the distinct biological function associated with each of three embedded modules. The survival analysis showed the genes in each module were able to render a significant survival correlation in breast cancer patient cohorts. In summary, our Bayesian statistical modeling and modularity analysis not only reveals the dynamic properties of the ER?-centered regulatory network and associated distinct biological functions, but also provides a reliable and effective genomic analytical approach for the analysis of dynamic regulatory network for any given TF.
Project description:Genome-wide transcription factor (TF) binding signal analyses reveal co-localization of TF binding sites based on inferred cis-regulatory modules (CRMs). CRMs play a key role in understanding the cooperation of multiple TFs under specific conditions. However, the functions of CRMs and their effects on nearby gene transcription are highly dynamic and context-specific and therefore are challenging to characterize. BICORN (Bayesian Inference of COoperative Regulatory Network) builds a hierarchical Bayesian model and infers context-specific CRMs based on TF-gene binding events and gene expression data for a particular cell type. BICORN automatically searches for a list of candidate CRMs based on the input TF bindings at regulatory regions associated with genes of interest. Applying Gibbs sampling, BICORN iteratively estimates model parameters of CRMs, TF activities, and corresponding regulation on gene transcription, which it models as a sparse network of functional CRMs regulating target genes. The BICORN package is implemented in R (version 3.4 or later) and is publicly available on the CRAN server at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/BICORN/index.html.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We are witnessing rapid progress in the development of methodologies for building the combinatorial gene regulatory networks involving both TFs (Transcription Factors) and miRNAs (microRNAs). There are a few tools available to do these jobs but most of them are not easy to use and not accessible online. A web server is especially needed in order to allow users to upload experimental expression datasets and build combinatorial regulatory networks corresponding to their particular contexts. METHODS: In this work, we compiled putative TF-gene, miRNA-gene and TF-miRNA regulatory relationships from forward-engineering pipelines and curated them as built-in data libraries. We streamlined the R codes of our two separate forward-and-reverse engineering algorithms for combinatorial gene regulatory network construction and formalized them as two major functional modules. As a result, we released the cGRNB (combinatorial Gene Regulatory Networks Builder): a web server for constructing combinatorial gene regulatory networks through integrated engineering of seed-matching sequence information and gene expression datasets. The cGRNB enables two major network-building modules, one for MPGE (miRNA-perturbed gene expression) datasets and the other for parallel miRNA/mRNA expression datasets. A miRNA-centered two-layer combinatorial regulatory cascade is the output of the first module and a comprehensive genome-wide network involving all three types of combinatorial regulations (TF-gene, TF-miRNA, and miRNA-gene) are the output of the second module. CONCLUSIONS: In this article we propose cGRNB, a web server for building combinatorial gene regulatory networks through integrated engineering of seed-matching sequence information and gene expression datasets. Since parallel miRNA/mRNA expression datasets are rapidly accumulated by the advance of next-generation sequencing techniques, cGRNB will be very useful tool for researchers to build combinatorial gene regulatory networks based on expression datasets. The cGRNB web-server is free and available online at http://www.scbit.org/cgrnb.
Project description:We present an approach for identifying condition-specific regulatory modules by using separate units of gene expression profiles along with ChIP-chip and motif data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By investigating the unique and common features of the obtained condition-specific modules, we detected several important properties of transcriptional network reorganization. Our approach reveals the functionally distinct coregulated submodules embedded in a coexpressed gene module and provides an effective method for identifying various condition-specific regulatory events at high resolution.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In vertebrates, a large part of gene transcriptional regulation is operated by cis-regulatory modules. These modules are believed to be regulating much of the tissue-specificity of gene expression. RESULT: We develop a Bayesian network approach for identifying cis-regulatory modules likely to regulate tissue-specific expression. The network integrates predicted transcription factor binding site information, transcription factor expression data, and target gene expression data. At its core is a regression tree modeling the effect of combinations of transcription factors bound to a module. A new unsupervised EM-like algorithm is developed to learn the parameters of the network, including the regression tree structure. CONCLUSION: Our approach is shown to accurately identify known human liver and erythroid-specific modules. When applied to the prediction of tissue-specific modules in 10 different tissues, the network predicts a number of important transcription factor combinations whose concerted binding is associated to specific expression.
Project description:Transcriptional cooperativity among several transcription factors (TFs) is believed to be the main mechanism of complexity and precision in transcriptional regulatory programs. Here, we present a Bayesian network framework to reconstruct a high-confidence whole-genome map of transcriptional cooperativity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by integrating a comprehensive list of 15 genomic features. We design a Bayesian network structure to capture the dominant correlations among features and TF cooperativity, and introduce a supervised learning framework with a well-constructed gold-standard dataset. This framework allows us to assess the predictive power of each genomic feature, validate the superior performance of our Bayesian network compared to alternative methods, and integrate genomic features for optimal TF cooperativity prediction. Data integration reveals 159 high-confidence predicted cooperative relationships among 105 TFs, most of which are subsequently validated by literature search. The existing and predicted transcriptional cooperativities can be grouped into three categories based on the combination patterns of the genomic features, providing further biological insights into the different types of TF cooperativity. Our methodology is the first supervised learning approach for predicting transcriptional cooperativity, compares favorably to alternative unsupervised methodologies, and can be applied to other genomic data integration tasks where high-quality gold-standard positive data are scarce.
Project description:Recent miRNA transfection experiments show strong evidence that miRNAs influence not only their target but also non-target genes; the precise mechanism of the extended regulatory effects of miRNAs remains to be elucidated. A hypothetical two-layer regulatory network in which transcription factors (TFs) function as important mediators of miRNA-initiated regulatory effects was envisioned, and a comprehensive strategy was developed to map such miRNA-centered regulatory cascades. Given gene expression profiles after miRNA-perturbation, along with putative miRNA-gene and TF-gene regulatory relationships, highly likely degraded targets were fetched by a non-parametric statistical test; miRNA-regulated TFs and their downstream targets were mined out through linear regression modeling. When applied to 53 expression datasets, this strategy discovered combinatorial regulatory networks centered around 19 miRNAs. A tumor-related regulatory network was diagrammed as an example, with the important tumor-related regulators TP53 and MYC playing hub connector roles. A web server is provided for query and analysis of all reported data in this article. Our results reinforce the growing awareness that non-coding RNAs may play key roles in the transcription regulatory network. Our strategy could be applied to reveal conditional regulatory pathways in many more cellular contexts.
Project description:The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are important components of the transcriptional regulatory network, controlling a variety of biological processes, especially the development of the central nervous system. Until now, reports describing the regulatory network of the bHLH transcription factor (TF) family have been scarce. In order to understand the regulatory mechanisms of bHLH TFs in mouse brain, we inferred their regulatory network from genome-wide gene expression profiles with the module networks method.A regulatory network comprising 15 important bHLH TFs and 153 target genes was constructed. The network was divided into 28 modules based on expression profiles. A regulatory-motif search shows the complexity and diversity of the network. In addition, 26 cooperative bHLH TF pairs were also detected in the network. This cooperation suggests possible physical interactions or genetic regulation between TFs. Interestingly, some TFs in the network regulate more than one module. A novel cross-repression between Neurod6 and Hey2 was identified, which may control various functions in different brain regions. The presence of TF binding sites (TFBSs) in the promoter regions of their target genes validates more than 70% of TF-target gene pairs of the network. Literature mining provides additional support for five modules. More importantly, the regulatory relationships among selected key components are all validated in mutant mice.Our network is reliable and very informative for understanding the role of bHLH TFs in mouse brain development and function. It provides a framework for future experimental analyses.
Project description:Estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) expression is critical for breast cancer classification, high ER? expression being associated with better prognosis. ER? levels strongly correlate with that of GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), a major regulator of ER? expression. However, the mechanistic details of ER?-GATA3 regulation remain incompletely understood. Here we combine mathematical modeling with perturbation experiments to unravel the nature of regulatory connections in the ER?-GATA3 network. Through cell population-average, single-cell and single-nucleus measurements, we show that the cross-regulation between ER? and GATA3 amounts to overall negative feedback. Further, mathematical modeling reveals that GATA3 positively regulates its own expression and that ER? autoregulation is most likely absent. Lastly, we show that the two cross-regulatory connections in the ER?-GATA3 negative feedback network decrease the noise in ER? or GATA3 expression. This may ensure robust cell fate maintenance in the face of intracellular and environmental fluctuations, contributing to tissue homeostasis in normal conditions, but also to the maintenance of pathogenic states during cancer progression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum causes devastating crop diseases and produces harmful mycotoxins worldwide. Understanding the complex F. graminearum transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) is vital for effective disease management. Reconstructing F. graminearum dynamic TRNs, an NP (non-deterministic polynomial) -hard problem, remains unsolved using commonly adopted reductionist or co-expression based approaches. Multi-omic data such as fungal genomic, transcriptomic data and phenomic data are vital to but so far have been largely isolated and untapped for unraveling phenotype-specific TRNs. RESULTS:Here for the first time, we harnessed these resources to infer global TRNs for F. graminearum using a Bayesian network based algorithm called "Module Networks". The inferred TRNs contain 49 regulatory modules that show condition-specific gene regulation. Through a thorough validation based on prior biological knowledge including functional annotations and TF binding site enrichment, our network prediction displayed high accuracy and concordance with existing knowledge. One regulatory module was partially validated using network perturbations caused by Tri6 and Tri10 gene disruptions, as well as using Tri6 Chip-seq data. We then developed a novel computational method to calculate the associations between modules and phenotypes, and identified major module groups regulating different phenotypes. As a result, we identified TRN subnetworks responsible for F. graminearum virulence, sexual reproduction and mycotoxin production, pinpointing phenotype-associated modules and key regulators. Finally, we found a clear compartmentalization of TRN modules in core and lineage-specific genomic regions in F. graminearum, reflecting the evolution of the TRNs in fungal speciation. CONCLUSIONS:This system-level reconstruction of filamentous fungal TRNs provides novel insights into the intricate networks of gene regulation that underlie key processes in F. graminearum pathobiology and offers promise for the development of improved disease control strategies.
Project description:Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, a dynamic remodeling process, is a major risk factor for heart failure. Although a number of key regulators and related genes have been identified, how the transcription factors (TFs) dynamically regulate the associated genes and control the morphological and electrophysiological changes during the hypertrophic process are still largely unknown. In this study, we obtained the time-course transcriptomes at five time points in four weeks from male murine hearts subjected to transverse aorta banding surgery. From a series of computational analyses, we identified three major co-expression modules of TF genes that may regulate the gene expression changes during the development of cardiac hypertrophy in mice. After pressure overload, the TF genes in Module 1 were up-regulated before the occurrence of significant morphological changes and one week later were down-regulated gradually, while those in Modules 2 and 3 took over the regulation as the heart size increased. Our analyses revealed that the TF genes up-regulated at the early stages likely initiated the cascading regulation and most of the well-known cardiac miRNAs were up-regulated at later stages for suppression. In addition, the constructed time-dependent regulatory network reveals some TFs including Egr2 as new candidate key regulators of cardiovascular-associated (CV) genes.