A novel 2.3 mb microduplication of 9q34.3 inserted into 19q13.4 in a patient with learning disabilities.
ABSTRACT: Insertional translocations in which a duplicated region of one chromosome is inserted into another chromosome are very rare. We report a 16.5-year-old girl with a terminal duplication at 9q34.3 of paternal origin inserted into 19q13.4. Chromosomal analysis revealed the karyotype 46,XX,der(19)ins(19;9)(q13.4;q34.3q34.3)pat. Cytogenetic microarray analysis (CMA) identified a ~2.3Mb duplication of 9q34.3 ? qter, which was confirmed by Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). The duplication at 9q34.3 is the smallest among the cases reported so far. The proband exhibits similar clinical features to those previously reported cases with larger duplication events.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chromosomal and genomic aberrations are common features of human cancers. However, chromosomal numerical and structural aberrations, breakpoints and disrupted genes have yet to be identified in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: Using multiplex-fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) and oligo array-based comparative hybridization (array-CGH), we identified aberrations and breakpoints in six ESCC cell lines. Furthermore, we detected recurrent breakpoints in primary tumors by dual-color FISH. RESULTS: M-FISH and array-CGH results revealed complex numerical and structural aberrations. Frequent gains occurred at 3q26.33-qter, 5p14.1-p11, 7pter-p12.3, 8q24.13-q24.21, 9q31.1-qter, 11p13-p11, 11q11-q13.4, 17q23.3-qter, 18pter-p11, 19 and 20q13.32-qter. Losses were frequent at 18q21.1-qter. Breakpoints that clustered within 1 or 2 Mb were identified, including 9p21.3, 11q13.3-q13.4, 15q25.3 and 3q28. By dual-color FISH, we observed that several recurrent breakpoint regions in cell lines were also present in ESCC tumors. In particular, breakpoints clustered at 11q13.3-q13.4 were identified in 43.3% (58/134) of ESCC tumors. Both 11q13.3-q13.4 splitting and amplification were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM) (P = 0.004 and 0.022) and advanced stages (P = 0.004 and 0.039). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only 11q13.3-q13.4 splitting was an independent predictor for LNM (P = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of M-FISH and array-CGH helps produce more accurate karyotypes. Our data provide significant, detailed information for appropriate uses of these ESCC cell lines for cytogenetic and molecular biological studies. The aberrations and breakpoints detected in both the cell lines and primary tumors will contribute to identify affected genes involved in the development and progression of ESCC.
Project description:Kleefstra Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in EHMT1, Euchromatin Histone Methyl Transferase 1, or deletions encompassing EHMT1 on 9q34.3. Congenital heart defects are among the major findings in patients with 9q34.3 microdeletion/Kleefstra Syndrome along with recognizable facial appearance, developmental delay/intellectual disability including severely delayed or absent speech, hypotonia, seizures, behavioral and sleep abnormalities. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rare condition associated with increased pulmonary artery and right heart pressures that can lead to right heart failure and death if untreated. PH can be idiopathic, heritable, or associated with co-morbid conditions including congenital heart disease (CHD), lung diseases and other metabolic disorders. Genetic factors play important roles in heritable and idiopathic PH development and are particularly relevant but more diverse in etiology in children. PH is also reported in some chromosomal disorders such as Down syndrome in which congenital heart defects are common; however, PH has rarely been reported in patients with 9q34.3 microdeletion/Kleefstra Syndrome. Here, we present three patients with 9q34.3 microdeletions with CHD and PH along with review of five similar cases reported in the literature and discuss the potential association of PH with Kleefstra syndrome.
Project description:We characterized at the molecular level the genomic rearrangements in 28 unrelated patients with 9q34.3 subtelomeric deletions. Four distinct categories were delineated: terminal deletions, interstitial deletions, derivative chromosomes and complex rearrangements; each results in haploinsufficiency of the EHMT1 gene and a characteristic phenotype. Interestingly, 25% of our patients had de novo interstitial deletions, 25% were found with derivative chromosomes and complex rearrangements and only 50% were bona fide terminal deletions. In contrast to genomic disorders that are often associated with recurrent rearrangements, breakpoints involving the 9q34.3 subtelomere region are highly variable. Molecular studies identified three regions of breakpoint grouping. Interspersed repetitive elements such as Alu, LINE, long-terminal repeats and simple tandem repeats are frequently observed at the breakpoints. Such repetitive elements may play an important role by providing substrates with a specific DNA secondary structure that stabilizes broken chromosomes or assist in either DNA double-strand break repair or repair of single double-strand DNA ends generated by collapsed forks. Sequence analyses of the breakpoint junctions suggest that subtelomeric deletions can be stabilized by both homologous and nonhomologous recombination mechanisms, through a telomere-capture event, by de novo telomere synthesis, or multistep breakage-fusion-bridge cycles.
Project description:Point mutations of EHMT1 or deletions and duplications of chromosome 9q34.3 are found in patients with variable neurologic and developmental disorders. Here, we present a child with congenital cataract, developmental and speech delay who developed a metastatic ganglioglioma with progression to anaplastic astrocytoma. Molecular analysis identified a novel constitutional tandem duplication in 9q34.3 with breakpoints in intron 1 of TRAF2 and intron 16 of EHMT1 generating a fusion transcript predicted to encode a truncated form of EHMT1. The ganglioglioma showed complex chromosomal aberrations with further duplication of the dup9q34. Thus, this unique tandem 9q34.3 duplication may impact brain tumor formation.
Project description:Prostate cancer risk-associated variants have been reported in populations of European descent, African-Americans and Japanese using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To systematically investigate prostate cancer risk-associated variants in Chinese men, we performed the first GWAS in Han Chinese. In addition to confirming several associations reported in other ancestry groups, this study identified two new risk-associated loci for prostate cancer on chromosomes 9q31.2 (rs817826, P = 5.45 × 10(-14)) and 19q13.4 (rs103294, P = 5.34 × 10(-16)) in 4,484 prostate cancer cases and 8,934 controls. The rs103294 marker at 19q13.4 is in strong linkage equilibrium with a 6.7-kb germline deletion that removes the first six of seven exons in LILRA3, a gene regulating inflammatory response, and was significantly associated with the mRNA expression of LILRA3 in T cells (P < 1 × 10(-4)). These findings may advance the understanding of genetic susceptibility to prostate cancer.
Project description:We report on a Japanese female infant as the fourth patient with the constitutional pure duplication 1q41-qter confirmed by chromosomal microarray and as the first who developed myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) among those with the constitutional 1q duplication. Common clinical features of the constitutional pure duplication 1q41-qter include developmental delay, craniofacial characteristics, foot malformation, hypertrichosis, and respiratory insufficiency. The association between MDS and the duplication of the genes in the 1q41-qter region remains unknown.
Project description:Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal dominant disease with variable expression and incomplete penetrance, characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation and hamartomatous polyposis. Patients with PJS have increased frequency of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal malignancies (ovaries, testes, and breast). In order to map the locus (or loci) associated with PJS, we performed a genomewide linkage analysis, using DNA polymorphisms in six families (two from Spain, two from India, one from the United States, and one from Portugal) comprising a total of 93 individuals, including 39 affected and 48 unaffected individuals and 6 individuals with unknown status. During this study, localization of a PJS gene to 19p13.3 (around marker D19S886) had been reported elsewhere. For our families, marker D19S886 yielded a maximum LOD score of 4.74 at a recombination fraction (theta) of .045; multipoint linkage analysis resulted in a LOD score of 7.51 for the interval between D19S886 and 19 pter. However, markers on 19q13.4 also showed significant evidence for linkage. For example, D19S880 resulted in a maximum LOD score of 3.8 at theta = .13. Most of this positive linkage was contributed by a single family, PJS07. These results confirm the mapping of a common PJS locus on 19p13.3 but also suggest the existence, in a minority of families, of a potential second PJS locus, on 19q13.4. Positional cloning and characterization of the PJS mutations will clarify the genetics of the syndrome and the implication of the gene(s) in the predisposition to neoplasias.
Project description:Using mouse BAC clones spanning an imprinted interval of proximal mouse chromosome 7 and the genomic sequence of the related interval of human chromosome 19q13.4, we have identified a novel mouse gene, Usp29 (ubiquitin-specific processing protease 29), near two known imprinted genes, Peg3 and Zim1. Gene Usp29 is located directly adjacent to Peg3 in a "head-to-head" orientation, and comprises exons distributed over a genomic distance of at least 400 kb. A similar human gene is also found in the homologous location in human chromosome 19q13.4. The mouse Usp29 gene is also imprinted and is transcribed mainly from the paternal allele with highest expression levels in adult brain, especially in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and in the forebrain, face, and limb buds of midgestation mouse embryos. Analysis of a full-length 7.6-kb cDNA clone revealed that Usp29 encodes an 869-amino-acid protein that displays significant homology with yeast and nematode ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolases. These data suggest that, like the candidate Angelman syndrome gene Ube3a (ubiquitin ligase), Usp29 may represent another imprinted gene involved in the ubiquitination pathway. This identification of a third imprinted gene, Usp29, from the Peg3/Zim1-region confirms the presence of a conserved imprinted domain spanning at least 500 kb in the proximal portion of mouse chromosome 7 (Mmu7).
Project description:Background:Deletions involving the long arm of chromosome 18 have been associated with a highly variable phenotypic spectrum that is related to the extent of the deleted region. Duplications in chromosomal region 4p16.3 have also been shown to cause 4p16.3 microduplication syndrome. Most reported patients of trisomy 4p16.3 have more duplications, including the Wolf-Hirschhorn critical region (WHSCR). Here, we present a patient with speech delay and mental retardation caused by a deletion of 18q (18q22.1-qter) and terminal microduplication of 4p (4p16.3-pter) distal to WHSCR. Case presentation:The patient was a 23-month-old boy with moderate growth retardation, severe speech delay, mental retardation, and dysmorphic features. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis confirmed an 11.2-Mb terminal deletion at 18q22.1 and revealed a 1.8-Mb terminal duplication of 4p16.3. Our patient showed clinical overlap with these two syndromes, although his overall features were milder than what had been previously described. Some dosage-sensitive genes on the 18q terminal deleted region and 4p16.3 duplicated region of the present case may have contributed to his phenotype. Conclusions:This is the first report of a patient with combined terminal deletion of 18q22.1 and duplication of 4p16.3. In this report, we provide clinical and molecular evidence supporting that the microduplication in 4p16.3, distal to WHSCR, is pathogenic. The coexistence of two chromosome aberrations complicates the clinical picture and creates a chimeric phenotype. This report provides further information on the genotype-phenotype correlation of 18q terminal deletion and 4p microduplication.
Project description:Constitutional deletions of distal 9q34 encompassing the EHMT1 (euchromatic histone methyltransferase 1) gene, or loss-of-function point mutations in EHMT1, are associated with the 9q34.3 microdeletion syndrome, also known as Kleefstra syndrome [MIM#610253]. We now report further evidence for genomic instability of the subtelomeric 9q34.3 region as evidenced by copy number gains of this genomic interval that include duplications, triplications, derivative chromosomes and complex rearrangements. Comparisons between the observed shared clinical features and molecular analyses in 20 subjects suggest that increased dosage of EHMT1 may be responsible for the neurodevelopmental impairment, speech delay, and autism spectrum disorders revealing the dosage sensitivity of yet another chromatin remodeling protein in human disease. Five patients had 9q34 genomic abnormalities resulting in complex deletion-duplication or duplication-triplication rearrangements; such complex triplications were also observed in six other subtelomeric intervals. Based on the specific structure of these complex genomic rearrangements (CGR) a DNA replication mechanism is proposed confirming recent findings in Caenorhabditis elegans telomere healing. The end-replication challenges of subtelomeric genomic intervals may make them particularly prone to rearrangements generated by errors in DNA replication.